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  1. 1. Title master Reference, date, place
  2. 2. HSE, Business Strategy Tool for Developing Markets: A Focus on the West-Africa Sub-Region Presented by: Alabi Olubunmi at the WASHEQ 2013 Conference
  3. 3. Background West Africa Economic Outlook  Has some of the fastest growing economies in the world  Estimated growth rate of 6.7% in 2013 and 7.4% by 2014  It provides a myriad of opportunities for Foreign Direct Investments (FDI’s)  Economic barriers include Infrastructure, insecurity and salient issues like HSE, affecting its competitiveness
  4. 4. Background Contd.... Current Sub-Regional HSE Trend  Lack of regulator framework and legislations  Lack statistics which could form the bedrock for implementing regulatory controls, identify high risk sectors and setting objectives and targets  In Sub-Sahara-Africa, which includes the sub-region, about 54,000 fatalities occur annually with 42 million accidents.
  5. 5. Background Contd....  Gas flaring and GHG emission are still on the high  Pollution and spills are not accurately prosecuted and accounted for  There are no proper plans for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation
  6. 6. Economic Importance of the Sub-Region Natural Resource includes;  Land for subsistence farming and cash crop production including cocoa, rubber and timber  Major player in the Oil and Gas global market with new reserves increasingly discovered  Large deposits of solid minerals like Diamonds in Sierra-Leone, Gold in Mali, Ghana and Guinea
  7. 7. Economic Importance of the Sub-Region contd.... Human Capital Resources  It has a population of over 245 million people  Some of the brightest minds in the continent are from the region  Yet about 40% of the adult workforce is illiterate  And over 80% are exposed to the risk of accident at work
  8. 8. Challenges to HSE in the SubRegion Proper Regulatory Framework and Compliance  There are no regulatory or compliance mechanism  No regulatory body to supervise and monitor businesses within member states  Lack of records keeping and inability to benchmark data with other regions  Little or no penalty for non-compliance
  9. 9. Challenges to HSE in the Sub-Region contd....  Education, Training and Awareness  Huge population with high illiteracy rate  Little knowledge of HSE hazards  Cultural belief that accidents are part of normal work life  Short term focus of meeting daily needs which take precedence over safe work environment
  10. 10. Challenges to HSE in the Sub-Region contd.... Leadership and Corporate Commitment  There is little or no meeting point between business and HSE  Businesses align themselves with productivity and profit as HSE is perceived as luxury  HSE is not viewed as strategic enabler to business sustainability
  11. 11. Challenges to HSE in the SubRegion contd.... Life Cycle Approach to HSE in Business Plans and Processes  Lack of incorporation of HSE into business plans, processes and programmes  HSE should be in all phases of business from conception of an Idea through the design phase to commissioning and decommissioning
  12. 12. Qualitative Analysis of HSE in the SubRegion  There are no statistical numbers to back quantitative analysis  Best and Brightest hands are more willing to work for HSE compliant companies  Recent surveys reveals some of the best companies to work for are Multi-Nationals and indigenous firms that adopt global best practices  Global Best Practices in this regards, refer to Sustainability
  13. 13. Counting the Cost Loss of Investment Opportunities  Inability to attract investment from Fortune 500 companies  Also agencies like IFC are less willing to borrow businesses in regions with little or no HSE framework or compliance  In Nigeria for instance with the Central Bank’s initiation of the Sustainable Banking Principle, businesses access to funds would become more stringent.
  14. 14. Counting the Cost contd..... Drop in GDP  A decline in investment would surely lower the subregion’s GDP  Refusal of other markets to take products from the sub-region  Consequent lowered productivity is experienced
  15. 15. Counting the Cost contd..... Inability to Break into New Markets  Loss of new markets as a result of the inability to meet GMP requirements  HSE is a prerequisite in most countries to gain access into their markets
  16. 16. Counting the Cost contd.... Flight of Bright /Talented Minds  Indigenous bright/talented minds are seen to move to regions where HSE is at the cornerstone of business  This would affect human capital mobilization and retention
  17. 17. Looking Forward Regional and State Government’s Commitment  Regulatory framework should be design and implemented  Set-up regulatory bodies  Ensure compliance  Lead by example
  18. 18. Looking Forward contd.... Businesses Adopting Global Best Practices  Adopting HSE practices into the life cycle of its plan, programmes and processes  Use of efficient and cost effective HSE methodologies  Business Case to investors should highlight its HSE objectives and targets
  19. 19. Looking Forward contd.... NGO’s and HSE Consultant Participation  Organisation of Conferences  HSE awareness amongst the public especially through campaigns, media outreach like radio talks  Collaboration of Governments, Businesses, Associations and Consultants to develop sectoral guidance
  20. 20. Benefit of HSE to the Sub-Region Sustain Business Development and Regional Sustained Economic Growth  It would increase sub-regional productivity  Make businesses more sustainable  Help harness sub-regions potential especially in less attractive sectors  Would increase sub-region’s GDP
  21. 21. Benefits of HSE to the Sub-Region Contd.... Retention and Attraction of Best Talents  Would help keep indigenous talents  Foreign Expatriate and West-Africans in Diaspora would be willing to come back to help grow the subregion
  22. 22. Benefits of HSE to the Sub-Region Contd.... Breaking into New Markets  Businesses in the sub-region would easily break into new markets  The would be a soar in foreign exchange in the region  Foreign businesses would be willing to relocate to the region
  23. 23. Benefits of HSE to the Sub-Region Contd.... Enhancement of its Reputation  It would rank the sub-region highly amongst international bodies like ILO  Win the confidence of varied stakeholder  It would place the region amongst the strongest economic regions in the league of nations
  24. 24. Benefits of HSE to the Sub-Region Contd....  Other plus include a stronger, healthier, motivated and well enlightened workforce  Also litigation and business closure would be greatly reduced
  25. 25. Conclusion  Looking forward HSE has to be addressed like other business aspects and should be emplaced in the very heart of business plans and processes.  Proactive measures would help safety grow in the subregion adding value and setting precedents would bring bout the recognition that safety requires in the sub-region
  26. 26. Thank you!!!!
  27. 27. Any Questions?
  29. 29. Presentation Overview Introduction on pathway of fires and explosions Overview of API RP 752 and API RP-753 Application of API 572/API 753 Building assessment and evaluation Process incidents involving Buildings in process plants • Consequence modeling tools and their application • Management Responsibilities • Conclusion • • • • •
  30. 30. In the Line of Fire! (Pathways of fires and explosions) What does it mean? Simply means, In the path of an an attack. This expression, dating from the mid-1800s, originally referred to the path of a bullet or other projectile, a meaning that is also still current.
  31. 31. Line of fire or pathways of fires and explosion! What it means, in process plant Operation • A key factor of consideration are facility siting and layout. • Avoiding or minimizing Domino effect by application of equipment spacing standards and process & non process building evaluation.
  32. 32. In the pathway of fires and explosion The fire and explosion that destroyed the West Fertilizer chemical plant in Texas on 17 April, 2013; killing at least 14 people and injuring more than 200. The Blast destroyed the plant and surrounding buildings, including a school and a care home
  33. 33. West Fertilizer chemical plant explosion
  34. 34. Pathways of Fires and Explosions…and its consequences
  35. 35. Avoiding being in the line or pathway of fires and explosions The line or pathway separating SAFETY from Danger is sometimes quite small. To avoid crossing the line/pathway of fires and explosion, we must, 1. Always be aware of the hazards around us. 2. Understand the process equipment operation philosophy and associated inherent hazards and nature of consequences of ‘’ top event’’. e.g effects of deflagration & detonation in a process plant operation. 1. Take the time to think of the possible consequences from where we place our bodies or action we perform, where we site our permanent and portable process and non process buildings. When we do this, we can avoid suddenly finding ourselves in the Line of Fire or ‘’ In the pathways of fires and explosions’’
  36. 36. Overview of API 752/API 753 API 752/API 753 AND FACILITY SITING AND LAYOUT: Facility siting is an analysis, during the PHA, of the spatial relationship between where the hazards are located and where the people congregate. Merely stating in the PHA that industry spacing standards have been met is not sufficient. Industry spacing standards (API, NFPA, etc.) are equipment-to-equipment standards, not equipment-to- people standards. Facility siting has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years and is an important aspect of process safety for plant personnel and their contractors. In December 2009, API issued the Third Edition of the Recommended Practice 752/753, “Management of Hazards Associated with Location of Process Plant Permanent and portable Buildings,” which incorporated much of what has been learned from catastrophic incidents e.g BP Texas refinery disaster, Piper Alpha, Conoco Humber refinery etc,
  38. 38. Why API 752/753 • Most process and non process plants buildings are sited too close to process plant/units without due consideration to effects of fires, explosions and toxic releases resulting from accident. • Portable and permanent buildings are sited, unknowingly in the pathway of fires and explosion(unsafe zone);hence, exposing occupants to high risk of blast, radiation and toxic effects. • Lots of fatality recorded as due to nearness of process and non process plant buildings to process plants. • To reduce unnecessary exposures of building occupancy to effects of fires, explosions and toxic releases
  39. 39. Why API 752/753? Texas BP Refinery Disaster -2005 and many other process incidents.
