AquaCulture-Bio Security "Triozon" concept
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  • 1. 2
  • 2. 3
  • 3. 4 BREAKING THE CHAIN A Talk on Water Management in Aquaculture by
  • 4. 5 AQUACULUTRE The most important raw material in shrimp farming WATER
  • 5. 6 WATER  Not all water is the same  Water contains a completely independent ecological structure  The organisms in water have survived and adapted over millions of years  To use water effectively you first have to understand it
  • 6. 7 WATER QUALITY  Greater the stocking rate, more problems there will be in maintaining water quality  If you introduce a complete water management program, do not calculate the cost of maintaining water quality – calculate the additional profits
  • 7. 8 POND CONSTRUCTION Pumping system Storage Reservation Inlet and outlet gates Pond liners
  • 8. 9 HOW MUCH WATER IS AVAILABLE? Without adequate availability of good quality water, you will not succeed
  • 9. 10 SHRIMP PRODUCTION Shrimp production is a key factor in Asian’s economy Potential exists for further expansion Much production has been achieved at a cost to the environment
  • 10. 11 FUTURE EXPANSION This must come from Utilization of existing farms Rehabilitating empty farms
  • 11. 12 QUALITY CONTROL Good quality – disease free stock Quality disease free food Vermin control Biosecurity measures
  • 12. 13 BIOSECURITY CONTROL Restricted entry people/vehicles Clean equipment Clean boots/clothes Clean hands
  • 13. 14 BIOSECURITY CONTROL Disease free water Ammonia free Controlled algae Limited sedimentation
  • 14. 15 DISINFECTANTS SHOULD Control relevant disease organisms Be non-toxic Not be combined with other components to form toxic by-products Be effective in all conditions Be effective al low concentrations Be effective with short contact time Not allow development of resistant strains
  • 15. 16 DISEASE ORGANISMS Bacterial Viral Fungal Protozoal
  • 16. 17 DISINFECTANTS Not all disinfectants are effective against all pathogens If pathogens are not completely destroyed then resistant strains will develop Some products which are effective against gram negative bacteria will be less effective or ineffective against gram positive bacteria
  • 17. 18 EXAMPLES OF COMMONLY USED DISINFECTANTS Quaternary Formalin Iodine Chlorine Types
  • 18. 19 QUATERNARY  Effective against gram positive  Only moderately effective against gram negative  Limited effectiveness against virtues and fungi
  • 19. 20 IODINE  Acts by reaction with nucleic acid of acid contents  Good disinfectants in pH range 2-4  Effectiveness reduced in presence of organic material  Effective against fungi, but only some viruses
  • 20. 21 FORMALIN  High dose required  Short active life  Suffers from rapid development of resistant strains
  • 21. 22 CHLORINE  Extensively used  Cheap to buy  Very High dose rates  Many environmental problems  Chlorine requires acidic conditions – pH 4-7  Combines with organic materials to form carcinogenic by-products  Combines rapidly with ammonia (10:1) to form toxic by-products
  • 22. 23 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINE USE • Use frowned upon because of formation of carcinogenic by-products • Compounds such as chlorinated phenols are more toxic than the original phenol • Chlorinated by-products are difficult to break up • By-product levels will continue to build up in recirculation water • Very low levels of chlorine or chlorinated by-products are toxic to shrimps
  • 23. 24 GOOD DISINFECTANTS  Destroy all pathogens so resistant strains do not emerge  Will be effective at low concentrations and act in a short contact time  Are non-toxic  By-products will react in a wide variety of conditions
  • 24. 25 SUITABLE BIOCIDES  Biocides which will suit requirements are powerful oxidizing agents  Destroy pathogens by reaction with nucleic acid  Low dose rate short contact time  Non-toxic and do not produce toxic by- products
  • 25. 26  Initial by-product had high toxicity threshold for shrimps  Ultimately product breaks down to salt  Can be used in either activated or stabilized from  Low dose rate for cost effective use
  • 26. 27 APPLICATIONS OF BIOCIEDS To be effective, biocides need to be evenly distributed throughout the pond If concentrated disinfectants are poured into ponds from 5 liter drums you can destroy the balance of the pond You may also kill some shrimp by overdosing or causing a sudden change in pH
  • 27. 28 BIOCIEDS Biocides can only be effective when they come into contact with the pathogens If they meet up with other organisms they will be exhausted before they can attack their No.1 target
  • 28. 29 BIOLOGICALS Controls Ammonium and Hydrogen Sulphide Breakdown organic materials and reduce pond wastes Control algae growth
  • 29. 30 BIOLOGICALS ARE SUSEPTABLE TO:  Disinfectants (biocides)  Varying conditions (pH + acid)  Salinity levels Not all biological products are identical
  • 30. 31 AMMONIA Ammonia can be more lethal than disease to shrimps If the disinfectants used destroy the ammonia controlling biologicals, you may do more damage than good
  • 31. 32 BIOLOGICALS HAVE TWO FUNCTIONS:  Break down organic matter at the bottom of the pond – (faecal matter – unused feed – shrimp carcasses)  Control surface algae
  • 32. 33 BIO SOLUTIONS  One blend to work deep down in the pond  Recently introduced surface mats which will absorb and digest algae  These mats can be added or removed according to need BEST RESULTS ARE ACHIEVED BY USING PRODUCTS FOR A SPECIAL PURPOSE:
  • 33. 34 EFFECTIVE BIOLOGOCAL CONTROL: Eliminates ammonia and H2s Reduces waste products at bottom of pond making clean out easier Controls algae and improves water cleaning
  • 34. TOP-UP WATER Best pond management will be destroyed if top- up water is contaminated. Water from storage biological population Untreated natural (swamp) water may introduce totally new viruses or bacteria Clean and disinfect water before adding to pond Treatment of water prior to use in ponds critically important
  • 35. 36 WATER MANAGEMENT WHAT IS REQUIRED FOR FRESH NATURAL WATER AND RECYCLED WATER?  Cleaning to remove sediment and algae residue  Disinfections – possibly now – chemicals  Balancing, if required (salinity and pH etc.)
  • 36. 37 WATER RECYCLING THERE ARE MANY SYSTEMS USED TO RECYCLE WATER: Most have high capital cost involving skilled labor of fixed equipment WHAT’S NEEDED IS: A relatively low cost, easy to operate, transportable equipment
  • 37. 38 TRIOZON f To develop new methods to clean water in:  Aquaculture  Domestic grey water  Industrial effluents  Pharma / Food process CIP
  • 38. 39 SUMMARY POND MANAGEMET IS A COMBINATION OF :  Good design  Reliable equipment  A comprehensive “package” approach to use of disinfectants and biologicals  Good water treatment practice  Preparation of the pond before stocking
  • 39. 40 SUMMARY DO NOT ASK THE QUESTION “How much does it cost?” ASK THE QUESTION “How much extra profit can we make?”
  • 40. 41 REMEMBER!  You are producing a product for the World market  You must take note of World environmental issues  There is great concern about the use of antibiotics and carcinogen chemicals as chlorine  If you ignore these issues you will destroy your industry
  • 41. 42 COMMON SENSE  Farmers growing potatoes of rice have to understand their soil, their seed and their fertilizer.  Pig or poultry farmers must know about their stock, their feed and stock management.  Shrimp farmers must understand water, pond construction and disease control.
  • 42. 43 FOOD FOR THOUGHT “Have I really had many years of experience Or have I just one year experience, many times”
  • 43. 44 TRIOZON f Thank you: