Indo - China is a small peninsula in South- East Asia. It consists of Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.
VIETNAM AND CHINA• Vietnam was under the shadow of Chinese empire.• (i) Vietnam followed the Chinese system of government and Chinese culture.• (ii) Chinese language was the language of the educated Vietnamese people. They followed Chinese system of education.• (iii) Confucianism, a Chinese religion, had many followers in Vietnam.• (iv) Vietnam was connected to Maritime silk route.
The French troops reached Vietnam in 1858. Theydefeated china in a war and got control over Tonkin and Annam. In 1887, the French Indo-China was formed.
FRANCE AND OTHER EUROPEAN POWERS LOOKED FOR COLONIES• Colonies were necessary due to the following reasons:• (i) They were rich in natural resources. So, they provided raw materials to European industries.• (ii) Europeans could use colonies as markets to sell their finished goods.• (iii) Europeans wanted to spread western culture in the colonies.
DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN BY FRANCE IN VIETNAM• The French built irrigation canals. They drained Mekong delta and encouraged rice cultivation.• They built roads and railway lines. For example:- Trans Indo-China railway route.• Rubber plantation was introduced in Vietnam.• Land reform measures were undertaken.• Modern education was introduced.
PAUL BERNARD ASKED THE FRENCHTO TAKE STEPS TO DEVELOP VIETNAM• According to Paul Bernard, colonies were acquired with the aim of making profits.• If colonies were developed, the standard of living of the people would improve.• The people would demand more and more foreign goods. So, the French can sell more goods and get more profits
BARRIERS TO ECONOMIC GROWTH IN VIETNAM• Huge population size.• Low agricultural productivity.• Indebtedness among the peasants.
INTRODUCTION OF MODERN EDUCATION IN VIETNAM• The French introduced modern education:-• to spread western culture and civilization.• to get educated workers for low-paid jobs.• to make the Vietnamese , their loyal supporters.
DILEMMA OF MODERN EDUCATION• The French wanted to civilise the people of Vietnam. They were also in the need of an educated labour force. So, they decided to introduce modern education.• At the same time, the French had a fear that the education would create the following problems:-• Educated people may oppose colonial domination.• The colons feared that, they would lose their jobs to the educated Vietnamese.
MEDIUM OF EDUCATION• Some people argued that the French should be used as the medium of education. It would help in spreading western culture and civilisation.• Some others argued that Vietnamese should be the medium in the lower classes and French in the higher classes.• Those who learn French and adopt French culture could be given French citizenship.• Finally, the rich were allowed to study in French schools and poor in the Vietnamese schools.
DRAWBACKS OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM INTRODUCED BY THE FRENCH IN VIETNAM• The government followed the policy of deliberately failing the students.• Education was limited to the rich people.• The textbooks glorified the French rule and culture and degraded Vietnamese culture.
TONKIN FREE SCHOOL• It was started in 1907 to provide western education.• Science, hygiene and French were taught along with the other subjects.• The school encouraged students to adopt western style of living. Students had to cut their hair short.
SCHOOL TEXT BOOKS• The school textbooks glorified French culture and supported French rule.• The Vietnamese were shown as primitive and backward people.• The Vietnamese could do only manual labour not intellectual labour.• The children were made to believe that only French rule could provide peace to Vietnam.• The schools forced the students to give up Vietnamese lifestyle and follow French lifestyle.
PROTEST BY TEACHERS AND STUDENTS• Teachers and students did not follow the curriculum blindly. They opposed it openly.• Students organised a movement against the Saigon Native Girls schools which expelled a student.• They formed political parties like Party of Young Annan and published a journal called Annanese Student.
SAIGON NATIVE GIRLS SCHOOL INCIDENT• In Saigon Native Girls School, a Vietnamese girl sitting in the first bench was asked to go to the back bench in order to allow a colon girl to occupy the firs bench.• She was expelled from the school when she refused to obey.• The students who opposed this action were also expelled.• This led to large scale protests. So, the government asked the school to take back the students.
GO EAST MOVEMENT• Nearly 300 students of Vietnam went to Japan to get modern education.• Their real aim was to overthrow the French rule with the help of Japan.• They set up Restoration Society in Tokyo.
PLAGUE IN HANOI• The French part of the city of Hanoi was beautiful with all modern facilities.• The native part was unclean without sanitation facilities.• The dirty water from the old city joined the river. The sewers of modern city became a breeding ground of rats.• The rats entered the French houses through sewage pipes and spread plague.
RAT HUNT• The modern city of Hanoi was affected by plague.• It was spread by the rats which lived in sewers. So, rats had to be killed.• Vietnamese were employed to kill the rats. The workers started collective bargaining.• Some of them cut the tail to show as proof and released the rats.• Some of them reared rats to earn money.
RELIGION AND ANTI COLONIALISM• The French effort to destroy the religious believes and traditions of Vietnam created anti-French feelings.• Scholars’ revolt was organised by the French.• Hoa Hao movement encouraged anti-French feelings among the people.• Political parties got the support of the religious groups in the struggle for freedom.
SCHOLAR’S REVOLT• It was an armed revolt led by the officers of the Kings Court.• It was against the spread of Christianity and the French rule.
HOA HAO MOVEMENT• It was a religious movement started by Huynh Phu So in 1939.• He performed miracles and helped the poor. He opposed child marriages, useless expenditure, gambling and the use of liquor.• The French called him mad [MAD BONZE] and sent him to a mental hospital. Later he was sent out of Vietnam.
