Individual Behaviour


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Individual Behaviour

  1. 1. Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Values, Personality, and Self-Concept at Fairmont Hotels & Resorts Fairmont Hotels & Resorts has excelled as North America’s largest luxury hotel operator by hiring people such as Yasmeen Youssef (shown here) with the right values and personality and then nurturing their self-concept. YasmeenYoussef Fairmont Hotels & Resorts 2-2
  3. 3. MARS Model of Individual Behavior Situational Situational factors factors Values Values Personality Personality Perceptions Perceptions Emotions Emotions Attitudes Attitudes Stress Stress Motivation Motivation Ability Ability Individual Individual behavior and behavior and results results Role Role perceptions perceptions 2-3
  4. 4. The Basic Psychological Model Behavior = function (Person, Environment) Law of Effect = future behavior is a function of it’s past consequences McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e 4 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  5. 5. Employee Motivation  Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice ofbehavior • direction • intensity • persistence M M A A S S BAR BAR R R 2-5
  6. 6. Employee Ability    Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task Competencies − personal characteristics that lead to superior performance Person − job matching • selecting • developing • redesigning M M A A S S BAR BAR R R 2-6
  7. 7. Role Perceptions  Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results: • understanding what tasks to perform • understanding relative importance of tasks • understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks M M A A S S BAR BAR R R 2-7
  8. 8. Situational Factors  Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior • time • people • budget • work facilities M M A A S S BAR BAR R R 2-8
  9. 9. Defining Personality  Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics • External traits – observable behaviors • Internal states – thoughts, values, etc inferred from behaviors • Some variability, adjust to suit the situation 2-9
  10. 10. Nature vs. Nurture of Personality  Influenced by Nature • Heredity explains about 50 percent of behavioral tendencies and 30 percent of temperament • Minnesota studies – twins had similar behaviour patterns  Influenced by Nurture • Socialization, life experiences, learning also affect personality • Personality isn’t stable at birth • Stabilizes throughout adolescence • Executive function steers using our self-concept as a guide 2-10
  11. 11. Five-Factor Personality Model (CANOE) Conscientiousness Conscientiousness Careful, dependable Agreeableness Agreeableness Courteous, caring Neuroticism Neuroticism Anxious, hostile Openness to Experience Openness to Experience Sensitive, flexible Extroversion Extroversion Outgoing, talkative 2-11
  12. 12. Five-Factor Personality and Organizational Behavior  Conscientiousness and emotional stability • Motivational components of personality • Strongest personality predictors of performance  Extroversion • Linked to sales and mgt performance • Related to social interaction and persuasion  Agreeableness • Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness  Openness to experience • Linked to higher creativity and adaptability to change 2-12
  13. 13. Common Personality Measures  MMPI – Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory measures “emotional stability” on 10 scales  MBTI – Meyers Briggs Type Indicator  CPI – California Psychological Inventory  HPI - Hogan Personality Inventory McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e 13 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  14. 14. MBTI at Southwest Airlines Southwest Airlines uses the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to help staff understand and respect co-workers’ different personalities and thinking styles. “You can walk by and see someone's [MBTI type] posted up in their cube,” says Elizabeth Bryant, Southwest’s leadership development director (shown here). 2-14
  15. 15. Jungian Personality Theory  Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung  Identifies preferences for perceiving the environment and obtaining/processing information  Commonly measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 2-15
  16. 16. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Extroversion versus introversion • similar to five-factor dimension  Sensing versus intuition • collecting information through senses versus through intuition, inspiration or subjective sources  Thinking versus feeling • processing and evaluating information • using rational logic versus personal values  Judging versus perceiving • orient themselves to the outer world • order and structure or flexibility and spontaneity 2-16
  17. 17. Feeling Valued at Johnson & Johnson Johnson & Johnson is one of the most respected employers because it recognizes the value of supporting each employee’s selfconcept 2-17
  18. 18. Self-Concept Defined An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations  “Who am I?” and “How do I feel about myself?”  Guides individual decisions and behavior  2-18
  19. 19. Three “C’s” of Self-Concept  Complexity • People have multiple self-concepts  Consistency • Improved wellbeing when multiple self-concepts require similar personality traits and values  Clarity • Clearly and confidently described, internally consistent, and stable across time. • Self-concept clarity requires self-concept consistency 2-19
