Webinar presentation on AUTOSAR Multicore Systems

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Webinar presentation on AUTOSAR Multicore Systems

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Webinar presentation on AUTOSAR Multicore Systems

  1. 1. Webinar AUTOSAR Multicore Systems
  2. 2. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Your Speaker for the day! 3/21/20142  Manager Business Development  Based out of Stuttgart, Germany  Responsible for KPIT Activities in Stuttgart Region  Extensive experience in OSEK and AUTOSAR Helmar Kuder All images, Trademarks and otherwise copyright material belong to its respective owners  AUTOSAR Expert at KPIT  Based out of Germany  Responsible for AUTOSAR Products at KPIT  Extensive experience in AUTOSAR Methodology Sugandar Swetharanyam
  3. 3. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Agenda • Motivation • AUTOSAR Multicore • Outlook • Questions & Answers • Summary 3/21/20143 All images, Trademarks and otherwise copyright material belong to its respective owners
  4. 4. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Motivation: Next Generation Technologies Complex functionality implemented in Software  need for higher computational abilities Main use cases for multicore ECUs can be • Dealing with resource demanding applications • Decreasing complexity of architecture • Improving the safety 3/21/20144 Adaptive Cruise Control Forward Collision Alert Blind Spot DetectionLane Keeping Assist Infotainment Systems All images, Trademarks and otherwise copyright material belong to its respective owners
  5. 5. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Motivation: Next Generation Technologies Dealing with resource demanding applications: Need more computing power Increase CPU frequency? • higher frequency  higher power consumption  more heat  need for enhanced cooling • higher frequency  chip design becomes more complicated – cache design – execution queue (out of order execution) – branch prediction 3/21/20145
  6. 6. © KPIT Technologies Limited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 Amdahl's law 60% 70% 80% 90% 95% AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Motivation: Parallelization constraints How efficient is parallelization of software / multicore? Amdahl's law may be used “to find the maximum expected improvement to an overall system when only part of the system is improved.” [1] Speedup = Speed of the Multicore System compared to a Single Core System. Key factor: Parallel portion of the code that may be executed concurrently. Example: If 90% of the code may be executed in parallel, even 25 cores would only result in a speedup of less than 8 times of a single core. [1] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amdahl's_law 3/21/20146 Speedup Number of cores Parallel portion All images, Trademarks and otherwise copyright material belong to its respective owners 7.35 25
  7. 7. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Motivation: Operational Modes • The cores act as redundant cores • Used in safety critical applications Lock Step Mode • All cores share the load and run parallel • Data flow of software needs to be analyzed for best multicore architecture • Improve multicore efficiency by partitioning the software across cores with minimal interaction • Parallel processing mode can also be used in safety critical application with carefully designed software architecture Parallel Processing Mode 3/21/20147 All images, Trademarks and otherwise copyright material belong to its respective owners Usually the Multicore is utilized in two modes, either Lock Step Mode, or Parallel Processing Mode
  8. 8. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Motivation: Software Challenges with Multicore migration Just changing the CPU from single core to multicore does not solve the problem  it poses multiple software challenges 3/21/20148 AUTOSAR offers an efficient multicore software architecture to cater to these challenges! Multicore Concurrent Data Access Deadlocks Scheduling Challenges Memory Management Functionality Partitioning Parallelization Startup / Shutdown sequence All images, Trademarks and otherwise copyright material belong to its respective owners
  9. 9. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems AUTOSAR Multicore: Master-Slave Concept 3/21/20149 Extended RTE BswM EcuM OS START UP ORDER SHUT DOWN ORDER Master Core Slave Core 0 Slave Core n EcuM OS EcuM OSMCAL BSW & ECU Abstr. Layer • Master Core contains complete BSW • Master Core controls Start Up / Shut Down sequence
  10. 10. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems AUTOSAR Multicore: Master Satellite Concept  Master Satellite Concept in Basic Software (BSW)  Modules that need to be accessed in different BSW partitions can be implemented using the master/satellite pattern.  The partitioning is implementation specific & the communication between master and satellite is not standardized.  E.g. BSW can be partitioned in such a way that a FlexRay cluster is on one core and a CAN cluster on a different core.  COM is also split across cores. The two COM modules need to be synchronized in this case. One of the COM modules might act as the master COM and it coordinates with the satellite COM on the other core. 3/21/201410 Clusters of functions on each core Effective mechanism to implement functional safety by hard partitioning
