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cloud computing

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What is Cloud Computing

What is Cloud Computing

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  • Boil this down to an ROI number.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Cloud Computing Architecture, IT Security, & Operational Perspectives Steven R. Hunt ARC IT Governance Manager Ames Research Center Matt Linton IT Security Specialist Ames Research Center Matt Chew Spence IT Security Compliance Consultant Dell Services Federal Government Ames Research Center August 17, 2010
    • 2. Agenda  Introductions » Steve Hunt  What is cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How is NASA implementing cloud computing? » Matt Linton  How does NASA secure cloud computing? » Matt Linton  Q&A » Presentation Team Extended Presentation  FISMA & Clouds » Matt Chew Spence » Steve Hunt  Assessment, Authorization, & FedRAMP » Steve Hunt
    • 3. OBJECTIVE: Overview of cloud computing and share vocabulary OBJECTIVE: Overview of cloud computing and share vocabulary Agenda  Introductions » Steve Hunt  What is cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How is NASA implementing cloud computing? » Matt Linton  How does NASA secure cloud computing? » Matt Linton  Q&A » Presentation Team Extended Presentation  FISMA & Clouds » Matt Chew Spence » Steve Hunt  Assessment, Authorization, & FedRAMP » Steve Hunt
    • 4. Cloud Computing – NIST Definition: “A model for enabling convenient, on- demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction” What is Cloud Computing?
    • 5. Conventional  Manually Provisioned  Dedicated Hardware  Fixed Capacity  Pay for Capacity  Capital & Operational Expenses  Managed via Sysadmins Cloud  Self-provisioned  Shared Hardware  Elastic Capacity  Pay for Use  Operational Expenses  Managed via APIs Conventional Computing vs. Cloud Computing What is Cloud Computing?
    • 6. Five Key Cloud Attributes: 1. Shared / pooled resources 2. Broad network access 3. On-demand self-service 4. Scalable and elastic 5. Metered by use What is Cloud Computing?
    • 7. Shared / Pooled Resources:  Resources are drawn from a common pool  Common resources build economies of scale  Common infrastructure runs at high efficiency What is Cloud Computing?
    • 8. Broad Network Access:  Open standards and APIs  Almost always IP, HTTP, and REST  Available from anywhere with an internet connection What is Cloud Computing?
    • 9. On-Demand Self-Service:  Completely automated  Users abstracted from the implementation  Near real-time delivery (seconds or minutes)  Services accessed through a self-serve web interface What is Cloud Computing?
    • 10. Scalable and Elastic:  Resources dynamically-allocated between users  Additional resources dynamically-released when needed  Fully automated What is Cloud Computing?
    • 11. Metered by Use:  Services are metered, like a utility  Users pay only for services used  Services can be cancelled at any time What is Cloud Computing?
    • 12. Three Service Delivery Models IaaS: Infrastructure as a Service Consumer can provision computing resources within provider's infrastructure upon which they can deploy and run arbitrary software, including OS and applications PaaS: Platform as Service Consumer can create custom applications using programming tools supported by the provider and deploy them onto the provider's cloud infrastructure SaaS: Software as Service Consumer uses provider’s applications running on provider's cloud infrastructure What is Cloud Computing?
    • 13. What is Cloud Computing? SaaS PaaS IaaS Amazon Google Microsoft Salesforce Service Delivery Model Examples Products and companies shown for illustrative purposes only and should not be construed as an endorsement
    • 14.  Cost efficiencies  Time efficiencies  Power efficiencies  Improved process control  Improved security  “Unlimited” capacity Cloud efficiencies and improvements • Burst capacity (over- provisioning) • Short-duration projects • Cancelled or failed missions • Burst capacity (over- provisioning) • Short-duration projects • Cancelled or failed missions $ • Procurement • Network connectivity • Procurement • Network connectivity • Standardized, updated base images • Centrally auditable log servers • Centralized authentication systems • Improved forensics (w/ drive image) • Standardized, updated base images • Centrally auditable log servers • Centralized authentication systems • Improved forensics (w/ drive image) What is Cloud Computing?
    • 15. OBJECTIVE: Discuss requirements, use cases, and ROI OBJECTIVE: Discuss requirements, use cases, and ROI Agenda  Introductions » Steve Hunt  What is cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How is NASA implementing cloud computing? » Matt Linton  How does NASA secure cloud computing? » Matt Linton  Q&A » Presentation Team Extended Presentation  FISMA & Clouds » Matt Chew Spence » Steve Hunt  Assessment, Authorization, & FedRAMP » Steve Hunt
    • 16. How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? Current IT options for Scientists Current Options*Requirements* * Requirements and Options documented in over 30+ interviews with Ames scientists as part 2009 NASA Workstation project.
    • 17. Mission Objectives Explore, Understand, and Share Exploration Space OpsScienceAeronautics High Compute Vast Storage High Speed Networking Process Large Data Sets Scale-out for one-time events Require infrastructure on-demand Store mission & science data Share information with the public Run Compute Intensive Workloads Shared Resource Mission Support How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? Scientists direct access to Nebula cloud computing
    • 18. High-end Compute Vast Storage High Speed Networking TARGET COMPUTE PLATFORM Excellent example of how OCIO- sponsored innovation can be rapidly transformed into services that address Agency mission needs How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? Offer scientists services to address the gap
    • 19. *15% utilization based on two reports from Gartner Group, Cost of Traditional Data Centers (2009), and Data Center Efficiency (2010). ROI and ARC Case Study How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? POWER: Computers typically require 70% of their total power requirements to run at just 15% utilization.
    • 20.  Operational Enhancements: » Strict standardization of hardware and infrastructure software components » Small numbers of system administrators due to the cookie-cutter design of cloud components and support processes » Failure of any single component within the Nebula cloud will not become reason for alarm » Application operations will realize similar efficiencies once application developers learn how to properly deploy applications so that they are not reliant on any particular cloud component. ROI and ARC Case Study How can NASA benefit from cloud computing?
    • 21. OBJECTIVE: Overview of how NASA is implementing cloud computing OBJECTIVE: Overview of how NASA is implementing cloud computingAgenda  Introductions » Steve Hunt  What is cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How is NASA implementing cloud computing? » Matt Linton  How does NASA secure cloud computing? » Matt Linton  Q&A » Presentation Team Extended Presentation  FISMA & Clouds » Matt Chew Spence » Steve Hunt  Assessment, Authorization, & FedRAMP » Steve Hunt
    • 22. How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 23. How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 24. How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 25. Nebula Principles  Open and Public APIs, everywhere  Open-source platform, apps, and data  Full transparency » Open source code and documentation releases  Reference platform » Cloud model for Federal Government How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 26. Nebula User Experience Nebula IaaS user will have an experience similar to Amazon EC2:  Dedicated private VLAN for instances  Dedicated VPN for access to private VLAN  Public IPs to assign to instances  Launch VM instances  Dashboard for instance control and API access Able to import/export bundled instances to AWS and other clouds How is NASA implementing cloud computing? Products and companies named for illustrative purposes only and should not be construed as an endorsement
    • 27. Architecture Drivers  Reliability  Availability  Cost  IT Security How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 28. Shared Nothing  Messaging Queue  State Discovery  Standard Protocols Automated • IPMI • PXEBoot • Puppet How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 29. Nebula Infrastructure Components  Cloud Node  Network Node  Compute Node  Volume Node  Object Node  Monitoring / Metering / Logging / Scanning How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 30. Cloud Node LDAP Data Store LDAP Data Store Ubuntu OSUbuntu OS PuppetPuppet Nova Cloud Node Nova Cloud Node PXEPXE RabbitMQ Redis KVS How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 31. Ubuntu OSUbuntu OS PuppetPuppet KVMKVM LibVirtLibVirt Nova Compute Node Nova Compute Node 802.1(q)802.1(q) BrctlBrctl PXEPXE Project VLANProject VLAN Running InstanceRunning Instance Compute Node How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 32. Ubuntu OSUbuntu OS PuppetPuppet LVMLVM AoEAoE Nova Volume Node Nova Volume Node PXEPXE Exported VolumeExported Volume Volume Node How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 33. Object Node Ubuntu OSUbuntu OS PuppetPuppet Nova Object Node Nova Object Node PXEPXE NginxNginx How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 34. Network Node Ubuntu OSUbuntu OS PuppetPuppet Nova Networ k Node Nova Networ k Node 802.1(q)802.1(q) BrctlBrctl PXEPXE Project VLAN Project VLAN IPTablesIPTables Public Internet Public Internet How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 35. Pilot Lessons Learned - Automate Everything  No SysAdmin is perfect  99% is not good enough  NEVER make direct system changes  When in doubt - PXEBoot How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 36. Pilot Lessons Learned - Test Everything  KVM + Jumbo Frames  Grinder  Unit Tests / Cyclometric Complexity  TransactionID Insertion (Universal Proxy) How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 37. Pilot Lessons Learned - Monitor Everything  Ganglia  Munin  Syslog-NG + PHPSyslog-NG  Nagios  Custom Log Parsing (Instance-centric) How is NASA implementing cloud computing?
    • 38. OBJECTIVE: Overview of technical security mechanisms built into Nebula OBJECTIVE: Overview of technical security mechanisms built into NebulaAgenda  Introductions » Steve Hunt  What is cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How is NASA implementing cloud computing? » Matt Linton  How does NASA secure cloud computing? » Matt Linton  Q&A » Presentation Team Extended Presentation  FISMA & Clouds » Matt Chew Spence » Steve Hunt  Assessment, Authorization, & FedRAMP » Steve Hunt
    • 39. Technical Security Overview • Issues with Commercial Cloud Providers • Overview of Current Security Mechanisms • Innovations OBJECTIVE: Overview of technical security mechanisms built into Nebula OBJECTIVE: Overview of technical security mechanisms built into Nebula
    • 40. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Commercial Cloud Provider Security Concerns » IT Security not brought into decision of how & when NASA orgs use clouds » IT Security may not know NASA orgs are using clouds until an incident has occurred » Without insight into monitoring/IDS/logs, NASA may not find out that an incident has occurred » No assurances of sufficient cloud infrastructure access to perform proper forensics/investigations » These issues are less likely with a private cloud like Nebula
    • 41. How does NASA secure cloud computing? IT Security is built into Nebula  User Isolation from Nebula Infrastructure  Users only have access to APIs and Dashboards » No user direct access to Nebula infrastructure  Project-based separation » A project is a set of compute resources accessible by one or more users » Each project has separate: • VLAN for project instances • VPN for project users to launch, terminate, and access instances • Image library of instances
    • 42. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Networking  RFC1918 address space internal to Nebula » NAT is used for those hosts within Nebula needing visibility outside a cluster  Three core types of networks within Nebula: » Customer • Customer VLANs are isolated from each other » DMZ • Services available to all Nebula such as NTP, DNS, etc » Administrative
    • 43. Security Groups  Combination of VLANs and Subnetting  Can be extended to use physical network/node separation as well (future) How does NASA secure cloud computing?
    • 44. C L O U D A P I S S M R Project A (10.1.1/24) Project B (10.1.2/24) Operations Console (custom) Security Scanners (Nessus, Hydra, etc) Log Aggregation, SOC Tap RFC1918 Space (LAN_X) B R I D G E Public IP Space I N T E R N E T External Scanner DMZ Services Event Correlation Engine How does NASA secure cloud computing?
    • 45. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Firewalls  Multiple levels of firewalling » Hardware firewall at site border » Firewall on cluster network head-ends » Host-based firewalls on key hosts » Project based rule sets based on Amazon security groups
    • 46. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Remote User Access  Remote access is only through VPN (openVPN)  Separate administrative VPN and user VPNs  Each project has own VPN server
    • 47. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Intrusion Detection  OSSEC on key infrastructure hosts » Open source Host-based Intrusion Detection  Mirror port to NASA SOC tap  Building 10Gb/sec IDS/IPS/Forensics device with vendor partners
    • 48. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Configuration Management  Puppet used to automatically push out configuration changes to infrastructure  Automatic reversion of unauthorized changes to system
    • 49. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Vulnerability Scanning  Nebula uses both internal and external vulnerability scanners  Correlate findings between internal and external scans
    • 50. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Incident Response  Procedures for isolating individual VMs, compute nodes, and clusters, including: » Taking snapshot of suspect VMs, including memory dump » Quarantining a VM within a compute node » Disabling VM images so new instances can’t be launched » Quarantining a compute node within a cluster » Quarantining a cluster
    • 51. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Role Based Access Control  Multiple defined roles within a project  Role determines which API calls can be invoked » Only network admin can request non-1918 addresses » Only system admin can bundle new images » etc
    • 52. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Innovation - Security Gates  API calls can be intercepted and security gates can be imposed on function being called  When an instance is launched, it can be scanned automatically for vulnerabilities  Long term vision is to have a pass/fail launch gate based on scan/monitoring results
    • 53. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Vision - Security as a Service  Goal - Automate compliance through security services provided by cloud provider  Security APIs/tools mapped to specific controls » Customers could subscribe to tools/services to meet compliance requirements  When setting up new project in cloud » Customers assert nature of data they will use » Cloud responds with list of APIs/tools for customers to use  Currently gathering requirements but funding needed to realize vision
    • 54. How does NASA secure cloud computing? Vision - Security Service Bus  Goal - FISMA compliance through continuous real-time monitoring and situational awareness » Security service bus with event driven messaging engine » Correlate events across provider and multiple customers » Dashboard view for security providers and customers » Allows customers to make risk-based security decisions based on events experienced by other customers  Funding Needed to Realize Vision
    • 55. Nebula Open Source Progress  Significant progress in embracing the value of open source software release » Agreements with SourceForge and Github » Open source identified as an essential component of NASA’s open government plan  Elements of Nebula in open source release pipeline » Started Feb 2010. Hope for release in June. » Working toward continual incremental releases. » Exploring avenues to contribute code to external projects and to accept external contributions to the Nebula code base. How does NASA secure cloud computing?
    • 56. Agenda  Introductions » Steve Hunt  What is cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How is NASA implementing cloud computing? » Matt Linton  How does NASA secure cloud computing? » Matt Linton  Q&A » Presentation Team Extended Presentation  FISMA & Clouds » Matt Chew Spence » Steve Hunt  Assessment, Authorization, & FedRAMP » Steve Hunt
    • 57. Q & A
    • 58. Extended Presentation
    • 59. OBJECTIVE: Overview of Nebula C&A with Lessons Learned OBJECTIVE: Overview of Nebula C&A with Lessons Learned Agenda  Introductions » Steve Hunt  What is cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How is NASA implementing cloud computing? » Matt Linton  How does NASA secure cloud computing? » Matt Linton  Q&A » Presentation Team Extended Presentation  FISMA & Clouds » Matt Chew Spence » Steve Hunt  Assessment, Authorization, & FedRAMP » Steve Hunt
    • 60. FISMA & Clouds FISMA Overview  Federal Information Security Management Act – Requires all Gov’t computers to be under a security plan –Mandates following NIST security guidance –Required controls depend on FIPS-199 sensitivity level –Requires periodic assessments of security controls –Extremely documentation heavy –Assumes one organization has responsibility for majority of identified security controls  FISMA is burdensome to cloud customers –Customers want to outsource IT Security to cloud provider
    • 61. FISMA & Clouds FISMA Responsibilities in Clouds  Clouds are a “Highly Dynamic Shared Management Environment” » Customers retain FISMA responsibilities for aspects of a cloud under their control » Responsibilities vary depending on level of control maintained by customer » Customer control varies relative to service delivery model (SaaS, PaaS, or IaaS)  Need to define & document responsibilities » We parsed 800-53 Rev3 controls per service delivery model  Nebula currently only offers IaaS » We parsed all three service models for future planning
    • 62. Identifying data types Ensuring data appropriate to system User/Account Management Personnel Controls Identifying data types Ensuring data appropriate to system User/Account Management Personnel Controls Software Licenses Developer Testing App Configuration Management Software Development Lifecycle Software Licenses Developer Testing App Configuration Management Software Development Lifecycle OS Config Mgmt Anti-Malware SW Install Controls OS specific Controls etc OS Config Mgmt Anti-Malware SW Install Controls OS specific Controls etc SaaS IaaS PaaS Cloud Customer Security Responsibility Customer FISMA Responsibilities for Cloud Customer FISMA responsibilities Increase as Customers have more control over security measures 62 FISMA & Clouds
    • 63. FISMA & Clouds IaaS Customer Security Plan Coverage Options  At inception little guidance existed on cloud computing control responsibilities & security plan coverage  FedRAMP primarily addresses cloud provider responsibilities » Other than control parsing definitions Customers are given little guidance on implementing and managing FISMA requirements in a highly dynamic shared management environment  We have developed the following options: Option Description Issues Customer Owned Customer responsible for own security plan with no assistance from provider • None to Providers • Burdensome to customers Facilitated Customer responsible for own security plan using NASA template • May still be burdensome to customers. • Not scalable unless automated. Agency Owned Agency or Center level “Group” security plans associated with Cloud providers serve as aggregation point for customer. • May be burdensome to Agency or Center. • Requires technology to automate input and aggregation of customer data.
