Chocolate a functional food

  • 1,730 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,730
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
17
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Title Slide
    Chocolate is revered as an icon of love and devotion today, and eating chocolate remains a part of many enduring holiday traditions – Valentine’s Day!
    Chocolate still plays a part in festive celebrations that are associated with many religious holidays. Most of us expect to eat chocolate in some form near events like Hanukkah, Christmas, and Easter.In Mexico in particular, chocolate is used to make offerings during the Day of the Dead festival, a time for remembering loved ones who have died.
    In this program, brands are used as examples but we are not promoting any specific product.
  • Many people have written about chocolate. Here is one poem about chocolate. You may want to use sayings provided in the Participants Guide.
  • The goal of this program is to learn about functional foods using chocolate as an example of a functional food.
    The program objectives are:
    Know what a functional food is
    Know what a health claim is for functional foods
    Know the health benefits of chocolate
  • Spanish conquerors found MesoAmericans (Mayans and Aztecs) using chocolate as a bitter beverage.
    For centuries, legends from many MesoAmerican cultures have claimed that consuming chocolate instilled strength, health, faith, and passion in those who drank it. These legends attributed magical properties to chocolate and endowed it with powerful symbolic value.
    The MesoAmerican cultures (tribes) used Cocao beans as a currency.
    When Chocolate was taken to Europe, new legends began!
  • cacao (kah KOW)
    Cacao is the plant and all its products, before processing. Cacao refers to the unprocessed seed of the cacao tree, although some use the term "cocoa" to refer to the plant and its seeds.Chocolate is the product of the seeds of the cacao plant after processing, whether liquid or solid.
  • Although cocoa originated in MesoAmerica, today Cocoa is grown in Africa!
  • Self explanatory
  • Chocolate liquor refers to the nibs ground to a smooth, thick liquid or paste.
    Despite the name, it contains no alcohol–just the fat (cocoa butter) and solids
    (cocoa) of the cacao seed, in roughly equal proportions.
    Cocoa butter is the fat contained in the cacao seed.
    Cocoa is the powdery solid that is left after most of the cocoa butter is
    removed from chocolate liquor.
  • This is the same as the previous 2 slides – arranged differently
    Chocolate liquor refers to the nibs ground to a smooth, thick liquid or paste.
    Despite the name, it contains no alcohol–just the fat (cocoa butter) and solids
    (cocoa) of the cacao seed, in roughly equal proportions.
    Cocoa butter is the fat contained in the cacao seed.
    Cocoa is the powdery solid that is left after most of the cocoa butter is
    removed from chocolate liquor.
  • Unsweetened Chocolate, Bitter Chocolate, Baking Chocolate is a solid chocolate made from pure chocolate liquor, no sugar added.
    Sweet dark chocolate contains 15% to 35% chocolate liquor and less than 12%
    milk solids. It may also contain ingredients like condensed milk, cocoa butter,
    sugar, and vanilla.
    Bittersweet and semisweet chocolate are the darkest chocolates and have at
    least 35% chocolate liquor. It is made with chocolate liquor plus sugar, cocoa butter, and vanilla.
    Sweet dark chocolate contains 15% to 35% chocolate liquor and less than 12%
    milk solids. It may also contain ingredients like condensed milk, cocoa butter,
    sugar, and vanilla.
    Milk chocolate is a mixture of chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, milk, sugar, and
    flavorings. All milk chocolate made in the U.S. contains at least 10% chocolate
    liquor and 12% whole milk.
    “Dutched”or “Dutch” chocolate is made from chocolate liquor or cocoa powder
    that has been treated with alkaline salts to give it a darker color and a milder flavor.
    The process–which came to be known as “Dutching”–was invented in Holland by
    the chemist Coenraad Van Houten.
    White chocolate is a blend of cocoa butter, milk, sugar, and flavorings. It contains
    no cocoa solids, and many people don’t consider it chocolate at all!
  • Often you will see packages labeled with "% cacao."
    What that refers to is the percentage of cacao bean solids present in the bar.
    There is an inverse relationship between the percentage of cacao in a bar and the
    amount of sugar. So:       • A 75% cacao bar has 25% sugar.      • A 65% cacao bar has 35% sugar.       • The higher the % cacao, the less sweet the bar and the stronger the chocolate taste.
  • Who consumes most of the chocolate? (note - 1 Kilo = 2.2 pounds)
  • Slide is self-explanatory – Note that more than ½ of the cocoa bean is fat.
  • Look at the amount of Steric Acid (an unsaturated fatty acid) – later we will visit about the health benefit of this acid (also found in beef).
  • Let’s check the label for the nutritional content and serving size.
    Note: if you have labels available, share labels with members (or photocopy labels prior to the presentation).
    Check the Nutrition Facts panel. Ask participants the following questions:
    Questions:
    What is one serving?
    How many servings are in the package? (The leader may want to portion out
    a serving of several of the chocolate samples).
    How many Calories are in a serving? What is the fat content?
    How can this product be included into a healthy diet?
    Look at the ingredient list. What is the first ingredient listed?
    What type of information on the label describes the attributes of the chocolate product? Check the participant’s guide to determine if any information fits with any of the FDA-approved Health Claims.
  • Let’s check the label for the nutritional content and serving size.
    Note: if you have labels available, share labels with members (or photocopy labels prior to the presentation).
    Check the Nutrition Facts panel. Ask participants the following questions:
    Questions:
    What is one serving?
    How many servings are in the package? (The leader may want to portion out
    a serving of several of the chocolate samples).
    How many Calories are in a serving? What is the fat content?
    How can this product be included into a healthy diet?
    Look at the ingredient list. What is the first ingredient listed?
    What type of information on the label describes the attributes of the chocolate product? Check the participant’s guide to determine if any information fits with any of the FDA-approved Health Claims.
  • Since the discovery of chocolate by the Mayans and Aztec, numerous health benefits were attributed to chocolate.
    In addition to this list, chocolate has a reputation as an aphrodisiac. The Spanish observed that Montezuma consumed so much to better serve his harem and chocolate was often included in recipes to cure impotence.
    Casanova, the famous lover, considered chocolate his favorite breakfast dish. In his memoirs he revealed that he used chocolate as a bribe as a bribe for the chaperones of the women he loved.
  • Before we discuss current health benefits associated with Chocolate, we will need to define several terms
  • Definitions on slide and in participants guide.
    Examples of functional foods are soy, garlic, oats, flax seed and chocolate
    Examples of nutraceuticals (also called phytochemicals) are carotenoids and lycopene; the compounds responsible for the red and orange color in fruits and vegetables.
    These compounds are isolated or extracted from foods and may be added to foods where they are not usually associated with or sold in a dosage form.
    Nutraceuticals or phytochemicals demonstrate specific health or medical benefits beyond basic nutritional functions.
    Medical foods are food products formulated for the management of a condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements have been established. They are intended for use only under a physician’ monitoring and only by patients receiving regular medical attention.
  • Here is a list of different components in chocolate that have been studied for specific health effects.
  • Two products that are made as dietary supplements are CocoaVia™ and Cirku™ (Mars Co) which contain extracts of cocao flavanols at higher amounts found in a serving of chocolate.
    Check websites : www.cirku.com and www.cocoavia.com for more information.
  • Flavonoid/Flavanol compounds are classified as antioxidants, which are compounds that can scavenge or neutralize free radicals. (Free radicals have lost electrons making them very reactive and cause cell damage.)
    Antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables in addition to chocolate, tea and wine, have been studied for their free radical scavenging ability associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer.
    Dark chocolate products in general contains higher amounts of these compounds than milk chocolate products. “Dutching” reduces the antioxidants in chocolate.
  • Chocolate (not just the isolated flavonoid compound) has been used in a number of clinical studies involving small numbers of human and these are the reported health effects attributed to chocolate consumption. Large clinical trials have not been conducted.
  • In clinical studies (humans) using cocoa butter, a neutral effect on blood cholesterol was reported. In a specific study (Kris-Etherton, Penn State), a 1.6 ounce milk chocolate bar daily did not adversely affect LDL-cholesterol levels. A typical candy bar is 1.4 ounces. These effects are attributed to the stearic acid component in chocolate.
    Therefore, including a moderate amount of chocolate (stearic acid) into the diet does not have adverse effects on lipid and lipoprotein profile for a person. Later we will share amounts that have health benefits that can fit into your diet.
    Remember that consumer high amounts of chocolate provide excess fat and calories to the diet.
  • Magnesium is more controversial. Does low dietary magnesium stimulate a craving for foods that contain the mineral (including chocolate)???
    Researchers argue that low dietary magnesium is one of the risk factors for hypertension, stroke and cardiac arrythmias. Many women in the US do not meet the requirement for magnesium. A typical serving of milk chocolate can provide 8% of the daily RDA for magnesium whereas a serving of dark chocolate can provide 15%.
    Milk chocolate also contributes to the calcium intake of a person consuming that product.
  • Chocoloholic refers to an addiction to chocolate versus a craving for chocolate.
    Chocolate addicts exhibit a heightened sense of well-being during consumption and eat chocolate in secret, or abuse/binge on it as someone does with drugs or alcohol. Their need for chocolate interferes with their lives and influences their mood state.
    Caffiene and theobromine (a compound also found in tea) in chocolate have been studied in regard to chocolate additions and cravings but no conclusive results have been found.
    Epidemiological studies show that women consume more chocolate than men. And that women tend to increase consumption during specific times during their menstrual cycle.
  • An allergy to chocolate is common.
    Fact:
    Chocolate is not a typical food allergen. Of the approximately one to two percent of American adults and five to eight percent of children that have a true food allergy, 90 percent are allergic to either milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish or shellfish. Depending on the type of chocolate, one or more of these ingredients could be present in a chocolate product. Read labels carefully.
    Does chocolate cause cavities?Not necessarily. According to a recent study by Osaka University in Japan, cacao contains antibacterial agents that actually fight tooth decay.However, most mass-produced chocolate contains sugar, which is known to cause tooth decay and probably counteracts the benefits of these agents.
    Does chocolate cause acne?Not according to studies performed by the Pennsylvania School of Medicine and the U.S. Naval Academy. Eating or not eating chocolate made no difference in the skin condition of the study participants. In fact, most doctors believe that acne is not linked primarily to diet.
    Will the caffeine in chocolate make me jittery?Probably not. Cacao does contain a number of stimulants, such as caffeine and theobromine, but in small amounts that are diluted even further when processed into chocolate. In fact, one ounce of milk chocolate contains about the same amount of caffeine as one cup of decaffeinated coffee.Interestingly, one study has shown that the smell of chocolate may actually relax you by increasing theta waves in the brain.
    Can chocolate cause headaches?There is little evidence of this, according to research conducted by the University of Pittsburgh. However, some studies suggest that chocolate may trigger headaches specifically in migraine sufferers.Is chocolate an aphrodisiac?Not really. Chocolate contains small amounts of a chemical called phenylethylamine (PEA), which is a mild mood elevator. It is the same chemical that our brain produces when we feel happy or “in love.” The mild “rush” we get from this substance may be why some people say they’re “addicted” to chocolate.Source: www.fieldmuseum.org/chocolate/eat_healthfactsa.html
  • To obtain the health benefits of chocolate without the high fat/high sugar (increased calories), these are suggestions for chocolate intake. Note the next slide is similar but has pictures of products.
  • How can chocolate be included in a healthy diet…. Here are two examples of serving sizes of how you can obtain the health benefits from chocolate.
  • An FDA-approved health claim is granted when the scientific evidence is very strong that a relationship exists between a food compound and a disease or health condition. Here is one example of an FDA-approved health claim.
  • This is an example of how the claim may appear on a product.
  • Here is an example of a health claim on a package. (Not associated with a chocolate product.)
    2 slides the same – use the one that works the best.
