• Fire safety is very important, as the effects of fire
incident is devastating
• Basic fire Safety, is based upon the principle of
keeping fuel sources and ignition sources separate.
• Fire is the commonest emergency in E & P
• According to the American National Safety Council,According to the American National Safety Council,
Fire is the largest contributing factor in domestic
accidents. 70% of all fire deaths occur in the home
• Most fires occur in the home when people areMost fires occur in the home when people are
asleep. Almost 40% of fire victims die in their sleep!
(you lose your sense of smell when you are
• Careless smoking, cooking, overheating, gas
leakage and electrical spark are the leading causes
of residential fire incidentsof residential fire incidents.
• Awareness is the key to preventing fire incidents at
work & at home
• Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning of a fuel.
• • Fire is uncontrolled burning; e.g. Car on fire, House on fire etc.
• • Burning or combustion is the chemical reaction between a fuel and oxygen.g yg
• • Controlled Burning is used for the benefit of mankind (cooking, light, heat,
industry motor vehicle and aircraft engines)
• • Uncontrolled Burning is often unintentionally started and grows into a ragingg y g g g
inferno (wildfires, bushfires, house-fires).
• FUEL can be any combustible material - solid, liquid or gas. High temperature turns
Solids and Liquids into vapor or gas before they will burn.
OXYGEN Th i b th i b t 21 t Fi l d• OXYGEN The air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. Fire only needs an
atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen.
• HEAT is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where
sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occursufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur.
In addition to fuel, heat, and oxygen, a chemical chain reaction is required to sustain flaming
combustion In the absence of the fourth element only a flash fire will be experiencedcombustion. In the absence of the fourth element, only a flash fire will be experienced.
Fire Tetrahedron reflects the flaming mode of combustion.
1. Enough OXYGEN to sustain combustion
2 Enough HEAT to reach ignition temperature2. Enough HEAT to reach ignition temperature
3. Some FUEL or combustible material
4. Together, they produce the CHEMICAL REACTION that is fire
COMMON CAUSES OF FIRE
• Leaking Gas Cylinder
• Defective elect. equipment
• Leaking flammable Liquids• Arson
• Spontaneous ignition
• Overload of electrical Sockets
U tt d d ki
Leaking flammable Liquids
• Power surge/fluctuations
• Short circuits/arching
• Radiated heat• Unattended cooking
• Storage of fuel at home
• Thunder/Lightening strike)
• Radiated heat
• Poor house keeping
• Naked light in gaseous environment
• Spontaneous ignition
• Gas explosion
• Children playing with matches
• Leaking gas valves
• Carelessly dumped cigarette
• Overheated Oil/Fats
• Unsafe use of candles
• Overheated Oil/Fats
• Wrong use of fuse wires
Fire Safety Management
• Prevents more fuel from feeding it e.g. Water
• Stops oxygen to reach fire e.g. CO2/Foam Extinguisher
• Interrupts combustion process e.g. Powder Extinguisher/Water/CO2
Fi P ti d h k i h dli & t t i i• Fire Prevention – good housekeeping, handling, usage & storage, training,
reporting & correcting anomalies
• Fire Prevention – Keep Fuel and heat source isolated.
• Fire Protection – Sprinklers, Deluge systems…
• Fire Suppression – Fire Fighting techniques
Fire Fighting Techniques
• Start at the base of the flames from one end & sweep upwardStart at the base of the flames from one end & sweep upward
Car engine fire
• Open the bonnet slightly and use extinguisher
Fire in the potFire in the pot
• Close pot, use fire blanket or a wet towel.
• Be carefully with extinguishers as it may blow everything away
Person on firePerson on fire
• Roll him into a blanket
• Electrical or gas fires
Remember to always isolate the source• Remember to always isolate the source
EARLY RESPONSE IS THE KEY TO PREVENTING ESCALATIONEARLY RESPONSE IS THE KEY TO PREVENTING ESCALATION
TIPS ON FIRE SAFETY
Tips on Fire Safety
• Avoid keeping flammable liquids at homep g q
• Don’t leave cooking oil/fat on fire unattended
• Don’t leave your electrical appliances on during power failure. Switch them off
and unplug from the mains.
• Don’t use leaking gas cylinder, faulty stove or gas cooker
• Don’t smoke while on bed & don’t discard cigarette ends carelessly
In new environment,
• Know the location of the exits (Staircases, doors..)
If Clothes on fire
• Stop, drop & roll ( with hands over your face)p, p ( y )
Waking up with Smoke in room
• Go to the door on hands & knees (heat & smoke rise to the top)
• Feel door first with back of hand
• If ok, open door slightly & judge the situation
• Get in the corridor & shut your door
• Make your way to the EXIT, moving along the wallMake your way to the EXIT, moving along the wall
• If stuck, Let some one know you are in.
• Preventing a Fire is always cheaper than stopping one
G d h k i i ti l f fi ti• Good housekeeping is essential for fire prevention
• A small fires can grow rapidly – no time for errors
• Panic can prove to be just as deadly as a fire
R b l k f l & h t t d• Remember always keep fuels & heat sources separated
A fire strikes when you least expect it, often during the night. It spreads very
rapidly, but the real killer is smoke. If you are asleep when a fire starts and
you don’t have a smoke alarm to wake you, your chances of surviving are
Zero. Smoke suffocates quickly and you’ll be dead before the flames reach
you. You’re at greater risk of a fire if you;
• Cook food in Oil at high temperatures
• •Use Candles or have open fire sources
• Smoke Cigarettes, Cigars or Pipe while on bed
• Cook meals late at night.
• Excuses Kill:- Get a Smoke Detector installed in your Home TODAY