Learning how to listen


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Learning how to listen

  1. 1. Learninghow to listen- Kåre Stokholm PoulsgaardHyper IslandManchester 09.08.12
  2. 2. Why ethnography?
  3. 3. What’s happening here?
  4. 4. Get into a beginners frame of mind
  5. 5. Ethnography... Social anthropology: we must first discover what people actually do, and just as important why they are doing it, before we can inter- pret their behaviors drawing on our own experiences Design: It’s about asking the right questions in order to frame and gain a deeper understanding of the problems to solve from a people centered perspective
  6. 6. Ethnography isabout People Behaviours Attitudes Beliefs Needs Boundaries Relationships
  7. 7. Applying abstractreasoning to real lifeobservations
  8. 8. Iterate and refineyour concept
  9. 9. Doing ethnography- step by step Identify your research objectives Keep it people centered, keep it broad enough that you’ll learn something new but focused enough for your to be able to build empathy and find insights Identify who to talk to Different user segments will have different perspectives - choosing the right people to talk to is key to finding valauble insights Write an interview guide Come prepared - but be ready to deviate from the plan and pursue interesting themes as they show up in conversation Discover the world a new Build real empathy with your users as you explore your ideas and concepts Analyse your data Look for patterns in observations and stories - identify the abstract principles shaping these patterns and driving behaviours
  10. 10. Identifyingwho to talk to
  11. 11. Writing yourinterviewguide Start broad and narrow down if you’re in the disco- very phase – start narrow and go broad if you’re looking to test and validate your ideas Start soft – learn something about the person – let them describe themselves to you and make sure they feel your genuine interest – chat, go broad on attitudes and dreams and then dive deep Use grand tour questions to let the participant draw up a landscape for you – then probe using their words and concepts Make it concrete – abstract questions are very hard for people to answer in anything but vague terms – ”Describe the last time you went to the hospital” – have people bring homework – use hypothetical situations
  12. 12. The EthnographicInterview Keep it friendly Keep the conversation relaxed and free flowing while subtly guiding the direction and subject Ask loads of questions and downplay your personal knowledge Pledge ignorance - restate informants assumptions and begin using their language Look for contradictions and comparisons Contrast questions lets you explore deeper dimensions of meaning shaping or structuring people’s beliefs Mix in observations Peoples idea about what they do and what they actually do might not always match up - use discrepancies to learn more about beliefs, attitudes, and actions Record – tape, use video, write, take pictures Capture direct quotes for context - capture first and interpret later
  13. 13. What to do withyour data? Analysis and synthesis From observations through stories to insights
  14. 14. Analysis andSynthesis Wants and needs ”If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses” Avoid 1:1 interpretations Move from real life observations to abstract principles guiding behaviour
  15. 15. From Observationsto Insights
  16. 16. Resources ”The Ethnographic Interview” (1979) by James Spradley ”HCD Toolkit” by IDEO ”Future Perfect” Jan Chipchase’s blog ”Design Anthropology” (2011) (eds.) Alison Clarke ”Designing Interactions” (2007) by Bill Moggridge
  17. 17. THANK YOU!Feel free to get in touch atkaare@tandp.dk Figures Morten Lundholm, LES Naja Rasmussen, Theory and Practice