2
3
4
BREAKING THE CHAIN
A Talk on
Water Management
in Aquaculture
by
5
AQUACULUTRE
The most important raw
material in shrimp farming
WATER
6
WATER
 Not all water is the same
 Water contains a completely
independent ecological structure
 The organisms in wate...
7
WATER QUALITY
 Greater the stocking rate,
more problems there will be
in maintaining water quality
 If you introduce a...
8
POND CONSTRUCTION
Pumping system
Storage Reservation
Inlet and outlet gates
Pond liners
9
HOW MUCH WATER
IS AVAILABLE?
Without adequate availability
of good quality water, you will
not succeed
10
SHRIMP
PRODUCTION
Shrimp production is
a key factor in Asian’s
economy
Potential exists for
further expansion
Much p...
11
FUTURE EXPANSION
This must come from
Utilization of existing farms
Rehabilitating empty farms
12
QUALITY CONTROL
Good quality – disease free stock
Quality disease free food
Vermin control
Biosecurity measures
13
BIOSECURITY CONTROL
Restricted entry people/vehicles
Clean equipment
Clean boots/clothes
Clean hands
14
BIOSECURITY CONTROL
Disease free water
Ammonia free
Controlled algae
Limited sedimentation
15
DISINFECTANTS SHOULD
Control relevant disease organisms
Be non-toxic
Not be combined with other components to
form toxi...
16
DISEASE ORGANISMS
Bacterial
Viral
Fungal
Protozoal
17
DISINFECTANTS
Not all disinfectants are effective against all
pathogens
If pathogens are not completely destroyed
then ...
18
EXAMPLES OF COMMONLY
USED DISINFECTANTS
Quaternary
Formalin
Iodine
Chlorine Types
19
QUATERNARY
 Effective against gram positive
 Only moderately effective against gram
negative
 Limited effectiveness ...
20
IODINE
 Acts by reaction with nucleic acid of acid
contents
 Good disinfectants in pH range 2-4
 Effectiveness reduc...
21
FORMALIN
 High dose required
 Short active life
 Suffers from rapid development
of resistant strains
22
CHLORINE
 Extensively used
 Cheap to buy
 Very High dose rates
 Many environmental problems
 Chlorine requires aci...
23
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINE USE
• Use frowned upon because of formation of
carcinogenic by-products...
24
GOOD DISINFECTANTS
 Destroy all pathogens so
resistant strains do not
emerge
 Will be effective at low
concentrations...
25
SUITABLE BIOCIDES
 Biocides which will suit requirements
are powerful oxidizing agents
 Destroy pathogens by reaction...
26
 Initial by-product had high toxicity
threshold for shrimps
 Ultimately product breaks down to salt
 Can be used in ...
27
APPLICATIONS OF BIOCIEDS
To be effective, biocides need to be evenly distributed
throughout the pond
If concentrated di...
28
BIOCIEDS
Biocides can only be effective when
they come into contact with the
pathogens
If they meet up with other organ...
29
BIOLOGICALS
Controls Ammonium and
Hydrogen Sulphide
Breakdown organic materials
and reduce pond wastes
Control algae...
30
BIOLOGICALS ARE
SUSEPTABLE TO:
 Disinfectants (biocides)
 Varying conditions (pH + acid)
 Salinity levels
Not all bi...
31
AMMONIA
Ammonia can be more lethal than
disease to shrimps
If the disinfectants used destroy the
ammonia controlling bi...
32
BIOLOGICALS HAVE
TWO FUNCTIONS:
 Break down organic matter at the
bottom of the pond – (faecal
matter – unused feed – ...
33
BIO SOLUTIONS
 One blend to work deep down in the pond
 Recently introduced surface mats which
will absorb and digest...
34
EFFECTIVE BIOLOGOCAL CONTROL:
Eliminates
ammonia and H2s
Reduces waste
products at bottom
of pond making
clean out ea...
TOP-UP WATER
Best pond management will be destroyed if top-
up water is contaminated. Water from storage
biological popula...
36
WATER MANAGEMENT
WHAT IS REQUIRED FOR
FRESH NATURAL WATER
AND RECYCLED WATER?
 Cleaning to remove sediment
and algae r...
37
WATER RECYCLING
THERE ARE MANY SYSTEMS USED
TO RECYCLE WATER:
Most have high capital cost
involving skilled labor of fi...