  11. 11. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems AUTOSAR Multicore: Master Satellite Concept With Master Satellite concept the BSW can be partitioned across cores based on functionality. 3/21/201411 RTE (Master) MCAL Microcontroller CDD ABSTRACTION LAYER I/O HW Abstraction Communication Services (Master) CDD Memory Services Application Layer Core0 Core1 System Service I/O HW Abstracti on I/O Drivers Communication Services (Satellite) OS ECU State Manager BSW Mode Manager SWC1 SWC3SWC2 SWC4 SWC5 RTE (Satellite)
  12. 12. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems AUTOSAR Multicore: Provision for safety & Data exchange  AUTOSAR architecture provides a mechanism where the allocation of BSW modules to different BSW partitions allows for both enhanced functional safety and increased performance.  It allows integration of independent applications, possibly with different ASILs, on the same partitioned microcontroller.  To cater to challenges of cross-core data access & data transfer, AUTOSAR Operating System is enhanced to support  Spinlocks  Inter-OS-Application Communicator (IOC) 3/21/201412
  13. 13. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems AUTOSAR Multicore: Spinlock  A new mechanism is needed to support mutual exclusion for TASKS on different cores.  Spinlock locks a variable across core, so that no two cores may access the same variable at the same time  Similar to resource concept – but at core level  A spinlock is a busy waiting mechanism that polls a (lock) variable until it becomes available. 3/21/201413 To avoid deadlocks, if spinlocks are to be nested, a unique order has to be defined in which they can only be taken. Deadlock Possibility GetSpinLock(A) Do Something GetSpinLock(B) SpinLock for B GetSpinLock(B) Do Something GetSpinLock(A) SpinLock for A Core0Core1
  14. 14. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems AUTOSAR Multicore: Inter-OS-Application Communicator (IOC)  The IOC provides communication services which can be accessed by clients which need to communicate across cores & memory protection boundaries on the same ECU  Features  Provides Sender – Receiver communication  Supports queued (first-in-first-out) & unqueued (last-is-best) communication  Notification of receiver  Allows the transfer of one data item per atomic communication operation  Conversion of endianness between cores is not supported 3/21/201414
  15. 15. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems AUTOSAR Multicore: Functional Safety Aspects  Memory Protection (Multicore) – Core specific Memory Protection Unit (MPU) and Memory protection is available in microcontroller – Bus specific MPU and Memory protection is available in microcontroller  IOC data communication for safety (IOC multicore) – IOC will use a shared memory between the core to communicate data – IOC will use supervisor mode to copy in shared memory of core using spinlock – OS-IOC combination will be safety relevant in multicore system 3/21/201415
  16. 16. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Outlook 3/21/201416 Hardware How will the tools & software evolve? Migration from Single Core to Multicore Data Flow analysis for Multicore Data buffer optimization Scheduling analysis Automotive Industry is expected to be one of the major industries to be impacted by the adoption of multicore CPU All images, Trademarks and otherwise copyright material belong to its respective owners Source: IDC, 2012
  17. 17. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Company Info KPIT: YUCCA Tool helps in multicore migration 3/21/201417 All images, Trademarks and otherwise copyright material belong to its respective owners Source Code Automatic Parallelization Tool (YUCCA) Parallelized Source Code Task & loop parallelization Completely automated dependency analysis No manual intervention Source to source conversion Optimum use of multicore hardware Static analysis with profiling
  18. 18. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Company Info KPIT: AUTOSAR Credentials 3/21/201418 9 Years of delivering AUTOSAR Solutions 20+ Active Engagements with leading OEMs 5 OEMs have approved R4.0.3 KPIT AUTOSAR BSW Stack Premium member of AUTOSAR since 2005 KPIT’s Basic Software available for AUTOSAR R2.x, R3.x, R4.x All images, Trademarks and otherwise copyright material belong to its respective owners
  19. 19. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Company Info KPIT: AUTOSAR Operating System – Microcontroller Journey snapshot 3/21/201419 Scalable and proven KPIT AUTOSAR Operating System! LM3S8962 MPC566xG MPC560xS MPC560xB MB96F380 MPC564xL V850E2Sx4 V850E2Px4 TX03* V850ESFx3 TC275TE* V850E2Fx4 MPS57xxP MPC5646C RL78 RH850 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 *Multicore AUTOSAR Operating System All images, Trademarks and otherwise copyright material belong to its respective owners MPS57xxR*
  20. 20. © KPIT Technologies Limited AUTOSAR Multicore Systems Summary • Multicore microcontrollers are gaining more popularity in the automotive ecosystems to meet its computation requirements • Parallelization is the need of the hour • Parallelization poses multiple challenges to the ECU software architecture • AUTOSAR software multicore architecture caters to these multiple issues in software migration to multicore CPUs 3/21/201420 KPIT offers a proven AUTOSAR multicore solution with comprehensive services! Reach out to us – autosar@kpit.com
  21. 21. © KPIT Technologies Limited3/21/201421 Thank You www.kpit.com

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