  40. 40. A case for implementation of API 752/753- BP Texas Refinery Explosion • 15 Killed, 180 Injured • A community devastated • Resulted in financial losses exceeding $1.5B. KEY ISSUES: • Facility Siting • SAFETY CULTURE • REGULATORY OVERSIGHT • PROCESS SAFETY METRICS • HUMAN FACTORS
  41. 41. Most common comments during accident investigations I didn’t know that was important I didn’t know it would be like that No-one told me that could happen
  42. 42. Selected Accidents involving Buildings in Process Plant. Date Location Fatalities Description 1988 Norco, 7 (Hagar,1988) (6 in buildings) A corrosion-induced propane leak in a fluid catalytic cracking unit resulted in an explosion that destroyed the control room. six fatalities occurred in or near the control room; the seventh was caused by a falling brick wall. 1992 Castleford, England (HSE 1994) 5 (5 in buildings) Heat-sensitive and unstable nitrotoluene residue was overheated during the preparation for maintenance. A runaway reaction caused a jet flame that destroyed a wooden control room. 1975 Beek, The 14 Netherlands( (6 in buildings) Marshall,198 7) A propylene leak resulted in an explosion that caused severe blast and fire damage to the control room. All controls and plant records were lost.
  43. 43. API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 752 Management of Hazards Associated with Location of Process Plant Permanent Buildings
  44. 44. Guiding Principles of API 752 API RP 752 is based on the following guiding principles: • locate personnel away from process areas consistent with safe and effective operations; • minimize the use of buildings intended for occupancy in close proximity to process areas; • manage the occupancy of buildings in close proximity to process areas; • design, construct, install, modify, and maintain buildings intended for occupancy to protect occupants against explosion, fire, and toxic material releases; • manage the use of buildings intended for occupancy as an integral part of the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of a facility. Examples of buildings intended for occupancy include, but are not limited to: • conference rooms; control rooms; laboratories with assigned personnel; lunchrooms; maintenance shops with assigned personnel; offices; training rooms; warehouse buildings with assigned personnel;
  45. 45. Management of Hazards Associated with Location of Process Plant Portable Buildings API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 753 PURPOSE The purpose of this recommended practice is to provide guidance for reducing the risk to personnel located in portable buildings from potential explosion, fire and toxic release hazards.
  46. 46. Guiding principles This recommended practice is based on the following guiding principles: • Locate personnel away from covered process areas consistent with safe and effective operations • Minimize the use of occupied portable buildings in close proximity to covered process areas • Manage the occupancy of portable buildings, especially during periods of increased risk including unit start-up or planned • shut-down operations • Design, construct, install, and maintain occupied portable buildings to protect occupants against potential hazards • Manage the use of portable buildings as an integral part of the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of a facility. Portable buildings intended for occupancy Portable buildings intended for occupancy include, but are not limited to: • Offices • Training rooms • Orientation rooms • Lunch rooms • Conference rooms • Control rooms • Laboratories • Change houses • Maintenance shops
  47. 47. Assessment Approach and Scenario Selection Consequence Based Approach-CBA The methodology used for building siting evaluation that is based on consideration of the impact of explosion, fire and toxic materials release which does not consider the frequency of event. Risk-based approach-RBA A quantitative risk assessment methodology used for building siting evaluation that takes into consideration numerical values for both the consequences and frequencies of explosion, fire, or toxic material release. Spacing Tables Approach -STA The “spacing tables” approach uses established tables to determine minimum separation distances between equipment and buildings intended for occupancy. Industry groups, insurance associations, regulators, and owner/operator companies have developed experience-based spacing tables for minimum building spacing for fire.
  48. 48. Overall process for a Building Siting Evaluation Step-1 • Select Approach Step-2 • Define siting criteria Step-3 • Determine the scope of the siting evaluation by identifying buildings intended for occupancy Step-4 • Determine if buildings within the scope are potentially impacted by explosion, fire or toxic release Step-5 • Perform an assessment of consequence of explosions, fires, and toxic releases on buildings intended for occupancy Step-6 • Evaluate buildings against siting criteria. For existing buildings, prepare mitigation plans if criteria are not met. Step-7 • For new buildings, feed results into the building design process.
  49. 49. Building Siting Evaluation Criteria for the Consequence-based Approach Building siting evaluation criteria for the consequence-based approach can be expressed as building exposure criteria or consequence criteria. These criteria are specific to the materials of construction, building design, and hazard type (explosion, fire, toxic material release). Building exposure criteria are typically expressed as: • blast load, • thermal flux and exposure time, • flammable gas concentration, or • toxic concentration and exposure time. Consequence criteria are typically expressed as: • occupant vulnerability, • potential building damage, or • building internal environment degradation (i.e. inability to support human life).
  50. 50. Building Siting Evaluation Criteria for the Risk-based Approach Building siting evaluation criteria for the risk-based approach shall address the risk to the building occupants as a group (aggregate risk) and the risk to an individual. An owner/operator may choose to establish a single risk criterion that addresses both individual and aggregate risk. Building siting evaluation criteria may be expressed as numerical values of individual risk, aggregate risk or exceedance values. They can also be expressed as graphical formats which include cumulative frequency vs consequence (F/N) curves, or matrices with numerical axes.
  51. 51. Software Application in Modelling of Consequences of Fires and Explosions • • • • Onshore Building Siting Capability Explosion Simulations (FLACS) Leading CFD software for gas explosion calculations Gas dispersion modelling
  52. 52. Usefulness of Consequence modelling in process plant
  53. 53. FACILITY MAPPING - VCE Pressure Contours Simulation
  54. 54. Portable Building Location Guidance
  55. 55. Management Responsibilities under API RP-752 and API RP-753 • Meeting Expectations-Management’s Role in the process Management sets the criteria considering their corporate values and how building siting is integrated into the balance of their process safety program. e.g use of CBA,RBA,STA or combination of either of them to identify the major scenarios at a facility, and then use a Building Damage Level(BDL) as acceptance criteria. - Management should ensure that competent persons should only carryout building siting evaluation. Among the areas of competency that may be needed are:            HAZID Scenario development Frequency assessment Flammable and toxic gas dispersion modeling Fire modeling Explosion modeling Blast response of building Fire resistance of building Toxic ingress into buildings Occupant vulnerability and QRA techniques • Maintaining the process Management of Change(MOC) system should be in place and effectively implemented to identify the events that could trigger a need to re-evaluate the siting for the affected areas.
  56. 56. Conclusion Consequence of fires, explosions and toxic releases on occupants of buildings in process plants could be significantly reduced where instituted barriers fails by: • Considering adoption or implementation of facility siting and building evaluation. • Conduct QRA to gather relevant data from modeling of maximum credible postulated scenarios of various consequence of fires, explosions and toxic releases. Make use of QRA Data in engineering design • • Implementation of MOC to manage all changes relating to the removal, addition or modification of portable and permanent buildings in process plants. • Using one or combination of the various Assessment Approach and Scenario Selection e.g CBA,RBA and STA etc
  57. 57. Reference • OSHA, Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals • Guidelines for Facility Siting and Layout, Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), Wiley-American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), August 15, 2003 • Dow’s Fire & Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, Wiley-American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) • API RP- 752; Management of Hazards Associated with Location of Process Plant Permanent Buildings • API RP-753; Management of Hazards Associated with Location of Process Plant Portable Buildings • CCPS Guidelines for Evaluating Process Plant Buildings for External Explosions, Fires, and Toxic Releases.
  58. 58. Avoid being in the line of fire! A good business sense.
  59. 59. Contact: T: +234-8026944107, 08034421085, E: okudor2002@yahoo.com for further information on this presentation.
  60. 60. 2013 Friday, November 01, 2013 By Titilola Awogboro 1 Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro
  61. 61. Titilola L.N Awogboro 2 Principal Management Consultant, Sigma Qualitas Information Technology and Quality Management. Friday, November 01, 2013 Core Competencies  ISACA: Serving IT Governance Professionals (CGEIT) • Process Improvement, Service and Quality Management  Senior Member American Society for Quality (SMASQ) • Culture Change & Change Management • Governance, Management and Risk • Human Resource Management, Leadership & Group Facilitation Team • IT Portfolio Management, Strategy & Execution  Fellow British Computer Society (FBCS) and a Chartered IT Professional (CITP) Compliance  Institute of Customer Service Companion Member (CMICS)  Associate Member Business Continuity Institute England (ABCI) • Project & Programme Management, Financial Control and Budgetary Planning  ITIL Foundation Certification • Business Development and Marketing • Business Analysis and Systems Design Methodologies • Vendor & Contract Negotiation   Six Sigma Black Belt Certification (SSBB) Operational SFIA Accredited Consultant. Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  62. 62. 1. Awareness with respect to origins and history of Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma. 2. The utility and benefits Persistence “It’s not that I’m so smart, it’s just that I stay with the problems longer” 3. Introduction to Six Sigma and Lean as methodology, metric and management system … 3
  63. 63. 4 Friday, November 01, 2013 Lean and Six Sigma: A Holistic Approach to Process Improvement Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  64. 64. 5 Friday, November 01, 2013 Serious Competition! Every morning in Africa, a gazelle wakes up; it knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will not survive. Every morning in Africa, a lion wakes up; it knows it must outrun the slowest gazelle or it will starve. It doesn’t matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle: When the sun comes up, you had better be running! Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  65. 65. 6  CAUSES of Competition: advances in communications, computing, transportation technologies, and the consumer has a wide variety of choices for their purchases - Global Village, Internet etc.  To produce a service or a product companies run process  A company that understands the behavior of its processes is able manage it processes better, manage the company better and therefore is more competitive. AVOID BEING IN THE LINE OF FIRE!  This is a fundamental fact many companies have known for years, yet it has only been over the past several years that they are starting to do something significant about it.  Whether you are a gazelle or a lion, you better be running as fast as you can if you want to survive in today’s economy. Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro
  66. 66. 7  The Basis of competition is: Price, Delivery and Quality  A frequently used definition of quality is “Delighting the customer by fully meeting their needs and expectations”.  Organisations must knows what these needs and expectations are. (Delighters)  Having identified them, the organisation must understand them, and measure its own ability to meet them. Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro
  67. 67. 8 Friday, November 01, 2013 "Six Sigma: A comprehensive and flexible system for achieving, sustaining and maximizing business success. Six Sigma is uniquely driven by close understanding of customer needs, disciplined use of facts, data and statistical analysis, and diligent attention to managing, improving and reinventing business processes.“ By Panda, Neuman and Cavanagh Six Sigma requires everyone develop a new way of looking at how they approach their work. Six Sigma is a collection of many old and new tools that enable quality management. Six Sigma is a methodology, metric and management system - Motorola Symbolized by the Greek Alphabet. Six Sigma aligns with business strategy, providing the workforce with new knowledge and capabilities that enable better organization of process activities based on identified problems. This enables the organization to make better decisions. ± 6σ Six Sigma quality methodology uses the very best from existing Total Quality Management together with Statistical Process Control and Measurement, and strong Customer Focus, and therefore impacts on three key areas: the process, the employee, and the customer. Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  68. 68. 9  The definition of Six Sigma brings out a few key points:  Change will be driven by the desire for perfection, with a low      tolerance level for failure, QUALITY must never, never be compromised All change will be conducted in COLLABORATIVE manner with stakeholders Leadership, Management and Task Orientation will be PROACTIVE Change will be CUSTOMER DRIVEN and must lead to significant improvements in Business Performance Performance Measurements will be driven by FACTS, DATA AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Business Process change will be INCREMENTAL and where necessary redesigned Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro
  69. 69. 10 1885 Craft Production 1913 Mass Production - Machine then harden - Fit on assembly - Customization - Highly skilled workforce - Low production rates - High Cost - Part inter-changeability - Moving production line - Production engineering - "Workers don't like to think" - Unskilled labor - High production rates - Low cost - Persistent quality problems - Inflexible models Lean Manufacturing has been going on for a very long time, however the phrase is credited to James Womac in 1990. 1955 - 1990 Toyota Production System - Worker as problem solver - Worker as process owner enabled by: -- Training -- Upstream quality -- Minimal inventory -- Just-in-time - Eliminate waste - Responsive to change - Low cost - Improving productivity - High quality product Friday, November 01, 2013 1993 Lean Enterprise - "Lean" applied to all functions in enterprise value stream - Optimization of value delivered to all stakeholders and enterprises in value chain - Low cost - Improving productivity - High quality product - Greater value for stakeholders A small list of accomplishments are noted in the slide above primarily focused on higher volume manufacturing. Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  70. 70. 11 Concepts TQM Six Sigma Friday, November 01, 2013 Lean Origin The quality evolution in Japan The quality evolution in Japan & Motorola The quality evolution in Japan & Toyota Theory Focus on customers No defects Remove waste Process view Improve & uniform processes Reduce variation & improve processes Improve flow in processes Approach Let everybody be committed Project management Project management Plan, do, study, act Define, measure, analyse, improve (or design), control (or verify) Understanding customer value, value stream, analysis, flow, pull, perfection Analytical & statistical tools Advanced statistical & analytical tools Analytical tools Increase customer satisfaction Save money Reduce lead-time Achieves customer loyalty & improves performance Achieves business goals & improves financial performance Reduces inventory, increases productivity & customer satisfaction No tangible improvements, resource-demanding, unclear notion Does not involve everybody, does not improve customer satisfaction, does not have a system view Reduces flexibility, causes congestion in the supply chain. Methodologies Tools Primary effects Secondary effects Criticism Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  71. 71. 12 Friday, November 01, 2013 The strategy and Goals of Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  72. 72. 13 Friday, November 01, 2013 Process Engineering is driven by the simple Business Logic that is charted below: We are able to satisfy needs and expectations by doing for our customers We make money from our customers by satisfying their needs and exceeding their expectations through our products and services We are in business to make money Making Money Profit Bottom Line 01 Any repeated action constitutes a process The aim of customer focus is on improving need or do interactions Every need or do pair is an interaction Customer Interaction Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 02 Products or services delivered on-time, with zero defects, at the lowest cost Process Improvement yields better business performance We create processes to generate needed products or services Products and Services 03 2013
  73. 73. 14 Strategic Themes Friday, November 01, 2013 A BUSINESS STRATEGY is a mechanism to ensure that the resources or assets of a business are applied profitably across all its activities for developing and retaining a competitive edge in the market place. Processes Company’s Profit / Bottom line Products & Services Customer Satisfaction The world is changing very fast. Big will not beat small anymore. It will be the fast beating the slow.” Rupert Murdoch (Chairman and CEO News Corporation) Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  74. 74. 15 1. Manage Process Defects by Eliminating Waste 2. Cost Reduction 3. Risk Management Six Sigma Goals Process Capability 1. Judicious Resource Allocation 2. Increase in Customer Satisfaction 3. Continuous Quality Improvements Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro Friday, November 01, 2013 1. Reduction in Cycle Time 2. Reduction in the Cost of Poor Quality 3. Improvement in Productivity 4. Increase in Employee Satisfaction – People & Leadership Programmes 2013
  75. 75. 16 Goal Friday, November 01, 2013 highest level of process performance possible - PERFECTION. 5+ Sigma 3 - 5 Sigma 3 Sigma 1 - 2 Sigma Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro Sweet Fruit Design for Six Sigma Bulk of Fruit Process Characterization and Optimization Low Hanging Fruit Basic Tools of Problem Solving Ground Fruit Simplify and Standardize 2013
  76. 76. 17 Friday, November 01, 2013 Six Sigma and Lean is a methodology, metric and management system … Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  77. 77. 18 Friday, November 01, 2013 Six Sigma as a Philosophy is based on the theory that reducing variation in process output to stay within limits defined by the customer will yield great returns. Defects are expensive. Competitive Advantage is gained by meeting customer expectations…Six Sigma has been proven to accomplish just that objective. Six Sigma Program & Process Performance have a Positive Correlation The Six Sigma philosophy is that of Continuous Improvement through the use of data and specific variation reduction techniques. Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  78. 78. 19 Friday, November 01, 2013 A Sigma value allows us to Benchmark performance against other processes. Yield DPMO COPQ Sigma 99.9997% 3.4 <10% 6 99.976% 233 10-15% 5 99.4% 6,210 15-20% 4 93% 66,807 20-30% 3 65% 308,537 30-40% 2 50% 500,000 >40% 1 World Class Benchmarks 10% GAP Industry Average 10% GAP Non Competitive Source: Journal for Quality and Participation, Strategy and Planning Analysis What does 20 - 40% of Revenue represent to your Organization? As you can see from this graphic, as the sigma performance level is improved the operating efficiency improves yielding lower costs for the same output and more customer satisfying products and services. Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  79. 79. 20 Friday, November 01, 2013 Six Sigma utilizes specific Tools for business problem solving. Six Sigma tools are used to scope and select projects, modify and/or design new processes, improve current processes, decrease downtime and improve customer response time. Fishbone Control Chart FMEA High Variability A Data Analysis SPC Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro Histogram 2013
  80. 80. 21 Friday, November 01, 2013 Six Sigma as a Methodology provides an organized, specific, repeatable means of assessing and resolving challenges through a process titled…. This approach yields a focus on cause and effect with analytical problem solving tools within a management structure to assure results. Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  81. 81. Friday, November 01, 2013 Input Phase Output Identify Project, People and Process Define You have a problem definition and a thorough execution plan Ensure you have output measures for process and reliable ways of measuring it Measure You ensure reliable analyses and decisions Find the gaps between current and final states Analyse You understand the problem now Find root causes and develop solution Improve You have the solution to the problem Communicate, standardize and document the improvement Control You have ensured sustained improvement Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 22 2013
  82. 82. 23 Friday, November 01, 2013 Project Phase Project Life Cycle Perspective Core Tools Define Initiation and Planning Identify the Practical Problem Define Process and Map Process Measure Design Practical Problem VOC, VOB and VOP Implementation Statistical Problem Definition Build PMS Testing Statistical Solution Develop Dashboards Practical Solution Identify Improvement Opportunities Analyse Improve Control Go Live, Project Closure and Support Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  83. 83. 24 Define           Team election and scoping Review Project Charter Validate High-Level Value Stream Map and Scope Validate Voice of the Customer and Voice of the Business Validate Problem Statement and Goals Validate Financial Benefits Create Communication Plan Select and Launch Team Develop Project Schedule Complete Define Gate Measure           Identify Key Input, Process and Output Metrics Develop Operational Definitions Develop Data Collection Plan Validate Measurement System Collect Baseline Data Determine Process Performance/Capa bility Validate Business Opportunity Value Stream Map for deeper understanding & focus Quick Wins (Control Plans) Measure Gate Review Analyze       Identify Potential Root Causes Reduce List of Potential Root Causes Confirm Root Cause to Output Relationship Estimate Impact of Root Causes on Key Outputs Prioritize Root Causes Complete Analyze Gate Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro Friday, November 01, 2013 Improve        Develop Potential Solutions Evaluate, Select, and Optimize Best Solutions Develop ‘To-Be’ Value Stream Map(s) Develop and Implement Pilot Solution Confirm Attainment of Project Goals Develop Full Scale Implementation Plan Complete Improve Gate Control       Implement Mistake Proofing Develop SOP’s, Training Plan & Process Controls Implement Solution and Ongoing Process Measurements Identify Project Replication Opportunities Complete Control Gate Transition Project to Process Owner 2013
  84. 84. 25 Define            Project Management Methodology Affinity Process De Bono Brainstorming Process Communication Plan Voice of the Customer Kano Analysis Process Map & Documentation Process SIPOC Analysis CTQ Tree Diagram QFD Tollgate Worksheet Measure              Measurement Planning & Assessment Tree Stratification Factors Balance Score Card Benchmarking Process and Population Sampling & Data Collection Control Chart Pareto Charts Prioritization Matrix Measurement System Analysis Process Variation Process Capability Proportion Defective and Yield Calculation Tollgate Worksheet Analyze               Value Add Ishikawa Diagram Stratified Data Charts Testing Quick Fixes or Obvious Solutions CURD Matrix Quick Wins Chi Square Correlation Scatter Diagrams FMEA ANOVA Hypothesis Testing Design of Experiment Tollgate Worksheet Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro Friday, November 01, 2013 Improve             Brainstorming Process Force Field Analysis Reduce Lead Time & Non-Value Add Cost Generic Pull System Replenishment Pull System 4 Step Rapid Setup (for service process) Total Productivity Method Poke Yoke Process Balancing Work Cell Optimization Visual Process Controls Tupe Law Tollgate Worksheet Control              Process Management Chart Process Scorecard Dashboard Mistake Proofing Solution Rollout Plan Documentation Standard Operating Procedures Statistical Process Control SPC Exploring Variance Central Limit Theorem Control Chart Basic XBar and Rcharts Tollgate Worksheet, Project Summary and Lessons Learnt 2013
  85. 85. 26 White Belt (Champion) Master Black Belt Black Belt - Thought Leadership - Expert on Six Sigma - Mentor Green and Black Belts Black Belt Green Belt Green Belt Green Belt Yellow Belt Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro - Backbone of Six Sigma Org - Full time resource - Deployed to complex or “high risk” projects - Part time or full time resource - Deployed to less complex projects in areas of functional expertise
  86. 86. 27 Friday, November 01, 2013 Training as a Six Sigma Belt can be one of the most rewarding undertakings of your career and one of the most difficult. To become an efficient Belt takes Hard Work! You can expect to experience:  Hard work (becoming a Six Sigma Belt is not easy)  Long hours of training  Be a change agent for your organization  Work effectively as a team leader  Prepare and present reports on progress  Receive mentoring from your Black Belt  Perform mentoring for your team members  ACHIEVE RESULTS! You’re going places! Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  87. 87. 28 Friday, November 01, 2013 All players in the Six Sigma process must be willing to step up and act according to the Six Sigma set of behaviors. Leadership by example: “walk the talk” – Encourage and reward individual initiative – Align incentive systems to support desired behaviors – Eliminate functional barriers – Embrace “systems” thinking – Balance standardization with flexibility Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro 2013
  88. 88. 29 Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro Friday, November 01, 2013 2013
  89. 89. 30 Customer Define Analyze Measure Improve Process A Process B Vendor Control Driven by customer needs Process Map Analysis LSL Led by Senior Mgmt Methodology Organization Tools US L Upper/Lower specification limits •• • •••• • • •••• • •••••• •••• Regression 35 100% 30 25 80% 60% 20 15 Enabled by quality team. Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro Process variation 40% 10 5 20% 0 0% L K A Frequency F B C G R D Cumulative Frequency Pareto Chart
  90. 90. 31 Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro Friday, November 01, 2013 2013
  91. 91. 32 Friday, November 01, 2013 2013 “Trifles make perfection, but perfection is no trifle.” Michael Angelo Thanks You! Six Sigma Learning Materials By Titilola Awogboro
  92. 92. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL INCIDENTS Ifeanyi Enebeli Environmental Consultant CARES Ltd
  93. 93. H S E HEALTH – The absence of disease or illness SAFETY – The absence of risk of serious personal injury ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION – The prevention of damage to the air, land, water and living creatures in the wider environment. ENVIRONMENT – The local area around a particular workplace e.g air, ventilation, light, humidity, temperature
  94. 94. What is an Environmental Incident?         Sudden onset accident or disaster resulting from natural, technological or human-induced factors. Causes or threatens to cause environmental damage as well as impacts on human lives and/or property Any event which may potentially have adverse effects to human health or the environment Any incident which may result in pollution of waters (surface or groundwater), air or land   It can exist and remain unnoticed   Affects the environment in one way or the other
  95. 95. Environmental Incidents                   Fires Oil Spills Chemical Spills Industrial emissions Air Pollution Noise Pollution Gas leaks Dust Waste
  96. 96. Factors Which Result in Environmental Incidents                 Lack of Leadership Management Lack of relevant expertise Poor management systems and procedures Giving lower priority to environmental issues Lack of Management Commitment High turnover rates Lack of Environmental Statement / Policy Poor reporting and record keeping
  97. 97. Why do we have to think of Environmental Incidents?               Damage to business reputation Cost of remedial action Cost of compensation Fines Cost of rebuilding Loss of life Loss of productive time
  98. 98. To Avoid Being in the Line of Fire?   Environmental Impact Assessments   Environmental Monitoring   Environmental Audits   Contingency Planning   Environmental Management Systems
  99. 99. Environmental Impact Assessment A detailed assessment of the impacts (negative and positive) associated with a proposed project on the environment, consisting of environmental, social and economic aspects. It is a tool which aims to predict environmental impacts at an early stage in project planning and design as well as find ways and means to reduce adverse effects
  100. 100. Environmental Monitoring Processes involved in monitoring the environment to enable one find out and characterize the quality of the environment over time. It can involve air monitoring, emissions monitoring, water monitoring and even noise monitoring
  101. 101. Environmental Auditing Processes of determining if company practices and operations are in compliance with regulatory requirements, company procedures and accepted standards. It assesses the effectiveness of environmental management systems in place and looks at conformance as well as non-conformance.
  102. 102. EMS A structured system designed to help organizations manage their environmental impacts and improve environmental performance caused by their products, services and activities.
  103. 103. Contingency Planning •  •  A process that prepares an organization to respond coherently to an unplanned event. It ensures there is timely, measured and effective response to incidents, prevents incidents from getting worse and keeps authorities and staff prepared
  104. 104. Oil Spills       The release or presence of crude oil or refined oil products into the environment It more often than not refers to marine oil spills where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters It is a form of pollution ONCE A SPILL OCCURS, IT IS ESSENTIAL TO CONTAIN AND CONTROL THE SPILL BY RESPONDING QUICKLY
  105. 105. Effects of Oil Spills                         Destruction of fisheries and fishing Ill health Forced Relocation Displacement Physical and chemical alteration of natural habitats Poisoning of water supply Lethal or sub-lethal toxic effects on flora and fauna and humans Reduction of property value Prevents animals from locating young ones Tainting Disruption of the ecosystem Interruption of food Chain…
  106. 106. 15
  107. 107. Chemical Spills Release of one or more hazardous substances could harm human health or the environment. which Chemical Spills could either be simple or complicated with classification dependent on If the chemical is toxic or flammable or not If the spill occurs in public space or confined area If the chemical is known or unknown If lives have been lost or people injured        
  108. 108. Effects of Chemical Spills ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS                   Respiratory Illness Burns Organ failure Fires and Explosions Cancer Neurological disorder Blindness Dizzyness Death Highly dependent on Exposure time, Exposure Levels and toxicity of Chemical
  109. 109. Fire We see the effects of fire as ……………           Death Loss of properties Burns Fires and Explosions Collapse of buildings What we don’t think of …….………….…             Massive Air pollution Poor Visibility Respiratory Illnesses Reduction in Land Value Destruction of Land Death of land organisms
  110. 110. Waste EFFECTS             Harm caused to wildlife Destruction of natural environment and its beauty Unattractive Smells Release of Gaseous substances Attracts vermin such as rats and pigeons Leeching
  111. 111. Waste Hierarchy CLOSE THE LOOP
  112. 112. Emissions EFFECTS               Local Pollution Poor Air Quality Discoloration of Buildings Unattractive Smells Ozone depletion Increases the effects of Global warming Respiratory Effects
  113. 113. Reducing your Organizations Emissions   Reporting and fixing Defects to machinery   Selecting Newer equipment with lower emissions   Selecting Energy efficient equipment     Regularly measure output by testing emissions and setting reduction targets Fitting emission reducing equipment
  114. 114. The Importance Of Contingency Planning •  Prevents loss of time as normal operations resume quicker •  Ensures there is timely, measured and effective response to incidents •  Prevents incidents from getting worse •  Gives us the opportunity to identify and prioritize risks •  Keeps authorities and staff prepared
  115. 115. Maintaining the Plan             Communicate the plan to everyone in the organization. Inform people of their roles and responsibilities related to the plan. Provide necessary training for people to fulfill these roles and responsibilities. Conduct disaster drills where practical. Assess the results of training and drills, and make any necessary changes. Update
  116. 116. Answers needed !!!!!!!!   Is there a reporting process ?   Are there Procedures to be followed ?   Is there provision of suitable equipment?   Do we have suitably trained staff ?   Are workers fully prepared and informed?