  • Here is an example of a health claim on a package. (Not associated with a chocolate product.)
    2 slides the same – use the one that works the best.
  • Chocolate is a plant-based food and can provide beneficial health components to the diet.
    Chocolate in moderation is recommended along with a wide variety of foods including fruits and vegetables.
    Chocolate products can be high in fat and sugar (calories). Suggested chocolate amounts were shown that provide the health benefit without adding excess calories to the diet.
  • This information can be used or omitted.
    Information taken from Functional Foods, EC473

Transcript

  • 1. Chocolate A Functional Food? Julie Albrecht, Ph.D. Professor and Extension Food Specialist Marilynn Schnepf, Ph.D., Professor Carol Schwarz, Extension Educator
  • 2. ‘Twill make old women young and fresh, Create new motions of the flesh. And cause them long for you know what, If they but taste of chocolate. - James Wadworth (1768-1844; A History of the Nature and Quality of Chocolate)
  • 3. Chocolate A Functional Food? Program Goal: Participants will increase their knowledge about functional foods using chocolate as an example. Program Objectives: - Know what a functional food is - Know what a health claim is for functional foods - Know the health benefits of chocolate
  • 4. “The divine drink which builds up resistance and fights fatigue. A cup of this precious drink permits man to walk for a whole day without food.” - Hernando Cortés, 1519
  • 5. Chocolate • Comes from seed (bean) cacao trees • Scientific name is Theobroma cacao (Which means – “Drink of the Gods”)
  • 6. Producers of Cocoa • Grown 15 degrees north or south of the equator • 70% grown in West Africa with Ivory Coast and Ghana largest producers • Brazil and Ecuador also large producers • Takes 5 years for trees to produce • Most produced by small farmers
  • 7. Producers of Cocoa • Pods Harvested • Beans removed from shell, fermented and dried in the sun • Cleaned • Roasted • Ground
  • 8. Processing of Chocolate Nibs ground to cocoa paste Paste Pressed Grinding Cocoa butter Grinding Cocoa powder Conching and Tempering Tempering Mixed and ingredients added (Milk Sugar Flavors Nuts, etc) Molded, Made into products Conching
  • 9. Processing of Chocolate
  • 10. Types of Chocolate • Unsweetened Chocolate, Bitter Chocolate, Baking Chocolate • Dark chocolate • Bittersweet, Semisweet Chocolate • Milk Chocolate • “Dutch” Chocolate • White “Chocolate”
  • 11. Consumption of Chocolate Chocolate Consumption Kilos per person 2005 Belgium 10.74 Austria 8.33 Switzerland 10.14 Denmark 7.13 UK 9.94 Sweden 6.97 Norway 9.19 Finland 6.43 Germany 8.96 USA 5.58 Source: Adapted from CAOBISCO
  • 12. Source: www.herseys.com
  • 13. Lipid Composition of Cocoa Butter 3% Stearic Linoleic 35% 36% Oleic 26% Palmitic Source: Chocolate Manufacturers Association, www.chocolateusa.org
  • 14. Chocolate Labels
  • 15. Chocolate Labels
  • 16. Health Benefits th before 20 Century • • • • • Comforted the liver Aided in digestion Made on happy and strong Stimulated the kidney Treatment of anemia, tuberculosis, fever, gout, heart pain • Strengthening the heart
  • 17. Current Health Benefits
  • 18. Functional Food- a food that contains physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition Nutraceutical- physiologically active components in food that have health-promoting, diseasepreventive, or medical properties
  • 19. Physiologically Active Components in Chocolate • Flavonoids (Flavanols) • Stearic Acid (fatty acid) • Methylxanthines • Caffeine • Theobromine • Magnesium
  • 20. Examples of Nutraceutical
  • 21. Flavonoids/Flavanols Flavonoid compounds - act as antioxidants: •Reduce free radicals produced by oxidation •Lower LDL cholesterol •Reduce blood pressure •Reduce platelet aggregation
  • 22. Chocolate Chocolate and cocoa flavanols appear to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) via several mechanisms, including: ● Reducing serum total and LDL cholesterol ● Lowering blood pressure ● Reducing platelet adhesion/aggregation ● Increasing antioxidant defenses ● Decreasing inflammation
  • 23. Stearic Acid (fatty acid) • Neutral effect on blood cholesterol • Did not adversely affect LDL- cholesterol levels
  • 24. Magnesium • Low Dietary Magnesium – Craving ? • Low Dietary Magnesium – risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiac arrythmias – Controversial
  • 25. Caffiene/Theobromine • Chocolate Addiction/Craving????
