Theory of architecture


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Theory of architecture

  2. 2. DECONSTRUCTIVISMDeconstructivism is an architectural style which contradicts the conventional methodsof architecture to create a structure,which though aesthetically odd is functionallyequivalent to the buildings made by general methods.Find out more about thisdifferent and thought provoking method.INTRODUCTIONDeconstructivism is a type of architectural style, which unlike conventionalarchitecture, breaks all the rules of construction theory. Developed in late 1980‟s,deconstructivism was started by a group of architects known as the deconstructivists,who were impressed and influenced by the thinking and principles of FrenchPhilosopher Jacques Derrida.According to the deconstructivism style, a building is designed in parts. Thearchitecture seems as if it is done in bits and pieces, in a haphazard manner, withoutany importance given to logic or architecture norms. A building constructed bydeconstructivism style reflects discordant pieces joined together to form unrelatedabstract forms.Deconstructivism focuses on changing the conventional rectilinear lines of a normalarchitectural building into non-rectilinear lines, transforming the external features ofthe building into distorted shapes and fragmented features.DECONSTRUCTIVISM PHILOSOPHYInitially architecture had two main facets – modernism and post-modernism. Thesetwo schools of architectural thoughts ruled almost all form of architectural styles.However, deconstruction, which came later, followed an approach that held theconventional architecture norms upside-down.Deconstruction, as the name suggests, intends to disarrange the architectural styles,refuting modernism and post-modernism references. For e.g. in post modern style,ornamentation of the building was to decorate the architectural structures in regardsto functional characteristics and using appropriate geometrical shapes and lines.However, deconstructivism works exactly opposite to this. It believes in removing theornamentation of the building from the functional aspects and instead using irregular
  3. 3. geometrical shapes, complicating the exterior features and yet attaining thefunctional and structural characteristics needed by a building.The Philosophy behind this architectural school of thought comes from the FrenchPhilosopher Jacques Derrida, who believed that architecture is a kind of language forcommunication using the linguistic philosophy. According to Derrida, the contradictingideas such as presence and absence, solid matter and void etc. also occurs inarchitecture; and just as a building can be constructed using the conventional laws ofarchitecture, non-conventional methods or deconstruction can also be used in abuilding a functional structure.Deconstructivism is also affected by the architectural style of the Russianconstructivism movement that started in the 20th century. Constructivism at this timealso followed the same pattern of deconstructivism, which involved assemblingabstract forms of irregular and disjointed geometrical shapes. However,constructivism did follow the ornamentation of buildings up to certain extent whereasdeconstructivism staunchly refuted it.EXAMPLESBuildings such as Turning Torso in Malmo, the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Spain,Mit‟s Stata Center, and the Vitra Design Museum in Weil-am-Rhein are a fewstructures made from deconstructive architectural style. Chin Crystal by Daniel Libeskind Performing Art Centre by Zaha Hadid
  4. 4. Many modern buildings are also being build by deconstructivism. Also, with theadvancement in computer aided designing systems, planning and designing suchbuildings have become easy. 3-D designs and simulating the post construction effectshave helped deconstructivism greatly. The present technological advancement hasmade designing buildings with such complex shapes extremely easy.Thus, though unconventional is style and odd in looks, deconstructivism has found itsown place in the world of architecture by building structures that are not onlyfunctionally and structurally stable but also unique and attractive.