  117. 117. Environmental Incident Management Matrix
  118. 118. Environmental Responsibilities   Following Procedures at work   Awareness of Environmental Impacts of ones job       Making a conscious effort to minimise and segregate waste Take responsibility of your work area Making a conscious effort to save energy and resources
  119. 119. How can CARES be of Help?                     28 EMS development and associated training Environmental Monitoring (Air quality, Noise, Effluent) Environmental, Social and Health Impact Assessment Land Remediation Environmental Management Plans Laboratory Services Environmental Audits Water testing Environmental Due Diligence Environmental Awareness Training
  120. 120. Conclusion Environmental Incidents are bound to occur. What is key is having a contingency plan in place to contain and prevent further damage to the environment. Having in place an Environmental Management System that WORKS is also very necessary in continual improvement of processes. It is also necessary to think of Environmental Awareness trainings for staff, so that they understand fully the effects of what they do to the environment
  121. 121. Conclusion In our own little way, we all have an individual responsibility to protect the environment we work in. Finally !!!!!!!!!! What ever we do to the environment is but a mirror reflection of what we are doing to ourselves and to one another. The truth is the environment will still remain in whatever condition we leave it. WE HAVE TO THINK OF THE ENVIRONMENT AS WE THINK OF HEALTH AND SAFETY
  122. 122. In case you were wondering ………. CARES is a multi-disciplinary environmental and engineering consultancy company that brings together a team of highly experienced individuals, a number of whom have over 30 years experience in their chosen fields. Coastal And Reclamation Engineering Services
  123. 123. More information… Ifeanyi Enebeli Environmental Consultant (ifeanyi.enebeli@cares-group.com) CARES, and more information on environmental management is available at STAND
  125. 125. A paper presented by: Fayo Williams B.Pharm, MSc, MISPoN, NEBOSH IGC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR RELY SUPPLY LTD. PRESENTER, “SAFETY TRAIN” ON LAGOS TRAFFIC RADIO. FM 96.1 Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 1
  126. 126.  An emergency is a sudden, often devastating occurrence which may pose a threat to lives, property and the environment; especially if on a large scale and prolonged. Associated airline crash Culled from Nigerian Eye Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 2
  127. 127.  Fire, explosion  Flammable liquid leak, spill  Natural disasters - lightning, landslide, flood, extreme weather  Structural failure in buildings  Electrical incidents  Crash, collision  Sabotage, vandalism, terrorist attack, riot, bomb threat, hostage/kidnapping incident Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 3
  128. 128. • • According to a statistics given by the FRSC, in year 2012, 3,000 people in Nigeria died in 2,235 accidents, making Nigeria, the second country in the world with the highest fatalities on the roads [1]. The aviation industry also recorded 29 fatal crashes from 2000 till date [2] while a total of 665 deaths have been recorded in boat mishaps [3]. Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 4
  129. 129.  Wines (2005) reported that 102 people died as a result of ship capsize along Jalingo River in Taraba state [3].  Mei (2009) reported that 40 people lost their lives after their boat capsized mid-river in the State [3].  18 deaths were recorded in a boat mishap at Niger state Oct 2013 [4]. Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 5
  130. 130.  Boiler explosion kills 4, injures 20 at Distillery Company at Sango Ota [5].  Operator “sucked into” machine at Ilupeju  Man loses head due to failure in safety procedure at steel rolling mills Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 6
  131. 131.  60% of Accidents caused in homes are due to faulty appliances including improper lighting of the family premises [6]. Victim of Generator Explosion Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 7
  132. 132. PreventionMitigation Preparedness Response Recovery Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 8
  133. 133.  Emergency Preparedness This the set of activities undertaken to create the appropriate mindset, skills and infrastructure for responding to emergencies in a given population  Emergency Response This is the chain of activities set in motion on notification of any emergency bearing in mind the need for efficiency and effectiveness in reducing impact on lives, property and the environment Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 9
  134. 134.  Minimize the risks of emergencies occurring  Identify potential emergency situations  Develop, implement, and test plans to respond promptly and effectively to emergencies  Minimize the impact of emergencies on the environment Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 10
  135. 135.  Why have these statistics been so grave when compared to other countries?  How can parts of the Emergency Response Plan be adequately addressed? Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 11
  136. 136. Procedure for raising an Alarm  Internal and external emergency phone numbers  Emergency communication structure - chain of command  Emergency Response Team members’ with defined responsibilities  Evacuation routes, assembly points  Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 12
  137. 137.  Procedures for responding to the various types of emergencies outlined  Provision of suitable equipment such as Fire extinguishers and First Aid boxes  Nomination of responsible officers such as Safety Committee, Incident commander, Fire Marshalls etc.  Provision of Training and Information  Drills and exercises (Ref.: NEBOSH IGC) Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 13
  138. 138.  More provisions  Leadership and Commitments  Encourage appropriate Policies  Ambulances- 15 mins away [Call 767 in Lagos]  More trained Emergency Medical Technicians  Trained First Aiders, Caregivers, Safety and Security personnel  National reorientation on responding to Accidents and Emergencies Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 14
  139. 139. Public Address Systems  Biohazard Supplies, Equipments and Kits ,e.g. waste containers, Decontamination kits, Chemical Agents Detector Kits, Haz Mat Simultest (detects gases and vapors), First Aid Equipment, CPR Masks, Defribillators, Emergency lightening, EMT Paramedic items  PPE such as Boots, Hard hats, Fire-retardant overalls  Evacuation Stretchers and chairs  Heavy Duty Equipments e.g. Air Compressors, Backhoes, Bulldozers, Concrete saws, Earth moving and material handling equipments  Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 15
  140. 140. The initial skilled assistance given to a casualty before the arrival of medical help 16 Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 16
  141. 141. First Aid Kits, Boxes and supplies for Rapid Response Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 17
  142. 142. Proposal to Cycology Clup from Rely 18
  143. 143. Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 19
  144. 144. The solution Proposal to Cycology Clup from Rely 20
  145. 145. – eg. Fore-and-aft carriage 1 Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 3 2 21
  146. 146. Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 22
  147. 147. Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 23
  148. 148.  Prevention (i.e. risk management) is a key component of emergency preparedness  Emergency Response Teams must be adequately Trained.  The importance of an effective safety plan cannot be over emphasized . Accidents are unplanned and its occurrence reduces the quality of life. Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 24
  149. 149. THINK SAFETY AT ALL TIMES! Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 25
  150. 150. +2348034030366 fayowilliams@yahoo.co.uk @safetywithfayo https://www.facebook.com/fayo.williams Fayo Williams Relysup Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 26
  151. 151. THANK YOU Emerge ncy Prepare dness and Respons e by Fayo 27 Williams
  152. 152. 1. http://www.frscinsight.com/?p=24723 2. http://www.nairaland.com/893742/timeline-air-crashes-nigeria 3. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. November 2012, Vol. 2, No. 11. ISSN: 2222-6990. 378 www.hrmars.com/journals by L.B Dogarawa 4. http://tribune.com.ng/news2013/index.php/en/news/item/2327 6 5. tribune.com.ng/.../5771-steam-boiler-explosion-kills-workersof-nigeria 6. Journal of Home economics. Vol 1 June 1985. Home Accidents in Nigeria: Effects and measures for prevention by O.O Oyerinde Emergency Preparedness and Response by Fayo Williams 28
  153. 153. WASHEQ 2013 PRESENTATION SUMMARY TITLE: THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL INCIDENTS – COMPREHENSIVE HSEQ PRACTICES AUTHOR: IFEANYI ENEBELI (ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANT, CARES NIG. LTD) Environmental incidents while rare, tend to result in wide spread impacts that may require extensive remediation. While traditional health and safety impacts are well managed due to the obvious result, holistic solutions for health, safety, environment and quality are needed. This talk aims to provide you with an overview of the potential issues, case studies of relevant incidents and relevant management solutions. Ifeanyi Enebeli Ifeanyi is an Environmental Consultant with CARES Nigeria Limited. With qualifications in Geology and Energy Futures, he specializes in environmental awareness, monitoring and energy efficiency. He has provided capacity building expertise to clients and assisted in development and implementation of environmental management plans. He has also been involved in planning remediation of oil spill contaminated land, and associated training on oil spill response and clean up and environmental effects of oil spills. He also has a NEBOSH International General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety. Coastal and Reclamation Engineering Services Nigeria Ltd., RC 495390 www.cares-group.com
  154. 154. WASHEQ 2013_CARES Presentation.doc Page 2 of 2
  155. 155. APPRECIATING BEHAVIOURAL SAFETY A Presentation During WASHEQ Conference 2013. Presented By: Olatunde Akinade
  156. 156. Current Situation. “Too often safety is neglected. There must be cultural and behavioural change.” Royal Commission into the Building and Construction Industry, Final Report, ReformOccupational Health and Safety, Volume 6, 2003
  157. 157. BBS Overview. --I’m sure most of us would agree safe behaviour is a critical element of health and safety Management • -Incidents measure behaviour of staff, contractors and visitors but are obviously reactive • -As safety professionals we are interested in turning health and safety management system into reality and providing a safe place of work to staff, contractors and visitors
  158. 158. Overview. • -For many behavioural Safety is the latest initiative but is it not what we as Safety professional are all about? • -Behavioural safety allows us to ask WHY people behave unsafely, which is fundamental to changing individual behaviour, • -Understanding how people are organised, managed, motivated, rewarded and how their working environment, equipment may not actually deal with the root issue
  159. 159. Behavioural Safety in Organization. • In organisations, it is usually the ‘human’ that is seen in human error which they tend to refer to as being front line staff, consider your organisation how many incident forms have you seen where the investigation report included a manager stating that they have told the employee to be more careful!!!!
