Conjunctions are used to join or link words, phrases andclauses.For examples:-The child ate a peanut butter and jelly sandwich.-Amer likes football but Sheela likes dancing.-Do you like a cup of coffee or tea?
There are three types of CONJUNCTIONS:1. Co-ordinating conjunctions2. Subordinating conjunctions3. Correlative conjunctions
CO-ORDINATING CONJUNCTIONSCo-ordinating conjunctions are used to join individual words, phrases and clauses..There are 7 co-ordinating conjunctions that we usually use in our everyday live such as… And But Or Nor For So Yet
Co-ordinating ConjunctionsCoordinate conjunctions are used to jointwo similar grammatical constructions, forinstance, two words, two phrases or twoclauses.*Examples :My friend and I will attend the meeting.Kuching is famous for the beauty of itslandscape and the hospitality of its people. The sun rose and the birds began to sing.
In these examples, the coordinateconjunction and is used to join the twowords friend and I, the two phrases the beauty of itslandscape and the hospitality of its people, andthe two clauses the sun rose and the birdsbegan to sing.
The most commonly used coordinateconjunctions are and, but and or.In addition, the words nor and yet may beused as coordinate conjunctions.In the following table, each coordinateconjunction is followed by its meaningand an example of its use.
Meaning and Examples She and: in addition tried and succeeded. They tried but did but: however not succeed. Did you go or: alternatively out or stay at home? I did not see nor: and neither it, nor did they. The sun is yet: however warm, yet the air is cool.
As illustrated above, when a coordinate conjunctionjoins two verbs which have the same subject, thesubject need not be repeated.For instance, in the example she tried andsucceeded, the pronoun she acts as the subject forboth the verb tried and the verb succeeded. It should also be noted that when a coordinateconjunction joins two verbs which do not have thesame subject, the two coordinate clauses may beseparated by a comma or semicolon, in order tomake the meaning clear.
Subordinating conjunctionsSubordinate clauses may begin with relativepronouns such as. . .*that, what, whatever, which, who and whom.As well as with words such as. . .*how, when, where, wherever and why.In the following examples, the subordinateclauses are underlined. E.G : 1. The house, which stood on a hill, could be seen for miles. 2. I wonder how he did that.
Subordinate clauses may also begin with wordswhich are commonly referred to as subordinateconjunctions. In the following examples, the subordinateconjunctions are printed in bold type. E.G : It was cold, I wore my winter coat. Let us wait until the rain stops.
Examples of Subordinate Conjunctions used in sentence.As 1. because: As he is my friend, I will help him. 2. when: We watched as the plane took off.After 1. later in time: After the train left, we went home.Although or though 1. in spite of the fact that: Although it was after midnight, we did not feeltired.Before 1. earlier than: I arrived before the stores were open.Because 1. for the reason that: We had to wait, because we arrived early.For 1. for, because: He is happy, for he enjoys his work.
Correlative conjunctionse.g.Either you should study harder, or you should takea different course.
The most commonly used correlative conjunctions are both ... and, either ... or and neither ... nor. In the table below, each pair of correlative conjunctions is accompanied by an example of its use. He is both intelligent and1. both ... and good-natured. I will either go for a2. either ... or walk or read a book. He3. neither ... nor is neither rich nor famous.
Fill in the blanks with the correct coordinate conjunctionschosen from the pairs given in brackets. 1. I opened the door _________ looked out. (and, yet) 2. She was not in the back yard, _________ was she upstairs. (or, nor) 3. The sun had set, _________ it was still light outside. (or, yet) 4. Do you know his address _________ telephone number? (but, or)
5. He has not arrived yet, _________ have they. (and, nor) 6. I read the book, _________ did not understand it. (but, or) 7. We searched diligently, ________ found nothing. (or, yet) 8. I invited him _________ his friends. (and, but)