  5. 5. POSTMODERN ARCHITECTUREPostmodern: a challenge to (or rejection of) modern truth claims about language,culture, history, and identity, even truth itself; tolerance of contradictions; loss offaith in grand meta-narratives (stories) that try to explain origins, morality,meaning, or destiny.The modernist architectural aesthetic was based on the principle of "form followsfunction." Instead of designing a structure around some pre-existing meaning or form,the function of the building should have priority. As those who worshiped intraditional [cross-shaped] churches were always reminded, worship is a matter ofbeing gathered into his cross. The modernist approach to church design would firstascertain the practical functions the building needed to fulfil – accommodate acertain number of worshipers, classrooms for Sunday school, etc.Those who built the Pruitt-Igoe housing project in St. Louis designed a form to followthe function of solving the housing problems of the urban poor. Designed according toevery modernist principle, the project proved unlivable. In 1972 the city dynamitedPruitt-Igoe, marking the end of modernism in architecture.Disillusioned with the modernist dogma that the present is always the best, architectsand the public they serve rediscovered the value and beauty of the past. They startedrestoring old buildings. Whereas modern architecture is abstract, postmodernarchitecture is referential. Modern buildings look typically drab in their concrete andsteel. Postmodern high-rises often flaunt bright colors and rich decorative detail. Theornamentation is flagrantly non-functional and often draws from past styles. Acontemporary building may include Art Deco touches from the 1920s or updatedclassical columns or simplified Victorian bric-a-brac.Postmodern architect Robert Venturi, author of Learning from Las Vegas, celebratesbuildings that frankly cater to the whims and fancies of ordinary people (such as thegaudy luxury of Vegas hotels). He sees nothing wrong with buildings that are playful,funny, or in conventionally bad taste. AT & T Headquarters by Philip Johnson Post-Modernist Architect Robert Venturi
  6. 6. Much postmodernist architecture is like the New York City AT&T building (PhilipJohnson, 1978). It pilfers various historical styles and works them into a pastiche (thecharacteristic post modernist form), void of coherence or meaning. The combinationof discordant styles (modernism, baroque, classicism) is a sort of joke. By lifting theseincompatible styles out of history and tacking them together, the styles lose theirsignificance. History is reduced to a smorgasbord of styles, to be sampled according toones taste. The effect is to deconstruct style and relativize history.Some postmodernist architects have set about overtly deconstructing their owndesigns, mocking both their forms and their functions. James Wine designed a seriesof Best stores that made people driving by do a double take. One of his stores inMilwaukee looked as if it were falling apart. The front wall was apparently peeledaway in a pile of bricks, revealing shelves holding plastic replicas of lamps, toasters,and Barbie dolls. A customer would walk past this facade, past the plaster replicas,through the glass doors, and into the store with its shelves of real lamps, posters, andBarbies. With its fake rubble and gaping hole, the store was designed as a parody ofitself, not so much a construction as a deconstruction.Contemporary architecture has a curious feature, the confusion of interiors andexteriors. If you walk from the street into a new office building, the first thing yousee inside may well be trees! Many buildings today include atriums complete withtrees, nature paths, and bright sunlight.Just as the atrium brings the outside inside, many postmodernist buildings bring theinside outside. Structural framework such as beams and ventilation ducts may appearon the surface. An extreme example is the Pompidou Center in Paris (1977). Supportbeams, tie-rods, and the plumbing appear to be on the outside of the building,painted in bright garish colors. An escalator snakes along the exterior of the building.It is as if the building were turned inside out. The effect is unsettling, like looking ata man but seeing only his insides - his lungs, blood vessels, and red guts.What has been happening in architecture illustrates what has been happeningthroughout the arts and the culture since the collapse of modernism. The post modernrejection of absolutes, its triviality and relativism, and its penchant for self-gratification all undercut Christianity. The temptation is to capitulate to the newmind-set rather than work to redeem it. But the postmodern age also has room forChristianity in ways that modernism did not. The postmodern openness to the past, itsrejection of narrow rationalism, its insistence that art refers to meanings and contextbeyond itself – these insights are all useful to the recovery of a Christian worldview.