  160. 160. Behavioural Safety. • If behaviours are not recognised and the management system put in place to prevent that behaviour then an unsafe condition will apply- for instance hard wiring safety guards to prevent staff over ridding them. • For staff to behave safely they must understand the process knowledge to be able to respond appropriately to all conditions
  161. 161. AIM • To ensure that everyone Involved recognise their personal responsibilities, are Pro-actively encouraged and Challenged, and work within a culture that supports a progressive improvement in all aspects of Safe managements System In our Organization
  162. 162. Objective. At the end of the Conference Session each Deligate should be able to: • Appreciate their Role in Behavioural safety Programme. • Identify the approach & Tools for an effective behavioural safety Programme.. • Participate in their behavioural Safety Program.
  163. 163. Introduction. • Behaviour based safety (BBS) emphasizes that employees need to take an ownership of their safe as well as unsafe behaviours. If they behave unsafe, they are not punished, instead they are repeatedly told to correct, and when they behave safe, they are encouraged. Both safe and unsafe behaviours are counted and displayed. BBS also discusses the unsafe conditions that influence unsafe behaviours.
  164. 164. INTRODUCTION Count: • BBS is a data driven decision-making process. BBS believes that what gets measured gets done and each employee can make a difference in organizational safety. Employees are the basic source of expertise of behavioural change (observe and correct). BBS begins by briefing sessions for all work areas and depts. BBS is a teamwork; it is company wide and peopledriven. BBS purpose is not to enforce safety rules, force change, gossip about others, reporting to boss. Its purpose is to identify safe and at risk behaviours, identify possibility for injury, communicating the risk and helping to identify safer solutions. An implementation team or BBS steering committee monitors its progress. Essentially BBS is not a management driven tool for safety. It is an employee driven approach with management support.
  165. 165. What is Behavioural Safety. • Dan Petersen on behavior-based safety “…as I look at what we, as safety practitioners, have done to the best concepts for possible improvement, it seems we have done everything possible to make sure this (the behavior based safety) approach will fade away -- just another “safety program of the month.” Maybe the answer is to learn how to manage safety and health first, then implement these behaviorbased approaches.”
  166. 166. Behavioural Based Safety: • A Behaviour-Based Safety (BBS) is a process through which work groups can identify, measure and change their behaviours.It is a process that applies the principles of the Antecedent Behaviour Consequence (ABC) behaviour model. This assumes that all behaviours have one or more antecedents or activators or prompts which initiate the behaviour and one or more consequences that either encourage or discourage repetition of the behaviour.
  167. 167. Behavioural Based Safety. • An excellent tool for collecting data on the quality of a company’s safety management system. • A scientific way to understand why people behave the way they do when it comes to safety.
  168. 168. Why BBS ? • Analysis of incidents shows that +/- 90% of them have the behaviour of the person(s) involved as a key contributing factor. Of the 10% remaining, +/90% of them have the behaviour of a person, not directly involved in the incident, as a contributing factor.Increasing the number of safe behaviours being performed is essential for incident elimination. Behaviour Based Safety helps with this. It is not a silver bullet or the solution however. It is a process that goes along with the other elements of a good incident reduction Program.
  169. 169. Behavioral Safety Modification The Modification of Behaviour is then the Integration of this new Improved behaviour into Standards best Practice to form a critical part of “How Business is Done” The Well Established Principles that underpin the modification of Human behaviour include the Following:
  170. 170. Behaviour Can be Measured. • But first,it has to be defined so that Everyone understand what is being measured and , crucially,observable and observed. Key safe(and Unsafe) Behaviour(KSB) list of Critical Behaviour List(CBL) are a vital Starting point in the process of Modifying Behaviour.
  171. 171. Behaviour is a function of its Known,or perceived,Consequences • Personnel will behave in a certain way untill the Consequences Change and Become unfavourable(An Accident) or they become Convinced that they will change so that their belief and values change. • The Antecedents-Behaviour-Consequences(ABC). Analysis is one technique that can be used to develop a plan to recognise, and Change Consequences and Antecedents(Trigger) in such a way as to increase Desired behaviour.
  172. 172. Let’s look at Behaviour Principle Safety in the workplace is a combination of three measurable components: the personnel( Knowledge, Skills, Ability, Intelligence, Motives), their Work environment(Tools ,machines ,procedures & Facilities) and their Behavior.(What the person does on the Job) Only when these three elements are combined can workplace accidents be eliminated.
  173. 173. Behaviour • Behaviour is a Function of: •  Activators (what needs to be done) •  Competencies (how it needs to be done) •  Consequences (what happens if it is done) •
  174. 174. Personnel Behaviour is both. therefore Behavior can be managed ! •  Observable •  Measurable.
  175. 175. Behaviour Can be Changed By Providing positive Reinforcement. • Thanks, acknowledge of, and Praise for safe behaviour and support from colleaque and management will encourage behavioural change. All too often organizations will reward good safety behaviour . They Prefer to Use Discipline and purnishment of Poor safety Behaviour,which actually reinforces the taking of short cuts.
  176. 176. Behaviour Rainforcement. • R+ : any consequence that follows a behavior and increases the probability that the behavior will occur more often in the future - You get something you want Good safety suggestion ken! Keep bringing ‘em up!
  177. 177. Negative Reinforcement • R- : a consequence that strengthens any behavior that reduces or terminates the behavior - You escape or avoid something you don’t want. One more report like this and you’re out here!!
  178. 178. Behavioural Modification Programmes • Behavioural Modification Programmes(BMP)
  179. 179. Features of Behavioural Modification Programmes. • There are Numbers of basic features of behavioural Safety Modification Programes, including those that also incorporate safety culture change, and this are now listed. Ownership: Without Doubt,the best result are obtained when there is a clear management commitment to support the process stemming Right from Top level in the Organization.
  180. 180. Behavioural Modification. • Safety Culture: As stated above ,there is evidence that,unless managers and Workforce accept that there is a need to change ,no lasting Changes will be made. • Who leads the programe: This can be external consultants or In-House HSE Specialist or a combination of both. • Safe and Unsafe Behaviour Definition: an essential Starting point,or marker,on the road improvement. These definitions can be generated from previous injury,or accident data,or from Risk Assessment.
  181. 181. Behavioural Modification. • Training: Includes Training in the need to follow existing safe Practices and in techniques.(Probably New to organization) for improving behaviour • Observation Process: what should be observed and By whom.(Key safe Behaviour,unsafe act…..) • Establishing Base Lines: these will include accident statistics but will also incorporate the important area of “input” or preventive measurements such as audits and safety inspections. .(standard safe way of working, behavioural modification principles)
  182. 182. Tools FEEDBACK AND REINFORCEMENT: all real and perceived barriers to people providing feedback about injuries and near misses need to be broken down. Positive management support, trust, respect, general concern and encouragement are vital to this. It is also important to get workforce, and trades union, endorsement and “buy in”- vital to development of a “no blame” culture.
  183. 183. Behavioural Modification. • TARGETS AND GOALS: should be set participatively between management and workforce and should be realistic and achievable. They should be changed as time proceeds to enable progressive attainment of the long term vision. • AUDIT AND REVIEW: The results of the programme, against the target that have been set and other features, should be reviewed, audited and, if necessary amended on a scheduled basis.
  184. 184. Behavioural Modification. • WHEN DOES THE PROGRAMME END?: the simple answer is “never” even the very best (world class) organizations, in safety management terms, are always seeking further improvement even though their safe practices have become ‘the way we do it here’ strife for Behaviour improvement.
  186. 186. Behavioural Modification Tools • Time out For safety(TOFS): Is a tool developed by BP Amoco, initially for their Drilling team,but subsequently used by their entire Platform crew.(Stop for safety concern). • Take 2: Exxon introduced “TAKE 2” at the Fawley(Hampshire uk) site in the 1990’s. Supervisor and his team, take two Minutes at the start of each work activity to discuss, and think through,the various aspects of activity. Potential hazard,what could go wrong and Preventive Action.
  187. 187. Tools • Recovery Behaviour: is a process whereby personnel pause to check their last, or next action(s),before proceeding further with a job,in order to ensure that they they will not result in incident, accident or other adverse Condition. • Mental Imaging: This is focussing of the old addage of ‘look before you leap’ personnel are trained to imagine or visualize in their mind the worst accident that could happen to them as a result of what they plan to do.
