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Creation And Design Of Documents

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  • 1. Creation and design of documents
  • 2. Contents 1. Design Principles 2. Creation of document
  • 3. 1. Design Principles* * This section is revised representation of “The Non-Designer’s Book About Design (Design and Typographical Principles for Newbies)” by Robin Williams
  • 4. Four Basic Design Principles: Proximity Aligning Repeat Contrast
  • 5. The four basic Design Principles Proximity  Items related to each other should be grouped close together. They represent one visual unit rather than several separate units. This helps to organize information and reduces voids. Aligning  Nothing should be placed on the page arbitrary. Every element should have some visual connection with another element on the page. This creates a clean, sophisticated and fresh look. Repeat  Repeat visual elements of design throughout the piece. You can repeat colors, outline, ships, sizes, and ruler, etc. This increase the whole organization and strengthens unity. Contrast:  This principle is to avoid elements on the page that are merely similar. If the elements: type, color, size, line thickness, shape, space, and etc. – are not the same, then make them very different. Contrast is often the most important visual attraction tool to make a reader look at the page.
  • 6. Proximity (1) According to proximity principle, related items should be grouped together and should be moved physically close to each other, so items related to each other are seen as one cohesive group rather than a bunch of unrelated bits.
  • 7. Proximity (1) Take a look at this business card as an example PR-director +7 (927) 404-64-47 Damir Zakiev LLC «KommandCore» Kazan, Tatarstan How many times does your eye stop to look at the business card? Five times?
  • 8. Proximity (1) Let’s confuse the issue even further +7 (927) 404-64-47 PR-director Damir Zakiev LLC «KommandCore» Kazan, Tatarstan What has happened?
  • 9. Proximity (1) Now group them Damir Zakiev PR-director LLC «KommandCore» Kazan, Tatarstan +7 (927) 404-64-47 When several elements are in close to each other, they become one visual unit rather than several separate units. As in life, when proximity, or closeness imply a relationship.
  • 10. Proximity (1) Damir Zakiev PR-director LLC «KommandCore» Kazan, Tatarstan +7 (927) 404-64-47 By grouping related elements together, you make the page more organized. You know from what to start reading information, and know when to finish. And spaces (the space around letters) also become more organized.
  • 11. Proximity (1) Example with the list
  • 12. Proximity (1) The example with the list
  • 13. Proximity (1) Summing up The proximity principle doesn’t mean that basic elements should be closer one to another. It means that semantic elements, those that have some sort of communicational similarity, should also be visually connected.
  • 14. Proximity (1) The basic purpose of proximity is to organize. Other principles come into play as well, but simple grouping related elements together into closer proximity automatically creates organization. If your information is organized, it is more likely to be read and more likely to be remembered. As a by-product of organizing the communication, you also create more appealing (more organized) white space (designers’ favorite thing).
  • 15. Proximity (1) What to avoid  Avoid too many separate elements on the page  Don’t stick things in the corners or in the middle  Avoid leaving equal amount of white space between elements unless each group is part of a subset  Avoid even a split second of confusion over whether a headline, subhead, caption, graphic, etc. and its related material. Create a relationship among elements with close proximity  Don’t create relationships with elements that don’t belong together. If they are not related, move them apart from each other
  • 16. Aligning (2) Principle of Aligning states, that nothing should be placed on the page arbitrarily. Every item should have a visual connection with something else on the page.
  • 17. Aligning (2) Take a look at this business card as an example PR-director +7 (927) 404-64-47 Damir Zakiev LLC «KommandCore» Kazan, Tatarstan The elements on this card look like they were just thrown on this card
  • 18. Aligning (2) Damir Zakiev PR-director LLC «KommandCore» Kazan, Tatarstan +7 (927) 404-64-47 This example has a nice arrangement with the text items grouped into logical proximity. The text is centered on the page.
  • 19. Aligning (2) Damir Zakiev PR-director LLC «KommandCore» Kazan, Tatarstan +7 (927) 404-64-47 This example has the same logical arrangement, but now it is right-aligned. There is an invisible line connecting visually these two groups of the text.
  • 20. Aligning (2) Damir Zakiev PR-director LLC «KommandCore» Kazan, Tatarstan +7 (927) 404-64-47
  • 21. Aligning (2) There are two coverage examples Compare these two pieces of coverage – what do you feel??
  • 22. Aligning (2) There are two coverage examples This is a typical report cover. This standard format presents a dull, almost amateurish look, which may influence someone’s initial reaction to the report.
  • 23. Aligning (2) There are two coverage examples The strong flush-left aligning gives the report cover a more sophisticated impression. Even though the author’s name is far from the title, that invisible line of the strong aligning connects the two text blocks.
  • 24. Aligning (2) Summing up Nothing should be placed on the page arbitrarily. Every element should have some visual connection with another element on the page.
  • 25. Aligning (2) Unity is an important concept in design. To make all the elements on the page appear to be unified, connected, and interrelated, there needs to be some visual tie between the separate elements. Even if the separate elements are not physically close on the page, they can appear connected, related, and unified with the other information simply by their placement.
