Chapter 3 Diegestion

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Chapter 3 Diegestion

  1. 1. Digestion, Absorption and Transport BIOL310-Nurtition
  2. 2. Digestion <ul><li>Basic anatomy of the GI tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mouth  esophagus  stomach  small intestine  large intestine  rectum  anus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lumen </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. GI Tract Anatomy
  4. 4. Digestion <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mastication </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  5. 5. The Teeth Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  6. 6. Digestion <ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophageal sphincters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolus </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  7. 7. Digestion <ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyloric sphincter </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  8. 8. Digestion <ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duodenum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jejunum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ileum </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  9. 9. Digestion <ul><li>Gallbladder </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  10. 10. Digestion <ul><li>Large intestine = colon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ileocecal valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rectum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anus </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  11. 11. Muscular Action of Digestion <ul><li>Peristalsis </li></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  12. 12. Peristalsis & Segmentation
  13. 13. Muscular Action of Digestion <ul><li>Stomach action </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  14. 14. Muscular Action of Digestion <ul><li>Sphincter contractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflux </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  15. 15. Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  16. 16. Secretions of Digestion <ul><li>Catalysts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saliva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salivary glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water, salts, mucus, enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Secretions of Digestion <ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastric juice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastric glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water, enzymes, hydrochloric acid (HCl) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Secretions of Digestion <ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goblet cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mucus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreatic juice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes, bicarbonate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Secretions of Digestion Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  20. 20. Secretions of Digestion <ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emulsifier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gallbladder </li></ul>
  21. 21. Secretions of Digestion <ul><li>Protective factors </li></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  22. 22. The Final Stage <ul><li>Stools </li></ul><ul><li>Colon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermentation of undigested residues </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  23. 24. Digestion of a Sandwich
  24. 25. Digestion of a Sandwich Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  25. 26. Absorption
  26. 27. Absorption in the Small Intestine <ul><li>Villi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microvilli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries and lacteals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chylomicrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crypts </li></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  27. 28. The Small Intestinal Villi
  28. 29. The Small Intestinal Villi, cont’d Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  29. 30. Circulatory Systems <ul><li>Vascular system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  30. 32. Circulatory Systems <ul><li>Vascular system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portal vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatic vein </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  31. 33. The Liver
  32. 34. Circulatory Systems <ul><li>Lymphatic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic duct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subclavian vein </li></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  33. 35. Regulation <ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholecystokinin = CCK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastric-inhibitory peptide = GIP </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  34. 36. Digestive Problems <ul><li>Choking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heimlich maneuver </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  35. 37. Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  36. 38. Digestive Problems <ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritable bowel syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhoids </li></ul><ul><li>Diverticula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverticulosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverticulitis </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. Diverticula in the Colon
  38. 40. Digestive Problems <ul><li>Belching </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Hiccups </li></ul><ul><li>Heartburn = gastroesophageal reflux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antacids and acid controllers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigestion </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. Digestive Problems <ul><li>Ulcers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peptic ulcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helicobactor pylorii infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of certain anti-inflammatory drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorders that cause excessive acid secretion </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  40. 42. Strategies for GI Problems
  41. 44. Questions or Thoughts? <ul><li>If you have any questions or thoughts please feel free to post them to the discussion board or e-mail your instructor. </li></ul>

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