  20. 20. Four “Selves” of Self-Concept  Self-enhancement • Promoting and protecting our positive self-view  Self-verification • Affirming our existing self-concept (good and bad elements)  Self-evaluation • Evaluating ourselves through self-esteem, self- efficacy, and locus of control  Social self • Defining ourselves in terms of group membership 2-20
  21. 21. Self-Concept: SelfEnhancement  Drive to promote/protect a positive self-view • competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, valued   Strongest in common/important situations Positive self-concept outcomes: • better personal adjustment and mental/physical health • inflates personal causation and probability of success 2-21
  22. 22. Self-Concept: Self-Verification     Motivation to verify/maintain our existing selfconcept Stabilizes our self-concept People prefer feedback consistent with their self-concept Self-verification outcomes: • We ignore or reject info inconsistent with self- concept • We interact more with those who affirm/reflect selfconcept 2-22
  23. 23. Self-Concept: Self-Evaluation Defined mainly by three dimensions:  Self-esteem  • High self-esteem -- less influenced, more persistent/logical  Self-efficacy • Belief in one’s ability, motivation, role perceptions, and situation to complete a task successfully • General vs. task-specific self-efficacy  Locus of control • General belief about personal control over life events • Higher self-evaluation with internal locus of control 2-23
  24. 24. Self-Concept: Social Self Social identity -- defining ourselves in terms of groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment  We identify with groups that have high status -- aids self-enhancement  Contrasting Groups IBM Employee Live in U.S.A. An individual’s social identity University of Dallas Graduate Employees at other firms People living in other countries Graduates of other schools 2-24
  25. 25. Values in the Workplace    Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences Define right or wrong, good or bad Value system -- hierarchy of values 2-25
  26. 26. Schwartz’s Values Model 2-26
  27. 27. Schwartz’s Values Model  Openness to change – motivation to pursue innovative ways  Conservation -- motivation to preserve the status quo  Self-enhancement -- motivated by self-interest  Self-transcendence -- motivation to promote welfare of others and nature 2-27
  28. 28. Values and Behavior   Habitual behavior usually consistent with values, but conscious behavior less so because values are abstract constructs Decisions and behavior are linked to values when: • Mindful of our values • Have logical reasons to apply values in that situation • Situation does not interfere 2-28
  29. 29. Values Congruence   Where two or more entities have similar value systems Problems with incongruence • Incompatible decisions • Lower satisfaction/loyalty • Higher stress and turnover  Benefits of incongruence • Better decision making (diverse perspectives) • Avoids “corporate cults” 2-29
  30. 30. Values Across Cultures: Individualism and Collectivism   Degree that people value duty to their group (collectivism) versus independence and person uniqueness (individualism) Previously considered opposites, but unrelated -- i.e. possible to value high individualism and high collectivism 2-30
  31. 31. Individualism High Individualism U.S. Italy India Denmark The degree to which people value personal freedom, self-sufficiency, control over themselves, being appreciated for unique qualities Taiwan Low Individualism 2-31
  32. 32. Collectivism High Collectivism Italy Taiwan The degree to which people value their group membership and harmonious relationships within the group India Denmark U.S. Low Collectivism 2-32
  33. 33. Power Distance High Power Distance  Malaysia • Value obedience to authority • Comfortable receiving Venezuela commands from superiors • Prefer formal rules and authority to resolve conflicts Japan  U.S. Denmark Israel Low Power Distance High power distance Low power distance • Expect relatively equal power sharing • View relationship with boss as interdependence, not dependence 2-33
  34. 34. Uncertainty Avoidance High U. A. Greece Japan  • feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty • value structured situations and direct communication Italy U.S. High uncertainty avoidance  Low uncertainty avoidance • tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty Singapore Low U. A. 2-34
  35. 35. Achievement-Nurturing Achievement Japan  • assertiveness • competitiveness China U.S. France Chile High achievement orientation • materialism  High nurturing orientation • relationships • others’ well-being Sweden Nurturing 2-35
  36. 36. Three Ethical Principles Greatest good for the greatest Utilitarianism number of people Individual Rights Distributive Justice Fundamental entitlements in society People who are similar should receive similar benefits 2-36
  37. 37. An Alternative Set of Principles Egoist – if it benefits me Utilitarian – “the greatest net good” Absolutist – right and wrong stand apart from human judgment McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e 37 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  38. 38. Influences on Ethical Conduct  Moral intensity • degree that issue demands ethical principles  Ethical sensitivity • ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue  Situational influences • competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behavior 2-38
  39. 39. Supporting Ethical Behavior  Ethical code of conduct  Ethics training  Ethics hotlines  Ethical leadership and culture
  40. 40. Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e 2-40 Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.