  188. 188. Tools. • Advanced Safety Audit : ASA is a designed to enhance the ability of managers and Supervisors to engage in positive interactions with the workforce about Safety and, therefore tackles the other overall barrier(In addition to the workforce-related one) to improve safe Behaviour.
  189. 189. Tool • Safe and Unsafe Act Discussion(SUSA ): Is a trade marked Product of john Ormond Management consultants Ltd.it is a ‘one to one’ discussion tool aimed at praising safe Behaviour and identifying Actual,or potential,unsafe Behaviour. • Safety Training and Observation Programme(STOP): is a tool developed by Du pont. It is a five stages process of deciding to make observations ,observing people and situations to identify unsafe behaviours,acting upon those observations and reporting,reviewing and collating the observations and Corrective Actions. TM
  190. 190. Tools. • Crew Resource Management(CRM): is a tool developed initially by the united states aviation industry, and also by shipping, and other, industries to utilize the collective input of members of a crew, from the ship, or aircraft, captain down, to improve safety, and other, behaviors by avoidance of error and error management.
  191. 191. Tools • Safety self-management, particularly for lone workers: safety-management methods and tools were initially developed to address a range of “non-safety” human activities such as stress, weight loss, over eating, time management, smoking, depression and others but they are very easily applicable to safety. Self Observation, Recording and follow up.
  192. 192. Tools • An alternative approach: Although not a tool or technique as such, Ref 18(BBS Guide) details an approach that, in words of the author “questions the accepted wisdom” about the subject of human error. The view of the Author is that it is extremely difficult to change people’s tendency to make error and more beneficial to change work Environment for better by Engineering Design and Managerial Mean.
  193. 193. Tools • A practical guide for behavioural change: The Behavioural Issues Task Group of the UK oil and gas industry has produced a review of the available information on behavioural issues and related topics and a guide on how to select and implement suitable programmes for various situations .This review discuss the importance of Behavioural issues and present a model for Behavioural Safety improvement.
  194. 194. Tools • B-SHARP: B-SHARP, developed by ABB Eutech(Ref 190) is primiraily a tool designed to assess, and aid the improvement of, safety culture. However,it incorporates a range of behavioural modification techniques and process including problem solving presentation skill,observation and feed back skill,and others.
  195. 195. Tools • Self-managing teams (SMTs): The concept of self-management has been extended into operation by small teams of workers .SMT s are typically high performing team of 5-15 people with the technical Skill,knowledge and Authority to make decisions that would formely enhance safe Behaviour.
  196. 196. Pause ! • Appreciating Behavoural safety it saves Cost and Enhances Operation Excellence.
  197. 197. Reflect • Behavioural Safety improves Productivity and personnel Efficiency.
  198. 198. Appreciating Behavioural safety. • It Saves down Time.
  199. 199. Attitude is the Key. Attitudes Are inside a person’s head -therefore they are not observable or measurable, However attitude can be changed by changing behavior.
  200. 200. Thank you all For Listening. • Any Comment. • Observation. • Question.
  201. 201. My Contact. • Olatunde akinade. • +234-8060284400. • E- mail: akin4labi@yahoo.co.uk.
  202. 202. REFERENCES. • • • • • • • • • 1. Pettinger CB. People-based safety: The optimal approach to behaviour-based safety. Safety performance solutions Inc: 2001 2. Krause T. Employee driven systems for safe behaviour. Van Nostrand Reinhold: New york; 1995. 3. Krause TR. The behavioural-based safety process. Van Nostrand: New york;1990. 4. Locke E. Goal–setting and task performance. Psychol Bull 1981; 90:125-52. 5. Marsh T. The role of management committment in determining the success of a behaviouralintervention. J Inst occup safety health 1998;2:4. 6. Pearse A. Cited in managing the risks organizational accidents. Reason J. A ashgate publishing: 1997. p. 20. 7. Reason J. Managing the risks of organizational accidents. Ashgate publishing: 1997. 8. Skinner B. About behaviourism. Jonathan Cape: 1974. 9. Stewart MG. Dependence of human error probabilities, in ergonomics and human environments. Proceedings of the 27th annual conference of the ergonomics society of Australia. Coolum: Australia; 1991. p. 207-14.
  204. 204. PRESENTED BY Dr Olugbenga O. Bejide www.jabulaniconsults.com 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 2
  206. 206. @ WASHEQ 2013 Thursday 31st October 2013 Ikeja, Lagos 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 4
  208. 208. WORK HOURS 80% of the waking hours is spent at work 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 6
  209. 209. EMPLOYEE SURVEY FINDINGS ABOUT WORKPLACE STRESS 1/3 report high level of stress ¼ report their jobs as number 1 stressor in their life above family and financial pressures ¾ believe more on-the-job stress than a generation ago 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 7
  210. 210. CHANGING WORLD OF WORK  Increased workload (123 concept)  New technologies at work  New business environment  Meeting deadlines  Overdependence on targets  Gender insensitivity e.g. corporate prostitution in banks  Extended work hours e.g. banks and top management  Conflict resolution 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 8
  211. 211. RELEVANT INFORMATION Lagosians spend N1b (USD 6.25m) per day on social parties (annual expenditure of N365billion) 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 9
  214. 214. TYPES OF WORKPLACE MEDICAL EXAMINATION  Pre-employment medical examination  Pre-placement medical examination  Work-related periodic medical examination Periodic Health Assessment  Requested medical examination  Post-employment (exit) medical examination 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 12
  215. 215. WORK ENVIRONMENTS AND HAZARDS  Physical  Chemical  Biological  Mechanical/ergonomic  Psycho-social 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 13
  217. 217. OSH POLICY: BACKGROUND Section 17.3C of the Nigerian Constitution: the state shall divert its policy towards ensuring that the health, safety and welfare of all persons in employment is safeguarded and not endangered or abused 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 15
  218. 218. OSH POLICY: BACKGROUND Nigeria is also obliged to domesticate ILO Convention 155 on Occupational Safety and Health and the Working Environment which Nigeria ratified in 1994 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 16
  219. 219. OSH POLICY: DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS  SECTION 5.3 subsection (x) verify the effectiveness of applicable standards on occupational safety and health, periodically using safety audits, environmental monitoring and health screening of workers and keep records of such verification…. 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 17
  220. 220. DEFINITION OF HEALTH ………the state of physical, mental and social well-being and not just the absence of disease or infirmity………… (WHO, 1948) 11/1/2013 18
  221. 221. NOTE Your health is your greatest ASSET 11/1/2013 19
  222. 222. NOTE HEALTH is WEALTH 11/1/2013 20
  223. 223. NOTE Sometimes you don’t appreciate what you have until you lose it! e.g. sleep 11/1/2013 21
  224. 224. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ........of machines including vehicles, generators, air-conditioner units and even computers 11/1/2013 22
  225. 225. WHEREAS Man is the most complex MACHINE in the entire world! 11/1/2013 23
  226. 226. GENERAL GUIDE FOR CHECK-UPS < 30 years 30 - 40 years 40 - 50 years 50 - 60 years 60 - 70 years > 70 years 11/1/2013 Once Once in 5 years Once in 2 years Every year Every six months Every three months 24
  227. 227. MEDICAL CHECK CLASSES A B C D E 11/1/2013 Advanced Basic Classical Diamond Elementary 25
  228. 228. CLASS E  General Physical Examination  Weight, Height (BMI), Blood Pressure, Pulse  Visual Acuity  FBC + FBS + FU  ABO Blood Grouping + Haemoglobin Genotype 11/1/2013 26
  229. 229. CLASS D Class E +  Hepatitis B Screening  Hepatitis C Screening  Retroviral Screening  Faecal Occult Blood  H. pylori 11/1/2013 27
  230. 230. CLASS C Class D +  Chest Xray  Fundoscopy  Lipid Profile  Liver Function Tests 11/1/2013 28
  231. 231. CLASS B Class C + Electrocardiograph (ECG) Abdominal Ultrasound Renal Function Tests 11/1/2013 29
  232. 232. CLASS A Class B +  PSA/Pap’s Smear  ENT 11/1/2013 30
  233. 233. STEPS (1) 1 Preparatory Chat 2 Health Questionnaire 3 Visit to the Nurse (Class E/D) 4 Visit to external laboratories (Class C/B) 5 11/1/2013 Visit to specialists (Class C/B/A) 31
  234. 234. STEPS (2) 6 Collation of results 7 Compilation of results 8 Discussion with clients 9 Follow up visits  10 Seeking Spouse cooperation 11/1/2013 32
  235. 235. MEDICAL REPORT  Comprehensive Medical Report  Highlighting key positive findings  Summary and Conclusion  Medical advice 11/1/2013 33
  236. 236. METABOLIC SYNDROME  Total Cholesterol  Trigylicerides  FBS Fasting Blood Sugar  BMI Body Mass Index  AC Abdominal Circumference 11/1/2013 34
  237. 237. BENEFITS (EMPLOYEE)  Health Score Card  Preventive Maintenance  Taking Responsibility for Your Health  Improved Quality of Life  Lifestyle Modification 11/1/2013 35
  238. 238. BENEFITS (EMPLOYER)  Healthy and productive workforce  Reduced absenteeism  Early detection of work-related illnesses  Employee Compensation Act 2010 facilitation  Increased quality of life  Longer life span CONSULTS LIMITED JABULANI 10/31/2013 36
  239. 239. REMEMBER God’s promise: …....I will take sickness away from thy midst Exodus 23:25 11/1/2013 37
  240. 240. THE VITAL QUESTION When last did you as a person undergo a comprehensive health screening to avoid being in the line of fire? 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 38
  241. 241. SUMMARY & CONCLUSION investing in your health and that of your workers is a rewarding business decision that can make you avoid being in the line of fire! 10/31/2013 JABULANI CONSULTS LIMITED 39
  245. 245. BY AKPA, PROVIDENCE N. +2348037662891;providominion2000@yahoo.com Masters in Environmental Chem. & Pollution Control (Ibadan) BSc. in Industrial Chemistry (EBSU) QHSE Services Provyda Ltd. www.qhseservicesprovyda.com
  246. 246. Problem Statement Construction industry has earned the reputation of a highly hazardous industry because  There is high incidence of accident and fatality rates.  A lot of workers both the skilled and the unskilled lose their lives and more are maimed and injured on site.  Accidents, incidents, injuries and fatalities continue to occur unabated (Singh A. Hinze, 1997).
