Periodic Table E Config
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Periodic Table E Config

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    Periodic Table E Config Periodic Table E Config Presentation Transcript

    • ORGANIZATION OF THE PERIODIC TABLE November 2 nd , 3 rd & 4th, 2009
    • How is the periodic table arranged?
      • Periodic table is arranged by increasing atomic number
        • How did they decide when to add a new row?
      • A new row is needed so that elements are arranged with repeating properties in each column
        • The properties of the elements repeat periodically
          • Hence… the periodic table!
      • There are many different ways to organize the elements…
    • Circular
    • Long Form
    • Spiral
    • Pyramid
    • Layers
    • Which one do you like the best?
    • Why so many versions?
      • Everybody sees their own pattern in the elements
      • What patterns did we see?
        • Shells
        • Outer Electrons
    • Groups and Families
      • The columns in the periodic table are called groups, or families.
      • Each group has the same number of outer shell electrons
      Group 1: Alkali Metals Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals Group 7: Halogens Group 8: Noble Gases
    • Valence Electrons
      • All elements in a group have the same number of outer shell, or valence electrons
      • Valence electrons determine how an element will behave and what it bonds with
      How many valence electrons does each group have?
    • Typical Charge (Ion Formed)
      • You should remember that 8 is great!
        • Elements will either gain or lose electrons to try to have 8
          • Elements with 3 or less electrons will LOSE electrons
            • Becoming _____________
          • Elements with 4 or more will GAIN electrons
            • Becoming _____________
      • For Hydrogen and Helium, 2 is good too!
        • They can’t possibly hold 8 electrons, so they are full at 2
    • Practice
      • Label:
        • Group name or number
        • # of valence electrons
        • Typical Charge
    • Where are the electrons? -The Bohr Atom
      • Problems with Bohr Model
        • Only worked for Hydrogen
        • Couldn’t explain where the electrons were in atoms that had more than one electron
      • What Bohr got right
        • Energy Levels
    • The difference between continuous and quantized energy levels How do we think energy levels work?
    • Quantum Mechanical Model
      • Electrons do not follow definite paths like the planets
      • Electrons have a probability of being found in a cloud of negative charge around the nucleus. These clouds have specific shapes.
      • There are areas around the nucleus that correspond with certain energy levels (like the Bohr Model)
      • The areas around the nucleus where the electron probably is (energy levels) are called orbitals
    • Orbitals
      • Do not have sharp edges
      • We can never map exactly where an electron is at any given moment
        • All we know is the probability of an electron being in a certain place
          • You know I’m probably in this room all day, you just don’t know if I’m at my desk or in the storeroom or walking around
    • The s Orbital
    • The p orbitals (three of them) The d orbitals (five of them)
    • Relative size of the 1s, 2s, 3s orbitals
    • Electron Filling
      • Electrons like to be close to the nucleus because that requires the least amount of energy
      • Electrons will fill the orbitals in this order:
      • 1s orbital, then 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, and so on.
        • This order can be seen just by looking at the periodic table
        • Larger numbers mean larger orbitals, which means the electrons is farther away from the nucleus
        • The farther away an electron is, the more energy it has
          • Think about where the office of a CEO is…
      • Color in or outline the sections on your blank periodic table to match this diagram
    • Electron Configuration
      • When we write out the location of all electrons in an atom, we are writing its electron configuration
        • Think of it like a map
      • Fill in the missing information on your map
        • Now locate the element with this electron configuration
          • 1s 1
          • 1s 2 2s 1
          • 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4
        • Write the electron configuration for Boron