    • 64. FISMA & Clouds Current NASA Requirements/Tools may Impede Cloud Implementation  Default security categorization of Scientific and Space Science data as “Moderate” » Independent assessment required for every major change • Currently requires 3rd party document-centric audit • Not scalable to cloud environments  e-Authentication/AD integration required for all NASA Apps » NASA implementations don’t currently support LDAP/SAML- based federated identity management  Function-specific stove-piped compliance tools » STRAW/PIA tool/A&A Repository/NASA electronic forms » Can’t easily automate compliance process for new apps 64
    • 65. FISMA & Clouds Emerging Developments in FISMA & Clouds  Interagency Cloud Computing Security Working Group is developing additional baseline security requirements for cloud computing providers  NIST Cloud Computing guidance forthcoming?  Move towards automated risk models and security management tools over documentation  On the bleeding edge - changing guidance & requirements are a key risk factor (and opportunity) 65
    • 66. FISMA & Clouds Nebula is Contributing to Cloud StandardsNebula is Contributing to Cloud Standards  Federal Cloud Standards Working Group  Fed Cloud Computing Security Working Group » Federal Risk & Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP)  Cloud Audit project » Automated Audit Assertion Assessment & Assurance API  Providing Feedback to NIST and GAO  GSA Cloud PMO 66
    • 67. OBJECTIVE: Overview of how Nebula concepts may integrate with FedRAMP OBJECTIVE: Overview of how Nebula concepts may integrate with FedRAMP Agenda  Introductions » Steve Hunt  What is cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How can NASA benefit from cloud computing? » Matt Chew Spence  How is NASA implementing cloud computing? » Matt Linton  How does NASA secure cloud computing? » Matt Linton  Q&A » Presentation Team Extended Presentation  FISMA & Clouds » Matt Chew Spence » Steve Hunt  Assessment, Authorization, & FedRAMP » Steve Hunt
    • 68.  A Federal Government-Wide program to provide “Joint Authorizations” and Continuous Monitoring » Unified Government-Wide risk management » Authorizations can be leveraged throughout Federal Government  This is to be an optional service provided to Agencies that does not supplant existing Agency authority Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program FedRAMP
    • 69. Independent Agency Risk Management of Cloud Services … Federal Agencies Cloud Service Providers (CSP) … : Duplicative risk management efforts : Incompatible agency policies : Potential for inconsistent application of Federal security requirements : Acquisition slowed by lengthy compliance processes FedRAMP
    • 70. Federated Risk Management of Cloud Systems : Risk management cost savings and increased effectiveness : Interagency vetted approach : Consistent application of Federal security requirements Federal Agencies : Rapid acquisition through consolidated risk management Cloud Service Providers (CSP) FedRAMPFedRAMP Risk Management • Authorization • Continuous Monitoring • Federal Security Requirements … … FedRAMP
    • 71. FedRAMP Authorization process Agency X has a need for a new cloud based IT system Agency X gets security requirements for the new IT system from FedRAMP and adds requirements if necessary Agency X releases RFP for new IT system and awards contract to cloud service provider (CSP) Agency X submits request to FedRAMP office for CSP To be FedRAMP authorized to operate CSP is put into FedRAMP priority queue (prioritization occurs based on factors such as multi-agency use, number of expected users, etc.) FedRAMP
    • 72. FedRAMP Authorization process (cont) FedRAMP CSP and agency sponsor begin authorization process with FedRAMP office CSP, agency sponsor and FedRAMP office review security requirements and any alternative implementations FedRAMP office coordinates with CSP for creation of system security plan (SSP) CSP has independent assessment of security controls and develops appropriate reports for submission to FedRAMP office FedRAMP office reviews and assembles the final authorization package for the JAB JAB reviews final certification package and authorizes CSP to operate FedRAMP office adds CSP to authorized system inventory to be reviewed and leveraged by all Federal agencies FedRAMP provides continuous monitoring of CSP
    • 73. Issues & Concerns  FedRAMP doesn’t provide much guidance for customer side … e.g. Agency users of cloud services  Current NIST guidance oriented primarily towards “Static Single System Owner” environments  Lack of NIST guidance for “Highly Dynamic Shared Owner” environments … e.g. Virtualized Data Centers & Clouds » SSP generation & maintenance » Application of SP 800-53 (security controls) » Application of SP 800-37 (assessment & ATO) » Continuous Monitoring  Guidance may be forthcoming but NIST is resource constrained FedRAMP
    • 74. Potential Solution  Agency/Center level Aggregated SSPs: » Plan per CSP … e.g. Nebula, Amazon, Google, Microsoft … etc. » Plan covers all customers of a specific CSP » Technology integration may be needed with SSP repository to dynamically update SSP content via Web Registration site. » Or … SSP may be able to point to dynamic content entered and housed on Web Registration site ... maintained in Wiki type doc. Presentation Title —74— March 5, 2010 FedRAMP
    • 75. Q & A

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