  247. 247.  Most of the accidents in construction industry occur because : Workers in construction sites have to face constant change in the nature of work
  248. 248.  The location of work
  249. 249.  There is also mix of experienced and unskilled workers both professionals, casuals and amateur.
  250. 250.    To develop reasonable and efficient safety supervision system To address the high rate of accidents, injury and fatality in the Nigerian construction industry To propose a conceptual framework of safety culture in construction industry in order to provide a safe working environment
  251. 251. Safety culture:  Is a term used to demonstrates "the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and values that employees share in relation to safety" (Cox and Cox,1991).   A set of beliefs, norms attitudes and social technical practices that are concerned with minimizing exposure of individuals, within and beyond an organization to conditions considered dangerous or injurious (Mohd Saidin and Abdul Hakin, (2007b). It describes the way we feel, act, think and make decisions in relation to safety.
  252. 252. “Developing safety culture ….. “means creating a culture of safety whereby the workers are constantly aware of hazards in the workplace, including the ones that they create themselves. It becomes second nature to the employees to take steps to improve safety” (Dilley and Kleiner, 1996)”.
  253. 253. According to Mohd Saidin and Abdul Hakin (2007), the elements that influence the development of safety culture in construction industry include:  Leadership  Involvement  Recognition system and acknowledgement  Training  Communication  Teamwork  Motivation  Safety and Health committee  Workers’ behavior  Work environment  Policy and safety planning
  254. 254. Methodology s/n Respondence Frequency Percentage 1. Safety & Health Professionals 51 30.72 2. Safety Practitioners 52 31.33 3. Skilled workers/Artisans 63 37.95 Total 166 100
  255. 255. s/n Safety Culture Driving Factors Safety Safety Professionals Practitioners Ranking Ranking order order Artisan on site Ranking order i. Leadership ii. Policy & safety planning Safety & Health committee Training 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 3 3 4 5 8 6 8 7 10 11 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 iii. iv. v. vi. Vii vii. iix. x. xi. 4 Involvement 6 Team work 7 Communication 5 Motivation 8 Work behavior 10 Work environment 9 Recognition System & 11 Acknowledge
  256. 256. DISCUSSION Using the findings from this study as the point reference, the following discussions shall focus on  Leadership,  Safety policy & planning,  Safety committee  Training
  257. 257. DISCUSSION Developing Safety Culture in Nigeria Construction Industry Leadership  Placing Safety as top priority among other competing priority like cost, quality, and yield, etc.  Visible management commitment- It means leading by example.  Safety Managers Commitment
  258. 258. A good health and safety policy will:  Enhance the performance of the organization  Help with the personal development of the work force  Reduce financial losses The Safety Managers should:  Set safety goals  Establish the present position of the organization  Plan to move forward 
  259. 259. Develops effective organization set up to implement and monitor the safety policy.  Provide resources to enthusiastic safety representatives to fulfill their function effectively They should involve in:  Investigating the causes of accidents  Investigating employees compliant relating to Health, Safety & Welfare matters 
  260. 260.  Safety orientation for new employees  Contractors and/ or temporary employees  Employees who work in high hazard/ risk areas  Training in the use and maintenance of personal protective equipment.  Attitudes and perceptions of managers, supervisors, and employees toward safety and health.
  261. 261.    Inculcate and sustain a healthy and intelligent respect for the hazards that threaten operations in construction industry. Have competent safety advisers and to train and reretrains workers on safety and health issues. Safety should be given a priority from structural design, civil, erection, commissioning and operation phase by engineering safety culture.
  263. 263. PREAMBLE Lagos State is the Centre of Excellence in the Nation providing Social, Economic and Environmental incentives that are lacking elsewhere. The State located in South West Nigeria houses over 75% of the nation’s manufacturing/commercial activities making it the beautiful bride to all and sundry. It is cosmopolitan and metropolitan in nature. Also domicile in the state are one International Airport and one domestic Airport as well as two seaports. These features indeed bequeath on the state the status as the Centre of Commerce. However, the small landmass of 3,577sq km and the population of over 18million people with the ever increasing migration of people to the state create undesirable entropic reactions with attendant output referred to as disaster with a wide range of negative impacts on the citizenry of the state and the environment at large. The negative impacts of disaster include; injuries, loss of live and properties, death, environmental degradation, pollution and post traumatic impact on families of decease.
  264. 264. • EMERGENCY/DISASTER Emergency: is a sudden, unforeseen dangerous occurrence in the human environment that causes serious disruption of the ecological dynamics in the environment causing widespread human, material and environmental losses, which is within the capability of the affected society to cope with using only its own resources while Disaster is a sudden, unforeseen dangerous occurrence in the human environment that causes serious disruption of the ecological dynamics in the environment causing widespread human, material and environmental losses, which exceeds the capability of the affected society to cope with using only its own resources.
  266. 266. Disaster Management may be defined as those measures which are aimed at impeding the occurrence of a disaster event and preventing such an occurrence from having harmful effects on communities. PREPAREDNESS MITIGATION DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE RECOVERY RESPONSE
  267. 267. ROLE OF LASEMA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF EMERGENCIES/DISASTERS The Lagos State Emergency Management Agency is the statutory body responsible for the overall co-ordination of emergency/disaster management in the State, working closely with all its stakeholders herein referred to as “Emergency responders”. The Agency came into existence in February, 2007 and the Legal frame work which statutorily established the Agency; the LASEMA Law 16 of 2008 was enacted on July 22nd, 2008 by His Excellency, Mr Babatunde Raji Fashola (SAN). The Agency is charged with the responsibility of responding promptly and adequately to all forms of emergency/disaster in the state through Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery operations by synergizing and working in collaboration with its multi-stakeholders which include; The Lagos State Fire Services, Lagos State Building Control Agency, Lagos State Ambulance Service, Rapid Response Squad, Lagos State Traffic Management Authority, National Emergency Management Agency, Red Cross, and Local Emergency Management Committees amongst other.
  268. 268. RESPONSIBILTIES OF THE LAGOS STATE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY In accordance with the extent Law 16 of 2008 of Lagos State which established the Agency (LASEMA), the Agency carries out the following responsibilities which include but not limited to; a. Coordination of activities of relevant agencies (Stakeholders/emergency responders) in prevention and management of disasters in the state. b. Development of Loss prevention programmes and procurement of necessary technology to mitigate identified emergency situation. c. Prompt and adequate response as well as sustained interventions in any form of emergency or disaster in the state. d. Provision of relief materials/financial assistance to victims of various disasters in the state. e. Conducting hazard analysis and risk assessment in disaster prone areas as well as post disaster enumeration when and where necessary. f. Capacity building of stakeholders/emergency responders in various areas of emergency/disaster management.
  269. 269. RESPONSIBILITIES CONTINUED G.Responding promptly to emergency at hand, which includes but not limited to the following; i. Collapsed Building ii. Fire outbreak iii.Flood Control iv.Environmental Pollution v. Crowd Control vi.Pipeline vandalization vii.Rain/wind storm viii.Search and Rescue Operations.
  270. 270. EMERGENCY AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT: LAGOS STATE APPROACH. The state has put in place holistic approach in managing emergency/disaster in the state which encapsulate the four(4) phases/cycle of disaster management. Which include; (A) Establishment of Command and Control Centre/Toll free Emergency no; 767/112 The state in recognition of the importance of information dissemination in quick response to disaster scenario established a command and control centre which is adequately furnished with state-of-the-art communication equipment and human resources to receive emergency/disaster distress call through its toll free emergency numbers; 767/112. Upon receipt of these calls at the call centre, emergency responders in the state are immediately informed such that necessary resources are mobilized to scenes of various disaster for search and rescue operation to save lives of victims as well as properties in the state. (B) Coordinated Emergency/Disaster Response Through a Well Defined Command Chain. The Emergency Response of the state is well coordinated, swift, prompt and effective. The effectiveness of the Emergency response/disaster intervention culminating into search and rescue operation is as a result of a well defined command structure of the state. Every emergency responding agencies has put in place internal dispatch protocol as per vertical flow of authority as prescribed by the coordinating agency (LASEMA). Thus, during emergency/disaster intervention relevant stakeholders have been assigned specific tasks and responsibilities in conducting search and rescue of disaster victims as entrenched in the Lagos State Emergency Response Action Plan.