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Periodic Table E Config
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Periodic Table E Config

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  • 1. ORGANIZATION OF THE PERIODIC TABLE November 2 nd , 3 rd & 4th, 2009
  • 2. How is the periodic table arranged?
    • Periodic table is arranged by increasing atomic number
      • How did they decide when to add a new row?
    • A new row is needed so that elements are arranged with repeating properties in each column
      • The properties of the elements repeat periodically
        • Hence… the periodic table!
    • There are many different ways to organize the elements…
  • 3. Circular
  • 4. Long Form
  • 5. Spiral
  • 6. Pyramid
  • 7. Layers
  • 8. Which one do you like the best?
  • 9. Why so many versions?
    • Everybody sees their own pattern in the elements
    • What patterns did we see?
      • Shells
      • Outer Electrons
  • 10. Groups and Families
    • The columns in the periodic table are called groups, or families.
    • Each group has the same number of outer shell electrons
    Group 1: Alkali Metals Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals Group 7: Halogens Group 8: Noble Gases
  • 11. Valence Electrons
    • All elements in a group have the same number of outer shell, or valence electrons
    • Valence electrons determine how an element will behave and what it bonds with
    How many valence electrons does each group have?
  • 12. Typical Charge (Ion Formed)
    • You should remember that 8 is great!
      • Elements will either gain or lose electrons to try to have 8
        • Elements with 3 or less electrons will LOSE electrons
          • Becoming _____________
        • Elements with 4 or more will GAIN electrons
          • Becoming _____________
    • For Hydrogen and Helium, 2 is good too!
      • They can’t possibly hold 8 electrons, so they are full at 2
  • 13. Practice
    • Label:
      • Group name or number
      • # of valence electrons
      • Typical Charge
  • 14. Where are the electrons? -The Bohr Atom
    • Problems with Bohr Model
      • Only worked for Hydrogen
      • Couldn’t explain where the electrons were in atoms that had more than one electron
    • What Bohr got right
      • Energy Levels
  • 15. The difference between continuous and quantized energy levels How do we think energy levels work?
  • 16. Quantum Mechanical Model
    • Electrons do not follow definite paths like the planets
    • Electrons have a probability of being found in a cloud of negative charge around the nucleus. These clouds have specific shapes.
    • There are areas around the nucleus that correspond with certain energy levels (like the Bohr Model)
    • The areas around the nucleus where the electron probably is (energy levels) are called orbitals
  • 17. Orbitals
    • Do not have sharp edges
    • We can never map exactly where an electron is at any given moment
      • All we know is the probability of an electron being in a certain place
        • You know I’m probably in this room all day, you just don’t know if I’m at my desk or in the storeroom or walking around
  • 18. The s Orbital
  • 19. The p orbitals (three of them) The d orbitals (five of them)
  • 20. Relative size of the 1s, 2s, 3s orbitals
  • 21. Electron Filling
    • Electrons like to be close to the nucleus because that requires the least amount of energy
    • Electrons will fill the orbitals in this order:
    • 1s orbital, then 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, and so on.
      • This order can be seen just by looking at the periodic table
      • Larger numbers mean larger orbitals, which means the electrons is farther away from the nucleus
      • The farther away an electron is, the more energy it has
        • Think about where the office of a CEO is…
  • 22.
    • Color in or outline the sections on your blank periodic table to match this diagram
  • 23. Electron Configuration
    • When we write out the location of all electrons in an atom, we are writing its electron configuration
      • Think of it like a map
    • Fill in the missing information on your map
      • Now locate the element with this electron configuration
        • 1s 1
        • 1s 2 2s 1
        • 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4
      • Write the electron configuration for Boron