Chapter 1 Introtonutrition


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Chapter 1 Introtonutrition

  1. 1. An Overview of Nutrition BIOL310-Nutrition
  2. 2. Nutrition in Your Life <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The science of foods and the substances they contain </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nutrition in Your Life <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from plant or animal sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide energy and nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by the body for maintenance, growth, and repair </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Nutrition in Your Life <ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The foods one consumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The quality of which affects the risk of chronic diseases </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Food Choices <ul><li>Personal preference </li></ul><ul><li>Habit </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic heritage or tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Availability, convenience, economy </li></ul>
  6. 6. Food Choices <ul><li>Positive and negative associations </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Body weight and image </li></ul>
  7. 7. Food Choices <ul><li>Nutrition and health benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Whole foods, fortified foods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Nutrients <ul><li>Energy defined </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient defined </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Nutrients <ul><li>Composition of foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six classes of nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonnutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical composition of nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic vs. Organic nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Nutrients <ul><li>Inorganic nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical composition of nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic vs. Organic nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Nutrients <ul><li>Organic nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Nutrients <ul><li>Essential nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Macronutrients vs. micronutrients </li></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  13. 13. Energy-Yielding Nutrients <ul><li>Calories and kilocalories </li></ul><ul><li>Energy from foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy density </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Energy Density
  15. 15. Energy-Yielding Nutrients <ul><li>Energy in the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy for activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other roles of energy-yielding nutrients </li></ul>
  16. 16. Vitamins <ul><li>Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Not energy-yielding </li></ul><ul><li>Essential </li></ul><ul><li>Water-soluble vs. fat-soluble </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to destruction </li></ul>
  17. 17. Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic </li></ul><ul><li>Not energy-yielding </li></ul><ul><li>Essential </li></ul><ul><li>Indestructible </li></ul>
  18. 18. Water <ul><li>Inorganic </li></ul><ul><li>Not energy-yielding </li></ul><ul><li>Essential </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Science of Nutrition <ul><li>Human genome </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional genomics </li></ul>
  20. 20. Nutrition Research <ul><li>The Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis vs. Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental group vs. control group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Randomization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample size </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Nutrition Research <ul><li>The Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidemiological studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory-based studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human intervention or clinical trials </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Nutrition Research <ul><li>The Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placebo effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blind experiment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double-blind experiment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Nutrition Research <ul><li>The Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlations and causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive correlation vs. negative correlation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer review </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Nutrition Research <ul><li>Research Vs. Rumors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific validity </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Dietary Reference Intakes <ul><li>Estimated Average Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Dietary Allowances </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate Intakes </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerable Upper Limits </li></ul>
  26. 26. Energy Recommendations <ul><li>Estimated Energy Requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate: 45% - 65% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat: 20% - 35% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein: 10% - 35% </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Using Nutrient Recommendations <ul><li>Estimates of energy & nutrient intakes apply to healthy people </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations are NOT minimum requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations are NOT optimal for all people </li></ul>
  28. 28. Using Nutrient Recommendations <ul><li>Recommendations should be met by consuming a varied diet </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations apply to average daily intakes </li></ul><ul><li>Each DRI category serves a unique purpose </li></ul>
  29. 29. Comparing Nutrient Recommendations <ul><li>U.S. & Canada: DRI Committee </li></ul><ul><li>International: FAO and WHO </li></ul>
  30. 30. Nutrition Assessment <ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undernutrition vs. overnutrition </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Nutrition Assessment of Individuals <ul><li>Historical information </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropometric data </li></ul><ul><li>Physical examination </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory tests </li></ul>Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning
  32. 32. Nutrition Assessment of Individuals <ul><li>Primary deficiency vs. secondary deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Overt symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Subclinical deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covert symptoms </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Nutrition Assessment of Populations <ul><li>National nutrition surveys </li></ul><ul><li>National health goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy People 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy People 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases <ul><li>Risk factors persists </li></ul><ul><li>Risk factors cluster </li></ul><ul><li>Risk factors in perspective </li></ul>
  35. 36. Nutrition Information and Misinformation <ul><li>Not everything on the Internet is true!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determination of the reliability of a website </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not everything on the news is accurately reported!! </li></ul>
  36. 37. Nutrition Information and Misinformation <ul><li>American Dietetic Association (ADA) </li></ul><ul><li>Registered dietitian (RD) </li></ul><ul><li>Dietetic technician, registered (DTR) </li></ul>
  37. 38. Nutrition Information and Misinformation <ul><li>Finding credible information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government health agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteer health agencies reputable consumer groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputable consumer groups </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Nutrition Information and Misinformation <ul><li>Finding credible information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional health organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional journals </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Questions or Thoughts <ul><li>If you have any questions please feel free to post them in the Discussion Forum or e-mail your instructor </li></ul>