  • 26. Aligning (2) The basic purpose of aligning is to unify and organize the page. It is often a strong aligning (combined, of course, with the appropriate typeface) that creates a sophisticated look, or a formal look, a fun look, or a serious look.
  • 27. Aligning (2) What to avoid  Avoid using more than one text aligning on the page (that is, don’t center some text and middle-align other text)  And please try very hard to break away a centered aligning unless you are consciously trying to create a more formal, sedate (often dull) presentation. Choose a centered aligning consciously, not by default.
  • 28. Repeat (3) The principle of repeat states that you repeat some aspect of the design throughout the entire piece. The repetitive element may be a bold font, a thick line, a certain bullet, color, design element, particular format, and spatial relationships, etc. it can be anything that a reader will visually recognize.
  • 29. Repeat (3) Repeat is some kind of “consistency”. As you look through an eight-page work report, it is repetition of certain elements and their consistency, that makes each of those eight pages appear to belong to the same document. The principle of repeat goes beyond just being naturally consistent – it is conscious effort to unify all parts of design.
  • 30. Repeat (3) Take a look at business cards as examples Damir Zakiev PR-director LLC «KommandCore» Kazan, Tatarstan +7 (927) 404-64-47 Damir Zakiev PR-director LLC «KommandCore» Kazan, Tatarstan +7 (927) 404-64-47
  • 31. Repeat (3) Text design of the document is a good place to start when you need to create repetitive elements. That is why try to make this element stronger.
  • 32. Repeat (3) Consistencies:  bold type of headlines  thin type inside the divisions  square blue tokens  space between blocks if information  aligning
  • 33. Repeat (3) Summing up The purpose of repeat is to unify and to add visual interest. Don’t underestimate the visual interest of a page: if a piece looks interesting, it is more likely to be read. How to do it?
  • 34. Repeat (3) First find existing in the text consistencies and then make them stronger. For example, you use a 1-point rule under the each page and each heading. How about using a 4-point rule instead to make the repetitive element stronger and more dramatic? Now think about is it possible to add elements whose purpose is to create a repeat? Do you have numbered lists in your text? How about using a distinctive font or reversed number for numeration? And then repeating that treatment throughout every numbered list of the document?
  • 35. Repeat (3) Repeat is like accenting your clothes with accessories.
  • 36. Repeat (3) What to avoid  Avoid repeating the element so much that it becomes annoying or overwhelming.
  • 37. Contrast (4) Contrast is one of the most effective ways to add a striking visual interest to your page, that makes a reader want to look at the page, and to create an organizational hierarchy among different elements. The important rule to remember is that for contrast to be effective, it must be strong.
  • 38. Contrast (4) Contrast is created when two elements are different. If two items of the text are not exactly the same, then make them different. Completely different.
  • 39. Contrast (4) Contrast can be created in many ways: to contrast large type with small type; a graceful oldstyle font with a bold sans serif font; a thin line with a thick line; a cool color with a warm color; a smooth texture with a rough texture; a horizontal element with a vertical element… But don’t be afraid. 16-point type cannot contrast with 18-point type. Blue color cannot contrast with dark-blue color.
  • 40. Contrast (4) This document is nice and neat, but there Agree, that your eyes are drawn to this is nothing that attracts eyes to it. page, rather than the previous one.
  • 41. Contrast (4) Summing up Contrast draws your eyes on a page, your eyes like contrast. Contrast pursues two purposes, and both purposes are inextricable from each other. The first one is to create an interest on the page: if a page is interesting to look at, it’s more likely to be read. The second one is to aid in the organization of the information. A reader should be able to instantly understand the way the information is organized, the logical flow from one to another.
  • 42. Contrast (4) What to avoid – Don’t be afraid! If you’re going to contrast, do it with strength – Avoid contrasting a sort-of-heavy line with a sort-of-heavier line – Avoid contrasting brown text with black headlines – Avoid using two or more typefaces that are similar – If the items are not exactly the same, make them completely different
  • 43. Short review of four principles A rather dull but typical front page of the business plan: the text is centered to fill page’s space, white spaces are evenly divided among the lines.
  • 44. Short review of four principles Proximity By putting the title and subtitle close to each other, we now have one well-defined unit rather than four apparently unrelated units. It is now clear that the title and the subtitle are closely related to each other. When we move the by-line and date at the foot of the page, it becomes instantly clear that although this is related information and possibly important, it is not part of title.
  • 45. Short review of four principles Aligning Even though the author’s name is far from the title, there is a visual connection between the elements because of their aligning.
  • 46. Short review of four principles Repeat The distinctive typeface in the title is repeated in the author’s name, which strengthens their connection even though they are physically far apart on the page. The small triangles were added specifically to create a repeat. The color of the triangle is also a repeated element.
  • 47. Short review of four principles Contrast Here the contrast was made with the help of dark-blue triangle.
  • 48. 2. Creation of the document (presentation)
  • 49. First step of creation First step is to choose a background of presentation. No way use ready templates of backgrounds. The most optimal is black or white background.
