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  1. 1. FIRE SAFETY 14
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Fire safety is very important, as the effects of fire incident is devastating • Basic fire Safety, is based upon the principle of keeping fuel sources and ignition sources separate. • Fire is the commonest emergency in E & P Activities. • According to the American National Safety Council,According to the American National Safety Council, Fire is the largest contributing factor in domestic accidents. 70% of all fire deaths occur in the home • Most fires occur in the home when people areMost fires occur in the home when people are asleep. Almost 40% of fire victims die in their sleep! (you lose your sense of smell when you are sleeping).sleeping). • Careless smoking, cooking, overheating, gas leakage and electrical spark are the leading causes of residential fire incidentsof residential fire incidents. • Awareness is the key to preventing fire incidents at work & at home
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS • Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning of a fuel. • • Fire is uncontrolled burning; e.g. Car on fire, House on fire etc. • • Burning or combustion is the chemical reaction between a fuel and oxygen.g yg • • Controlled Burning is used for the benefit of mankind (cooking, light, heat, industry motor vehicle and aircraft engines) • • Uncontrolled Burning is often unintentionally started and grows into a ragingg y g g g inferno (wildfires, bushfires, house-fires).
  4. 4. FUEL TRIANGLE • FUEL can be any combustible material - solid, liquid or gas. High temperature turns Solids and Liquids into vapor or gas before they will burn. OXYGEN Th i b th i b t 21 t Fi l d• OXYGEN The air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. Fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen. • HEAT is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occursufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur. In addition to fuel, heat, and oxygen, a chemical chain reaction is required to sustain flaming combustion In the absence of the fourth element only a flash fire will be experiencedcombustion. In the absence of the fourth element, only a flash fire will be experienced. Fire Tetrahedron reflects the flaming mode of combustion. 1. Enough OXYGEN to sustain combustion 2 Enough HEAT to reach ignition temperature2. Enough HEAT to reach ignition temperature 3. Some FUEL or combustible material 4. Together, they produce the CHEMICAL REACTION that is fire
  5. 5. COMMON CAUSES OF FIRE • Leaking Gas Cylinder A • Defective elect. equipment • Leaking flammable Liquids• Arson • Spontaneous ignition • Overload of electrical Sockets U tt d d ki Leaking flammable Liquids • Power surge/fluctuations • Short circuits/arching • Radiated heat• Unattended cooking • Storage of fuel at home • Thunder/Lightening strike) • Radiated heat • Poor house keeping • Naked light in gaseous environment (Unearthed Structure) • Spontaneous ignition • Gas explosion • Children playing with matches (Unearthed Structure) • Leaking gas valves • Carelessly dumped cigarette • Overheated Oil/Fats • Unsafe use of candles • Overheated Oil/Fats • Wrong use of fuse wires 18
  6. 6. Fire Safety Management Starvation • Prevents more fuel from feeding it e.g. Water Smothering • Stops oxygen to reach fire e.g. CO2/Foam Extinguisher C liCooling • Interrupts combustion process e.g. Powder Extinguisher/Water/CO2 Fi P ti d h k i h dli & t t i i• Fire Prevention – good housekeeping, handling, usage & storage, training, reporting & correcting anomalies • Fire Prevention – Keep Fuel and heat source isolated. • Fire Protection – Sprinklers, Deluge systems… • Fire Suppression – Fire Fighting techniques
  7. 7. Fire Fighting Techniques Pool fires • Start at the base of the flames from one end & sweep upwardStart at the base of the flames from one end & sweep upward Car engine fire • Open the bonnet slightly and use extinguisher Fire in the potFire in the pot • Close pot, use fire blanket or a wet towel. • Be carefully with extinguishers as it may blow everything away Person on firePerson on fire • Roll him into a blanket • Electrical or gas fires Remember to always isolate the source• Remember to always isolate the source EARLY RESPONSE IS THE KEY TO PREVENTING ESCALATIONEARLY RESPONSE IS THE KEY TO PREVENTING ESCALATION
  8. 8. TIPS ON FIRE SAFETY Tips on Fire Safety • Avoid keeping flammable liquids at homep g q • Don’t leave cooking oil/fat on fire unattended • Don’t leave your electrical appliances on during power failure. Switch them off and unplug from the mains. • Don’t use leaking gas cylinder, faulty stove or gas cooker • Don’t smoke while on bed & don’t discard cigarette ends carelessly In new environment, • Know the location of the exits (Staircases, doors..) If Clothes on fire • Stop, drop & roll ( with hands over your face)p, p ( y ) Waking up with Smoke in room • Go to the door on hands & knees (heat & smoke rise to the top) • Feel door first with back of hand • If ok, open door slightly & judge the situation • Get in the corridor & shut your door • Make your way to the EXIT, moving along the wallMake your way to the EXIT, moving along the wall • If stuck, Let some one know you are in.
  9. 9. CONCLUSION • Preventing a Fire is always cheaper than stopping one G d h k i i ti l f fi ti• Good housekeeping is essential for fire prevention • A small fires can grow rapidly – no time for errors • Panic can prove to be just as deadly as a fire R b l k f l & h t t d• Remember always keep fuels & heat sources separated A fire strikes when you least expect it, often during the night. It spreads very rapidly, but the real killer is smoke. If you are asleep when a fire starts and you don’t have a smoke alarm to wake you, your chances of surviving are Zero. Smoke suffocates quickly and you’ll be dead before the flames reach you. You’re at greater risk of a fire if you; • Cook food in Oil at high temperatures • •Use Candles or have open fire sources • Smoke Cigarettes, Cigars or Pipe while on bed • Cook meals late at night. • Excuses Kill:- Get a Smoke Detector installed in your Home TODAY