PHAN BOI CHAU He was a Vietnamese nationalist. He formed therevolutionary society in 1903. He wrote a book titled ‘The History Of The Loss Of Vietnam’. He wanted to overthrow the French rule with the help of the Monarchy.
PHAN BOI CHAU• He accepted monarchy.• He did not want to revolt against monarchy.• He wanted to get the help of monarchy to oppose French rule.• He supported Vietnamese culture and opposed western ideas.• He wanted to establish a constitutional monarchy
PHAN CHU TRINH• He was a Vietnamese nationalist. He was against Monarchy. He wanted to establish a Modern Democratic Republic. He supported the French ideas of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
PHAN CHU TRINH• He wished to overthrow monarchy.• He planned an uprising against monarchy.• He did not want to get the help of monarchy.• He supported modern ideas like liberty, fraternity and equality.
INFLUENCE OF JAPAN AND CHINA ON VIETNAMES NATIONALISTS• Japan became a modern nation. So, Vietnamese considered it as a model. The people who escaped from French police took refuge in Japan.• Many students went to Japan in the name of education, but their real aim was to get Japan’s support for freedom struggle.• They set up restoration society in Japan.• Sun Yat Sen’s movement ,which overthrew monarchy in China, inspired Vietnamese nationalists.
EFFCTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION ON VIETNAM• Great depression led to a fall in the prices of rice and rubber. This affected the farmers badly.• Export earnings of Vietnam decreased sharply.• Unemployment and poverty became severe.• It led to many revolts in villages.
HO CHI MINH• Ho Chi Minh was the greatest leader of the Vietnamese freedom struggle. He:• united the nationalist groups and formed the Indo- Chinese communist party.• became the president of North Vietnam and introduced many socialist policies.• formed a people’s army called Vietminh to fight against foreign powers.• led the communists and the struggle for freedom for 40 years.• organised his people for their heroic struggle against American troops.
CHALLENGES FACED BY THE NEW REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM• The french troops tried to re-establish their control over Vietnam. So, the new republic had to fight a war.• Vietnam was divided into two parts in the Geneva Conference.• The U.S.A entered into the Vietnamese war. So, the new republic had to fight against the most powerful country of the world.• Use of chemical weapons and destruction of towns and villages by the American forces made the people’s life miserable.
BATTLE OF DIEN BIEN PHU: It was a battle fought between the French and the Vietminh in 1954. The French were defeated in this battle.
GENEVA CONFERENCE OF 1954• It was organised by the U.N.• It was decided to divide Vietnam into two parts.• The North under Communist rule and South under Bao Dai[Puppet of the U.S.A]
NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT• Bao Dai’s government in South Vietnam was overthrown by Ngo Dinh Diem.• He set up an oppressive and dictatorial government. Anyone who opposed him was called a communist and jailed.• He allowed Christianity and banned Buddhism. So, the people turned against him.• They formed the NLF and started a war against his government with the support of North Vietnam.
USA INTERFERES IN VIETNAMESE WAR• The U.S.A decided to interfere in Vietnamese war because:• America was strongly against communist movement. They had a fear that the victory of communists of Vietnam would lead to the spread of communism in Asia.• The U.S.A policy makers underestimated the strength of the Vietnamese nationalists. They expected a quick victory.
EFFECTS OF VIETNAMESE WAR ON USA• American people opposed their county’s involvement in the war.• Only non-graduates had to join the army. So, many poor men had to go to Vietnam.• Many Americans were killed and many were wounded. So, their relatives turned against the government.• Many books were written and films were made to show the sufferings of the American troops.
US MEDIA AND FILMS• U.S media and films were divided over the issue of U.S involvement in Vietnamese war.• Some movies like Green Berets directed by John Wayne supported the war.• Some other movies like ‘Apocalypse Now’, directed by John Ford Coppola opposed the war and showed its bad effects.
HO CHI MINH’S TRAIL• Ho Chi Minh’s Trail was a network of roads and footpaths. Most of the trail was in Laos and Cambodia. It was used by the Vietnamese in their war against the U.S forces.• It was used to transport goods and people from North Vietnam to South Vietnam.• It was used for the quick movement of forces from one war front to the other.• It was used to supply food, arms and ammunition to the soldiers.• It had support bases and hospitals along the way.
ROLE OF WOMEN IN ANTI-IMPERIALIST STRUGGLE IN VIETNAM• Plays, novels and paintings were made about the heroic women of the past such as Trung sisters and Trieu Au in order to create patriotism among the people.• Women joined the army and fought bravely against the American troops. They succeeded in shooting down war planes.• They were dedicated workers. They carried rifle on their back and worked in the field.• They were involved in nursing the injured, constructing underground rooms and tunnels.• They worked as helpers in Ho Chi Minh’s Trail. They carried goods.
TRUNG SISTERS• They were two Vietnamese women who fought against the Chinese domination.• Phan Boi Chau wrote a play based on their lives.• When they lost the war, they killed themselves. The Vietnamese people considered the Trung sisters as great patriots.
END OF THE WAR• Common people of the U.S.A opposed their country’s involvement in the war. Movies and media showed the miseries of the American soldiers.• (ii) American forces suffered heavy damages. Many were killed in the war.• (iii) World opinion turned against the U.S. many writers and thinkers supported Vietnam.• (iv) A peace agreement was signed in January 1974 and the war ended when Saigon was freed.