38
TRIOZON f
To develop new methods to clean water in:
 Aquaculture
 Domestic grey water
 Industrial effluents
 Pharma...
39
SUMMARY
POND MANAGEMET IS A COMBINATION OF :
 Good design
 Reliable equipment
 A comprehensive “package” approach to...
40
SUMMARY
DO NOT ASK THE QUESTION
“How much does it cost?”
ASK THE QUESTION
“How much extra profit can we make?”
41
REMEMBER!
 You are producing a product for the
World market
 You must take note of World
environmental issues
 There...
42
COMMON SENSE
 Farmers growing potatoes of rice
have to understand their soil, their
seed and their fertilizer.
 Pig o...
43
FOOD FOR THOUGHT
“Have I really had many years of
experience
Or have I just one year experience,
many times”
44
TRIOZON f
Thank you:
AquaCulture-Bio Security "Triozon" concept
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AquaCulture-Bio Security "Triozon" concept

  1. 1. 2
  2. 2. 3
  3. 3. 4 BREAKING THE CHAIN A Talk on Water Management in Aquaculture by
  4. 4. 5 AQUACULUTRE The most important raw material in shrimp farming WATER
  5. 5. 6 WATER  Not all water is the same  Water contains a completely independent ecological structure  The organisms in water have survived and adapted over millions of years  To use water effectively you first have to understand it
  6. 6. 7 WATER QUALITY  Greater the stocking rate, more problems there will be in maintaining water quality  If you introduce a complete water management program, do not calculate the cost of maintaining water quality – calculate the additional profits
  7. 7. 8 POND CONSTRUCTION Pumping system Storage Reservation Inlet and outlet gates Pond liners
  8. 8. 9 HOW MUCH WATER IS AVAILABLE? Without adequate availability of good quality water, you will not succeed
  9. 9. 10 SHRIMP PRODUCTION Shrimp production is a key factor in Asian’s economy Potential exists for further expansion Much production has been achieved at a cost to the environment
  10. 10. 11 FUTURE EXPANSION This must come from Utilization of existing farms Rehabilitating empty farms
  11. 11. 12 QUALITY CONTROL Good quality – disease free stock Quality disease free food Vermin control Biosecurity measures
  12. 12. 13 BIOSECURITY CONTROL Restricted entry people/vehicles Clean equipment Clean boots/clothes Clean hands
  13. 13. 14 BIOSECURITY CONTROL Disease free water Ammonia free Controlled algae Limited sedimentation
  14. 14. 15 DISINFECTANTS SHOULD Control relevant disease organisms Be non-toxic Not be combined with other components to form toxic by-products Be effective in all conditions Be effective al low concentrations Be effective with short contact time Not allow development of resistant strains
  15. 15. 16 DISEASE ORGANISMS Bacterial Viral Fungal Protozoal
  16. 16. 17 DISINFECTANTS Not all disinfectants are effective against all pathogens If pathogens are not completely destroyed then resistant strains will develop Some products which are effective against gram negative bacteria will be less effective or ineffective against gram positive bacteria
  17. 17. 18 EXAMPLES OF COMMONLY USED DISINFECTANTS Quaternary Formalin Iodine Chlorine Types
  18. 18. 19 QUATERNARY  Effective against gram positive  Only moderately effective against gram negative  Limited effectiveness against virtues and fungi
  19. 19. 20 IODINE  Acts by reaction with nucleic acid of acid contents  Good disinfectants in pH range 2-4  Effectiveness reduced in presence of organic material  Effective against fungi, but only some viruses
  20. 20. 21 FORMALIN  High dose required  Short active life  Suffers from rapid development of resistant strains
  21. 21. 22 CHLORINE  Extensively used  Cheap to buy  Very High dose rates  Many environmental problems  Chlorine requires acidic conditions – pH 4-7  Combines with organic materials to form carcinogenic by-products  Combines rapidly with ammonia (10:1) to form toxic by-products
  22. 22. 23 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINE USE • Use frowned upon because of formation of carcinogenic by-products • Compounds such as chlorinated phenols are more toxic than the original phenol • Chlorinated by-products are difficult to break up • By-product levels will continue to build up in recirculation water • Very low levels of chlorine or chlorinated by-products are toxic to shrimps
