Polyatomic Nomenclature

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  • 1. Metric System & Scientific Notation Chemistry August 20 th /21 st , 2009
  • 2. Metric System
    • The metric system is based on a base unit that corresponds to a certain kind of measurement
        • Length = meter
        • Volume = liter
        • Weight (Mass) = gram
    • Prefixes plus base units make up the metric system
      • Example:
        • Centi + meter = Centimeter
        • Kilo + liter = Kiloliter
  • 3. Metric System
    • The three prefixes that we will use the most are:
      • Kilo= 1000
      • centi = 1/100 (one hundredth)
      • milli= 1/1000 (one thousandth)
    • How do you remember all of them?
    • Kissing Hairy Dark space dogs causes mono
    Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
  • 4. Metric System
    • So if you needed to measure length you would choose meter as your base unit
      • Length of a tree branch
        • 1.5 meters
      • Length of a room
        • 5 meters
    • But what if you need to measure a longer distance, like from your house to school?
      • Let’s say you live approximately 10 miles from school
        • 10 miles = 16093 meters
      • 16093 is a big number, but what if you could add a prefix onto the base unit to make it easier to manage:
        • 16093 meters = 16.093 kilometers (or 16.1 if rounded to 1 decimal place)
  • 5. Typical Metric Units
    • What metric unit would you use to measure the length of the room?
    • What metric unit would you use to measure the distance between the mall and school?
    • What metric unit would you use to measure your weight?
    • What metric unit would you use to measure the amount of liquid in a soda bottle?
    • What unit would you use to measure the amount of liquid in an eye dropper?
  • 6. Metric System
    • These prefixes are based on powers of 10. What does this mean?
      • From each prefix every “step” is either:
        • 10 times larger
          • or
        • 10 times smaller
      • For example
        • Centimeters are 10 times larger than millimeters
        • 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
    Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
  • 7. Metric System
      • Centimeters are 10 times larger than millimeters so it takes more millimeters for the same length
        • 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
        • Example not to scale
    1 cm 40 41 41 40 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm
  • 8. Metric System
    • For each “step” to right, you are multiplying by 10
    • For example, let’s go from a base unit to centi
      • 1 liter = 10 deciliters = 100 centiliters
      • 2 grams = 20 decigrams = 200 centigrams
    ( 1 x 10 = 10) = (10 x 10 = 100) (2 x 10 = 20) = (20 x 10 = 200) Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
  • 9. Metric System
    • An easy way to move within the metric system is by moving the decimal point one place for each “step” desired
      • Example: change meters to centimeters
      • 1 meter = 10 decimeters = 100 centimeters
      • or
      • 1.00 meter = 10.0 decimeters = 100. centimeters
    Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
  • 10. Metric System
    • Now let’s try our previous example from meters to kilometers:
      • 16093 meters = 1609.3 decameters = 160.93 hectometers = 16.093 kilometers
    • So for every “step” from the base unit to kilo, we moved the decimal 1 place to the left (the same direction as in the diagram below)
    Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
  • 11. Metric System
    • If you move to the left in the diagram, move the decimal to the left
    • If you move to the right in the diagram, move the decimal to the right
    Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
  • 12. Metric System
    • Now let’s start from centimeters and convert to kilometers
      • 400000 centimeters = ? kilometers
    Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
  • 13. Metric System
    • Now let’s start from meters and convert to centimeters
      • 5 meters = ? centimeters
    • Now let’s start from kilometers and convert to meters
      • .3 kilometers = ? meters
    Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000) Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
  • 14. Metric System
    • Summary
      • Base units in the metric system are meter, liter, gram
      • Metric system is based on powers of 10
      • For conversions within the metric system, each “step” is 1 decimal place to the right or left
      • Using the diagram below, converting to the right, moves the decimal to the right and vice versa
    Kilo (1000) Hecto (100) Deca (10) Base Units meter gram liter deci (1/10) centi (1/100) milli (1/1000)
  • 15. Scientific Notation
    • Scientific notation is a way of expressing really big numbers or really small numbers.
    • For very large and very small numbers, scientific notation is more concise.
    • Scientific Notation always has two parts:
      • A number between 1 and 9.9999…
      • A power of 10
    • N x 10 x
  • 16. Writing Scientific Notation
    • Place the decimal point so that there is one non-zero digit to the left of the decimal point.
    • Count the number of decimal places the decimal point has “moved” from the original number. This will be the exponent on the 10.
    • If the original number was less than 1, then the exponent is negative. If the original number was greater than 1, then the exponent is positive.
    • Example:
      • Given: 289,800,000
      • Start with: 2.898
      • Decimal needs to move 8 places to the right
      • Answer: 2.898 x 10 8
  • 17. Try this:
    • Given: 0.000567
    • Start with:
    • Decimal needs to move:
    • Answer:
  • 18. Change Scientific Notation back to Standard Form
    • Simply move the decimal point to the right for positive exponent 10.
    • Move the decimal point to the left for negative exponent 10.
    • (Use zeros to fill in places.)
    • Example:
    • Given: 5.093 x 10 6
    • Move: 6 places to the right (positive)
    • Answer: 5,093,000
  • 19. Try This:
    • Given: 1.976 x 10 -4
    • Move:
    • Answer: