Chapter 8 Energy Balance And Body Composition

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Chapter 8 Energy Balance And Body Composition

  1. 1. Energy Balance and Body Composition Studying = 1 or 2 kcalories/minute
  2. 2. Energy Balance
  3. 3. Food Composition <ul><li>Direct calorimetry vs. indirect calorimetry </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological fuel value </li></ul>
  4. 4. Food Intake <ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Satiation </li></ul><ul><li>Satiety </li></ul><ul><li>Overriding hunger and satiety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress eating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustaining satiation and satiety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>satiating </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Food Intake
  6. 6. <ul><li>Sustaining satiation and satiety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lower-fat foods can be eaten in larger portions for the same number of kcalories </li></ul></ul>Food Intake
  7. 7. Food Intake <ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuropeptide Y </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Thermogenesis <ul><li>Basal thermogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise-induced thermogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Diet-induced thermogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive thermogenesis </li></ul>
  9. 9. Components of Energy Expenditure
  10. 10. Components of Energy Expenditure <ul><li>Basal metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Basal metabolic rate (BMR) </li></ul><ul><li>Resting metabolic rate (RMR) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Components of Energy Expenditure <ul><li>Thermic effect of food (TEF) </li></ul><ul><li>Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Estimating Energy Requirements <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul>
  13. 13. Estimating Energy Requirements <ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Body composition </li></ul><ul><li>Body size </li></ul>
  14. 14. Body Weight, Body Composition, and Health <ul><li>Body composition </li></ul><ul><li>Body weight = fat + lean tissue (including water) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Defining Healthy Body Weight <ul><li>The criterion of fashion: BMI of Miss America </li></ul>
  16. 16. Defining Healthy Body Weight <ul><li>The criterion of health </li></ul><ul><li>Body mass index (BMI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>=weight (kg)/height (m) 2 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. BMI Values Used to Assess Weight
  18. 18. Distribution of Body Weights in U.S. Adults
  19. 19. Body Fat and Its Distribution
  20. 20. Body Fat and Its Distribution <ul><li>Some people need less body fat </li></ul><ul><li>Some people need more body fat </li></ul>
  21. 21. Body Fat and Its Distribution <ul><li>Fat distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra-abdominal fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central obesity </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Body Fat and Its Distribution <ul><li>Waist circumference-according to some...if it’s anything over 35”, it’s too much! </li></ul>
  23. 24. Body Fat and Its Distribution <ul><li>Other measures of body composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatfold measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrodensitometry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioelectrical impedance </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Body Fat and Its Distribution <ul><li>Other measures of body composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air displacement plethysmography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Methods Used to Assess Body Fat
  26. 27. Health Risks Associated With Body Weight and Body Fat <ul><li>Health risks of underweight </li></ul><ul><li>Health risks of overweight </li></ul>
  27. 28. BMI and Mortality
  28. 29. Health Risks Associated With Body Weight and Body Fat <ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Fat and fit versus sedentary and slim </li></ul>
  29. 30. The Latest and Greatest Weight-Loss Diet - Again <ul><li>The claims and truths of diet fads </li></ul><ul><li>High-protein, low carbohydrate diets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The diet’s appeal </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. The Latest and Greatest Weight-Loss Diet - Again <ul><li>High-protein, low carbohydrate diets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t count kcalories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfy hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow a plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit choices </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. The Latest and Greatest Weight-Loss Diet - Again <ul><li>High-protein, low carbohydrate diets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too little everything else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The body’s perspective </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Questions or Thoughts <ul><li>If you have any questions or thoughts please feel free to post them in the Discussion Forum/Board or you can e-mail your instructor </li></ul>

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