  23. 23. 24 GOOD DISINFECTANTS  Destroy all pathogens so resistant strains do not emerge  Will be effective at low concentrations and act in a short contact time  Are non-toxic  By-products will react in a wide variety of conditions
  24. 24. 25 SUITABLE BIOCIDES  Biocides which will suit requirements are powerful oxidizing agents  Destroy pathogens by reaction with nucleic acid  Low dose rate short contact time  Non-toxic and do not produce toxic by- products
  25. 25. 26  Initial by-product had high toxicity threshold for shrimps  Ultimately product breaks down to salt  Can be used in either activated or stabilized from  Low dose rate for cost effective use
  26. 26. 27 APPLICATIONS OF BIOCIEDS To be effective, biocides need to be evenly distributed throughout the pond If concentrated disinfectants are poured into ponds from 5 liter drums you can destroy the balance of the pond You may also kill some shrimp by overdosing or causing a sudden change in pH
  27. 27. 28 BIOCIEDS Biocides can only be effective when they come into contact with the pathogens If they meet up with other organisms they will be exhausted before they can attack their No.1 target
  28. 28. 29 BIOLOGICALS Controls Ammonium and Hydrogen Sulphide Breakdown organic materials and reduce pond wastes Control algae growth
  29. 29. 30 BIOLOGICALS ARE SUSEPTABLE TO:  Disinfectants (biocides)  Varying conditions (pH + acid)  Salinity levels Not all biological products are identical
  30. 30. 31 AMMONIA Ammonia can be more lethal than disease to shrimps If the disinfectants used destroy the ammonia controlling biologicals, you may do more damage than good
  31. 31. 32 BIOLOGICALS HAVE TWO FUNCTIONS:  Break down organic matter at the bottom of the pond – (faecal matter – unused feed – shrimp carcasses)  Control surface algae
  32. 32. 33 BIO SOLUTIONS  One blend to work deep down in the pond  Recently introduced surface mats which will absorb and digest algae  These mats can be added or removed according to need BEST RESULTS ARE ACHIEVED BY USING PRODUCTS FOR A SPECIAL PURPOSE:
  33. 33. 34 EFFECTIVE BIOLOGOCAL CONTROL: Eliminates ammonia and H2s Reduces waste products at bottom of pond making clean out easier Controls algae and improves water cleaning
  34. 34. TOP-UP WATER Best pond management will be destroyed if top- up water is contaminated. Water from storage biological population Untreated natural (swamp) water may introduce totally new viruses or bacteria Clean and disinfect water before adding to pond Treatment of water prior to use in ponds critically important
  35. 35. 36 WATER MANAGEMENT WHAT IS REQUIRED FOR FRESH NATURAL WATER AND RECYCLED WATER?  Cleaning to remove sediment and algae residue  Disinfections – possibly now – chemicals  Balancing, if required (salinity and pH etc.)
  36. 36. 37 WATER RECYCLING THERE ARE MANY SYSTEMS USED TO RECYCLE WATER: Most have high capital cost involving skilled labor of fixed equipment WHAT’S NEEDED IS: A relatively low cost, easy to operate, transportable equipment
  37. 37. 38 TRIOZON f To develop new methods to clean water in:  Aquaculture  Domestic grey water  Industrial effluents  Pharma / Food process CIP
  38. 38. 39 SUMMARY POND MANAGEMET IS A COMBINATION OF :  Good design  Reliable equipment  A comprehensive “package” approach to use of disinfectants and biologicals  Good water treatment practice  Preparation of the pond before stocking
  39. 39. 40 SUMMARY DO NOT ASK THE QUESTION “How much does it cost?” ASK THE QUESTION “How much extra profit can we make?”
  40. 40. 41 REMEMBER!  You are producing a product for the World market  You must take note of World environmental issues  There is great concern about the use of antibiotics and carcinogen chemicals as chlorine  If you ignore these issues you will destroy your industry
  41. 41. 42 COMMON SENSE  Farmers growing potatoes of rice have to understand their soil, their seed and their fertilizer.  Pig or poultry farmers must know about their stock, their feed and stock management.  Shrimp farmers must understand water, pond construction and disease control.
  42. 42. 43 FOOD FOR THOUGHT “Have I really had many years of experience Or have I just one year experience, many times”
  43. 43. 44 TRIOZON f Thank you:
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