Chemical Safety


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Chemical Safety

  2. 2. Introduction Harmful chemical compounds in the form of solids, liquids, gases, mists, dusts, fumes, and vapors exert toxic effects by inhalation (breathing), absorption (through direct contact with the skin), or ingestion (eating or drinking). Airborne chemical hazards exist as concentrations of mists, vapors, gases, fumes, or solids. S t i th h i h l ti d f th i it t th ki t tSome are toxic through inhalation and some of them irritate the skin on contact; some can be toxic by absorption through the skin or through ingestion, and some are corrosive to living tissue. The degree of worker risk from exposure to any given substance depends on the nature and potency of the toxic effects and the magnitude and duration of exposure.
  3. 3. A Chemical May Be:y A physical hazardA physical hazard - a chemical is a physical hazard if it has the potential for fire, explosion or reactivity A health hazard • acute • Chronic Both a physical hazard and a health hazard Neither a physical or health hazard Example of chemicals: • Liquids (diesel fuel)q ( ) • Solids (coal or silica dust, welding fumes) • Gases (NO2 from blasting
  4. 4. Main Substances Categories Produces acute or chronic effects in exposed workers • Carcinogen - Carcinogenic Substances which cause cancer in various body organs, for example: skin cancer - waste oils, tar, cancer of the upper respiratory system – wood dust, particularly hard woods, lung cancer - asbestos, rubber fume, liver cancer - vinyl chloride • Toxic Agent - poisonous / cause acute or chronic effects • Reproductive toxin (teratogen) - could have harmful effect on maleReproductive toxin (teratogen) could have harmful effect on male or female reproductive system or on developing fetus • Irritant - Irritant Substances which on contact, react with the body’s tissues e g causing inflammation: sore itchy eyes stuffy nosetissues, e.g causing inflammation: sore, itchy eyes, stuffy nose, coughing and sneezing, blotchy red Skin • Corrosive - cause irreversible damage to living tissue Sensitizer cause exposed person to develop allergies to the• Sensitizer - cause exposed person to develop allergies to the substance • Target organ-specific agents - hazardous to specific organs in body ( l li bl d kid t )(e.g., lungs, liver, blood, kidneys, nervous system)
  5. 5. Route of Entryy For a chemical to have an effect on a worker, s/he must be exposed to it and some • Inhalation / breathing - most common route, gases / vapors can pass to blood, solid particles inhaled into lungs • Absorption through the skin - many solids, liquids, vapors and gases can be absorbed through the skingases can be absorbed through the skin • Ingestion / swallowing - while not intentional, failure to wash hands, eating in contaminated lab, etc. • Injection - accidents handling glass, sharps, etc. • Eye Contact - either physical damage or absorption The route of entry dictates selection of protective equipment
  6. 6. Chemical Poisoning Symptonsg y p • There are several symptoms of chemical poisoning whether by swallowing, touching or breathing:g – Difficulty breathing Headache or blurred vision– Headache or blurred vision – Irritated eyes, skin, throat Ch i ki l– Changes in skin color – Dizziness – Unusual behavior – Clumsiness or lack of coordination – Stomach cramps or diarrhea
  7. 7. Work EnvironmentWork Environment B f t t k d tBefore we start work we need to: • Identify the substances, products • Recognise the warning labels • Interpret the data from vendor data sheets• Interpret the data from vendor data sheets • Interpret the data from laboratory reports • Identify the potential exposure • Ask yourself “if its hazardous do I need toy use it”
  8. 8. AssessmentAssessment • Describe the task to be undertaken Id tif th b t t b t t d d• Identify the substance to be contacted or used • Identify the approximate volume of likely exposure • Re-visit the above and ask the following. • Do we need to do this task? • Do we need to use this product? • Is there a safer (personal & environmental) product il bl ?available? • Do we need to set in place specific engineering controls? D d i k h l h?• Do we need to monitor our workers health? • Do we need to have specialist training or vendors?
  9. 9. MSDS • Information on the risk to workers from chemical hazards can be obtained from the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). The MSDS is a summary of the important health, safety, and toxicological information on the chemical or the mixture's ingredients. Other provisions of the Hazard Communication Standard require that all containers of hazardous substances in theCommunication Standard require that all containers of hazardous substances in the workplace have appropriate warning and identification labels • MSDS explains the following:– – Identity of the chemical–names, manufacturer, compositionIdentity of the chemical names, manufacturer, composition – Physical & chemical characteristics–density, bpt, flash point, appearance, odour, melting point – Physical hazard‐fire & explosion and how to combat themy p – Health hazard–reveals if carcinogenic and exposure limits – How the chemical enters the body–ingestion, inhalation, skin, eye – Reactivity–situations that makes the chemical unstabley – PPE–recommended PPE to prevent exposure – Spills, leaks & disposal–what to do in the event of leak and how to dispose the substance – Handling & storage–proper way to handle and store the chemical
  10. 10. Personal Protective Equipmentq p Personal Protective Equipment This is your line of defence• This is your line of defence. • You have asked all the relevant questions • You have made the risk to you and others A L A R PAS.LOW.AS.REASONABLE.PRACTICABLE
  11. 11. CONCLUSION • Know the risk of chemicals – Know where to find specific risks – Know proper protective equipment for each riskKnow proper protective equipment for each risk – Know emergency procedures Know compatibilities– Know compatibilities – Know correct disposal