  • 26. Chocolate Myths • • • • • Allergies Cavities Cravings/mood Migraines Acne
  • 27. Dose for Health Benefits • Cardiovascular disease – Cocoa, 5 g = 1 Tbsp to 50 g = ~10 Tbsp – Dark chocolate = ~7 g to 40 g • Weight modification – Dark chocolate = 90 to 100 kcal/d
  • 28. Food-Based Health Benefits • Dark chocolate – 2 tasting squares (20 g) – 90 kcal (45 kcal/square) • Cocoa – 5 g = 1 Tbsp = 10 kcal – 50 g = 10 Tbsp = 100 kcal Source:http://www.hersheys.com/home.asp
  • 29. Functional Foods Health Claim Example of one FDA-approved health claim: A diet rich in fruits and vegetables and reduced risk of some cancers
  • 30. Many epidemiologic studies have shown that diets high in vegetables, fruit, whole grains, nuts, seeds and certain vegetable fats and low in calories, meat and animal fat reduce the risk of some common cancers.
  • 31. Recommendations • Variety of plant-based foods in the diet can provide a wealth of potentially beneficial phytochemicals (components) • Wide variety of flavonoid-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, and beverages should be an integral part of a healthy diet. • Energy density – consideration on how much chocolate to include in diet
  • 32. Questions?
  • 33. EXTRA Slides On Free Radical activity and antioxidants
  • 34. Basis of Free Radical Activity Many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, aging, are the result of free radical damage and oxidation Many nutraceuticals are classified as antioxidants, which are compounds that can scavenge or neutralize free radicals (Free radicals have lost electrons making them very reactive)
  • 35. Free Radicals If the amount of free radicals exceed the amount of antioxidants, the free radical will react with and damage other molecules If the “other molecules” are DNA, mutations can occur- if unchecked can lead to cancer
  • 36. Basis of Antioxidant Activity Antioxidants act to control damage caused by free radicals. A primary mechanism used by antioxidants is hydrogen donation R. + AH → RH + A.
  • 37. Structure & Activity What structural components have been found to be important for activity? First need hydrogen that can be donated without damaging the parent molecule
  • 38. Structure & Activity A second factor that increases activity is the side chain. A side chain with a double bond has greater activity because the double bond contributes to the stability of the compound
  • 39. Flavonoids Have antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and enzyme altering capabilities Includes flavonols, flavanols, anthocyanins, catechins, and isoflavones Known as polyphenolic compounds
  • 40. Flavonoids • Reduce platelet aggregation • Suppress pro-inflammatory mediators, enhance anti-inflammatory mediator (nitric oxide) • Antioxidant effect – protective effect against LDL oxidation, immune function • Cancer – limited studies
  • 41. Catechins (Specific Flavanoids) Strong antioxidants associated with a decreased risk of heart disease and cancer (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate has very high free radical scavenging activity and is capable of interrupting signals needed for survival of cancer cells
  • 42. Food Sources of Catechins Green tea, black tea, berries, and cocoa
  • 43. Antioxidant Effects • ORAC value – Oxygen radical absorbance capacity • ORAC is a measure of the antioxidant power of a food • Flavonoid-rich foods are not equal
  • 44. ORAC Value for Select Foods Dark Chocolate Blueberries Cocoa (natural) Raspberries Pecans Cranberries Cherries Walnuts Milk chocolate Grapes Almonds ORAC units/serving 9080 8708 8260 6895 5382 5201 4705 4062 3200 1764 1336 http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/index.html