  • 50. Here are typical backgrounds for presentations. What they have in common? Any information is lost on their surface. They can’t be used.
  • 51. There are the backgrounds by Keynote program. They are much better. These backgrounds are the reflection of Steve Jobs’ experience of, who can prepare and hold enormously interesting presentations. He knows what he offers.
  • 52. The first step of creation Nevertheless, the most optimal backgrounds for presentation are simple white background or…
  • 53. The first step of creation … or just simple black background.
  • 54. The second step of creation The second step is to create the structure of your slide. It is necessary to divide the slide into functional fields:  place for slide’s title  place for information location on the slide  slide’s margins  your other chips, e.g. place for location of different indicators of your presentation (logo, presentation’s section) and etc.
  • 55. Place for main title Place for subtitle Place for information location on the slide
  • 56. Logo (section) Place for main title Place for subtitle Place for information location on the slide Field for presentation’s identification and indicators’ location
  • 57. The second step of creation The simplest way is to make boundaries of presentation.
  • 58. The second step of creation The simplest way is to make boundaries of presentation.
  • 59. The second step of creation The simplest way is to make boundaries of presentation. Draw attention – the objects are accurately tied to lines. The title is tied to the left and on the bottom. The text is on the left and below.
  • 60. One more important thing – slide’s field should let through more air! In order not to stick the information on borders.
  • 61. The third step of creation The third step is to make a square of the slide. It needs to divide place of information location into the square to add order and harmony to the whole document.
  • 62. The third step of creation
  • 63. The third step of creation Further all objects being attached to this field should be tied to these boundaries. The purpose of this square is not only in elements aligning. The square helps to make the objects proportional, namely, having clear and noticeable proportions. 1х1 1х1,63 2х3 1х3
  • 64. The third step of creation As a rule, if proportions are being held for objects on all slides, the presentation itself looks much better than if these proportions are not kept. 2х3 2х2,6
  • 65. The third step of creation Like this, for example
  • 66. The third step of creation Like this, for example
  • 67. The third step of creation Or like this…
  • 68. The third step of creation Or like this…
  • 69. The third step of creation In our square for presentation each triangle is made by using the proportions of golden section.
  • 70. The third step of creation Why does the golden section is so interesting? It is because this natural constant is met in all natural objects. For example, the distance among three tree branches or a flower corresponds in full to the golden section proportions. That is why this natural harmony is pleasant for man’s eyes. It doesn’t depend on age, sex, culture and race. An eye of every man perceives such things as harmonic element of the world. This proportion is figured as 1 × 1,618 in numbers.
  • 71. The third step of creation That is why these proportions can be recognized in many great masterpieces of mankind.
  • 72. The third step of creation It is possible to use frames for objects suitable for golden section proportions instead of the square. It can be comfortable because the square doesn’t consider the distance between objects. And by moving such frames on slide we always can align them relating to each other, and, at the same time, set equal distance between them.
  • 73. The third step of creation 1х1,63 1х1,63 1х1,63 1х1,63 For example like this
  • 74. The third step of creation 1х1,63 1х1,63 1х1,63 1х1,63 For example like this
  • 75. The fourth step of creation The fourth step is to choose colors, to be used in presentation. Example is here, for a title, main and subsidiary texts, lists (marked and numbered), tables, graphs and diagrams, etc. What colors do you like?
  • 76. The fourth step of creation Here is the important principle – no more than one main color for text (e.g. white), one color for titles (e.g. with tins of blue) and one-two subsidiary colors highlights in text or on schemes. But no more!!!
  • 77. The fifth step of creation The fifth step is to create the presentation style. Namely to choose type, size and text’s color, which will be used then. It is necessary to make titles and main text’s style, styles of lists (marked and numbered), tables, graphs and diagrams...
  • 78. Main title Main text (14-point Calibri type, white color), main text (14-point Calibri type, white color), Main text (14-point Calibri type, white color) Subsidiary text (14-point Calibri type, grey color), Subsidiary text (14-point Calibri type, grey color), Subsidiary text (14-point Calibri type, grey color)  marked list 1. numbered list  marked list 2. numbered list  marked list 3. numbered list  marked list 4. numbered list
  • 79. Main title Main text (14-point Calibri type, white color), main text (14-point Calibri type, white color), Main text (14-point Calibri type, white color) Subsidiary text (14-point Calibri type, grey color), Subsidiary text (14-point Calibri type, grey color), Subsidiary text (14-point Calibri type, grey color)  marked list 1. numbered list  marked list 2. numbered list  marked list 3. numbered list  marked list 4. numbered list
  • 80. Styles of tables Title Title Title Title Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text
  • 81. Styles of tables Title Title Title Title Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text
  • 82. Styles of diagrams 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
  • 83. Styles of diagrams 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
  • 84. The conclusion Using this knowledge it’s possible not just to make any document designed well and nice, be it a presentation, table or just simple text. First of all, by using these principles we can visually structure our information in the way to make it comfortable, interesting and joyful to any person perceiving it. P.S. To be continued…
  • 85. Lively management of projects www.KommandCore.com