  7. 7. PARAMETRIC DESIGNThe advent of the industrial revolution, mass production and large-scalemanufacturing industries during the last two centuries has had a revolutionary effecton architecture. The fathers of modern architecture, such as Le Corbusier, Mies VanDer Rohe and Walter Gropius were inspired by the automobile factories and methodsof the era; this gave birth to the computer as a design tool.Parametric design is a method of intelligently designing architectural objects basedon relationships and rules using the computer. These are defined in parametricsoftware and are easily manipulated to quickly generate multiple iterations of thedesign in 3D. This month, Ive selected 10 buildings that use parametric design eitheras a whole, or on part of the building. As you can see, the use of this tool has allowedfor more complex free form shapes as well as multiple reactive yet repeatingelements to be created.Parametric design has been pioneered by architects such as Frank O. Gehry, ZahaHadid who begun to exploit digital technology originally developed for the automotiveand airplane industry for architecture.Walt Disney Concert Hall by Frank O.Gehry Gunagzhou Opera House by Zaha Hadid Birds Nest by Herzog De Meuron Water Cube by PTW Architects
  8. 8. Offering new ways of controlling form, parametric design allows architecture to reactto its context, the environment and rules and regulations, enabling a completelydigital workflow from design to manufacturing.With the use of parametric software, architects are able to study relationships andincorporate basic aspects of the actual construction including material, manufacturingtechnologies and structural properties into the design process. It has allowed forarchitectural design to become an iterative, generative and reactive process ratherthan one of evolution; some argue that this is closer to nature, as DArcy WentworthThompson book On Growth and Form he argues, "an organism is so complex a thing,and growth so complex a phenomenon, that for growth to be so uniform and constantin all the parts as to keep the whole shape unchanged would indeed be an unlikelyand an unusual circumstance. Rates vary, proportions change, and the wholeconfiguration alters accordingly."Such tools transform complex issues into rational, simple decisions. But this trendtoward complexity leads to new design problems, requires a deeper understanding ofgeometry, mathematics and computer software; the architect mustnt forget that hemust be a master of and control the tool, rather than the other way around.
  9. 9. FUTURISTIC DESIGNBold, bio-inspired, vertical and sustainable: those are the traits that architecture ofthe future will share, if you go by the trends in current cutting-edge concept designs.While some of these architectural concepts will never become reality, others arealready in progress or slated to begin construction soon. From a sparkling urban farminspired by a dragonfly‟s wing to a dystopian concept that embraces geneticengineering, here are 12 amazing designs that give us a peek into what the futuremay bring.The Songjiang Hotel by Atkins Design makes use of a beautiful water-filled quarry in theSongjiang district just outside Shanghai in China. This innovative design features a greenroof, geothermal energy and underwater areas including a restaurant and guest rooms.The quarry provides an ideal setting for sports and leisure including swimming, watersports, rock climbing and bungee jumping. The Songjiang Hotel was originally slated to becompleted by May 2009, but as of now it‟s still just a concept.By making apartment buildings entirely vertical, we could enhance the livability of urbanresidences and provide lush green gardens for each apartment dweller to enjoy. TheOrigami by Kann Finch, designed for Meydan City in Dubai, would give each apartment anopen quality that extends the internal living areas to extensive balconies with uplifting
  10. 10. window walls. A patterned solid/glass screen gives the building visual interest from theoutside and provides shade and privacy for the residents.Italian architect David Fischer designed the Dynamic Tower Skyscraper so that each ofits 80 floors would rotate according to voice command. Fischer wanted to design a spacewhere you could enjoy the sunrise and sunset from the same room. The rotation takes upto 3 hours and is powered by solar panels and 79 wind turbines, with one turbine locatedbetween each floor. Almost the entire structure will be pre-fabricated offsite.Construction is due to be completed by the end of 2010.Singapore-based design firm Design Act created the „My Dream, Our Vision‟ concept forthe World Expo 2010 Singapore Pavilion Competition. It uses permutated cubes togenerate a pixelated-looking sculptural building that that looks like an illuminated „digitalcloud‟ hovering over a constantly changing green pasture. Designed to present Singaporeas the ideal example of a city that can transform the lives of everyone who comes intocontact with it, the „My Dream, Our Vision‟ concept encourages visitors to post theirdreams inside.
  11. 11. CYBERTECTURECybertecture is a term coined by Japanese Architect James Law who runs his firm James LawCybertecture International.He is also known for his revolutionary,highly futuristicCybertecture Mirror. He says, “In the 21st Century, buildings will be different from20th Century. They are no longer about concrete, steel and glass, but also the newintangible materials of technology, multimedia, intelligence and interactivity. Onlyrecognizing this will bring a new form of architecture to light, namely aCybertecture.” Japanese Architect James Law Cybertecture MirrorThe concept was inspired, according to the designers, by considering the world as anecosystem allowing life to evolve. Elements of the design and intelligence systemswill work together to give the building‟s inhabitants the „best space to work in‟. Andthis includes monitoring their health. Within the building, there will be a series ofinnovative systems such as „cybertecture health‟ in the washroom which is designedto keep track of the inhabitant‟s health including blood pressure and weight. The datacollected may be retrieved and sent to a doctor if deemed necessary.Technology and the working environment are united in the use of „cybertecturereality‟ which allows you to customize your favorite view and have real time sceneryall around the world instead of the view the user currently has.THE EGGJames Law have been commissioned by Vijay Associate (Wadhwa Developers) tocreate an office unlike any other in Mumbai, India. The 32,000 sq m egg-shaped buildwill accommodate 13 floors of offices bringing together iconic architecture,environmental design, intelligent systems, and new engineering to create an awe-inspiring landmark in the city.
  12. 12. The egg itself is orientated and skewed at an angle to create both a strong visuallanguage and to alleviate the solar gain of the building, also there is a sky garden onthe top of building which performs thermolysis (the dissipation of heat from thesurface). PV panels will be installed on top of the building and a wind turbine on thesky gardens will generate electricity. A water filtration system will also beincorporated into the building to recycle grey water for flushing and irrigationpurpose.By using this “Egg” shape, compared to a conventional building, the structure hasapproximately 10-20% less surface area. Within the building, an innovative structurederived from the skin of the egg creates up to 30m spans of columnless floors. Thearchitecture is sleek and computer designed, with engineering that creates a buildingof high quality and geometric sophistication. It is hoped this building will act like a“jewel” for the new Central Business District of Mumbai, and will be a worthyneighbour to other esteemed buildings in the district. The building is due forcompletion by the end of 2010.OTHER PROJECTS IN PROGRESSTHE IPAD TOWERThe iPad Tower (also known as The Pad) was originally inspired by the Apple‟s iPodsitting on a dock and Omniyat Properties decided to take on the challenge andconstruct this 26-story luxury tower (may I say I was actually hoping for 2600 story?).The iPad Tower in Dubai – one of the strangest and unique buildings in the world, istotally a Cyber-based structure, a completely modernized digital world of highstandard technology.
  13. 13. The iPad Tower contains over 231 intelligent apartments with more than half lookingover the picturesque Business Bay area of Dubai whilst the remaining looking towardsthe center piece of Dubai, the Burj Dubai Tower. The mega project cost 3 billionDirhams ($800 million). THE IPAD TOWER,DUBAI THE CAPITAL,MUMBAITHE CAPITALThe new commercial complex located in Mumbai, India ”The Capital” deliberatelyreveals her calmness, gracefulness and elegance. It is an extremely challenging workto develop a revolutionary design concept for an office with AAA- grading andachieving over 80% efficiency simultaneously. It integrated the sustainable concept,form and functionality that inspire the office building design and urban context inIndia like never before.For the building enclosure, there are three major features in the building. Anincredible stepped-in glazed valley façade is created at the West elevation of thebuilding. The facade is stepped while each floor supported by feature columns andcantilevered in a way that the building itself act as a shading device. A masterpieceegg shape structure inscribed inside the wonderful sky lobby at the East elevation.There are natural waterfalls and vegetations situated on both sides of the sky lobby.They enhance the cooling effect of the atrium. People can also enjoy the beautifulscenery in this communal space. The sparkling LED stripes protruded on the facade of“The capital” do not only act as an urban information display device, but also playthe role of sun shading devices. The interior and exterior cladding system are adoptedPVDF coating which are easily maintain and UV resisting.
  14. 14. in in ipad tower