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Промышленный шпионаж
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Промышленный шпионаж

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История промышленного шпионажа, начиная с Древнего Китая и кончая нашими днями. В книге рассказывается о методах, к которым прибегают монополии, чтобы узнать тайны своих конкурентов.

История промышленного шпионажа, начиная с Древнего Китая и кончая нашими днями. В книге рассказывается о методах, к которым прибегают монополии, чтобы узнать тайны своих конкурентов.

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  • 1. JR. &ep.be
  • 2. )f(. 5EP>KbE CCKpalleHHblM nepeaOA C cjlpaHqyacKoro M. A. TEPTEPOBA npeAIIClIoBIlB 3acnYIKeHHoril A811Tellll HayKK PC41CP AOKTOpa aKoHOMH~Br.KMX Hay" npocjleccopa H. H. nlO6HMOBA IISAATEnbCTBO "MEIKAYHAPOAHbIE OTHOWEHHll" M 0 CIl B A 1872 ..........
  • 3. Jacques Bergier L'ESPIONNAGE INDUSTRIEL Hachette 1969 llepeo eJlasa,ltu 'iUmameJlR npolloem BCR ucmopUR npOMblUlJleHHOeO WnUOHa?/ca, Ha'IUHaR o fJpoBHeeo l(umaR U KOH'IGJl HaLUUMU OHJlMU. B KHuee paccKasblBaemCJl 0 Memoi)ax, K Komo­ pbW npu6eeGiom MOHOnOJlUU 'im06bl ySHamb maUHbI CBOUX KOHKypeHmoB. 3ma KHuea, BKJlIO'iaIOUaR 60JlbWOe KOJlU­ 'ieCmBO uHmepecHblx ¢aKInOB U He MeHee UH' mepeCHblX BblBOOOB. HanucaHa ?lCUBO U yBJleKa­ me/lbHO. nPE~HCJIOBnE npe~naraeMaH B pyCCKOM nepeBo~e KHHra /.KaKa Bep>l{be «llpoMbllIIneHHblH lIInHOHa}{» BbllIIna B napH}{e B 1969 ro~y TpeTbHM H3~aHHeM. KHHra BbI3Bana orpoMHbllI HHTepec MHorOllHcneHHblX llHTaTeneH, H, oe3 pHcKa OlIIHOHTbCH, MO}{HO CKa3aTb, liTO ee ycnex - He KOHblOHKTYPHblH, Bbl3BaHHblH KaKHMH-nHOO TeKyuUiMH H npeXO~HmHMH COOblTHHMH, a oonee npollHblH H ~nHTenbHblH. B lleM npHllHHa !lToro? Xo­ TH. no cy}{~eHHIO aBTopa, npoMbllIIneHHblH UIlIHOHa>K ~peBHee BoeHHoro (ero ~OHcTopHllecKHM HCTOKaM nOCBHmeHa uenaH rnaBa), Bce }{e ocooeH· HO ycnelIIHo H, ecnH TaK MO}{HO Bblpa3HT~cH, HaHoonee opraHHllHo npo­ MbIlIIneHHblH lIInHOHa}{ BnHCblBaeTCH B norHll~cKHH KOHTeKCT cOBpeMeHHoB HayllHo-TexHHllecKoH peBonJoUHH. ' He cnYllaFlHo /.K. Bep}{be B «nepBblH, ~aJleKO He nonHblB nepelleHb OObeKTOB npOMbllIIneHHoro lIInHOHa}{a» BKmOllaeT «cnHHHHH, KOHueHTpa­ UHH, YBenHlleHHe KanHTana, HOBbIe HaYllHbIe OTKpbITHH, peKnaMHble nnaHbI, npoeKTbl BbmycKa HOBblX H3~enHH, ytJpe}{~eIlHe ¢HnHanOB 3a rpaHHueH». CymecTByeT elue MIloro ~pyrHx «OObeKTOB» npOMbllIIneHHoro wnHO­ Ha}{a, H Mbl n03HaKOMHM lllHaTcnH C HeKOTopblMH H3 HHX. Ho y}{e cell· lIac MO}{HO CKa3aTb. liTO COllpeMelIIIble npOMbllIIneIlIlble lIInHOHbI llaneKO OTOlIInH 01' CBOHX HCTopHlleCKHX npelllIIeCTBeHHHKOB - nlOlleH, KaK npa­ IlHnO, HeBe}{eCTBeHHbIX H npHMHTHBHbIX, llaneKHX 01' nporpecca HayKH H TCXHHKH CBoero BpeMeHH, CBOCH :illOXH. HHoe Il HalIIH llHHl Tenepb npH' MeHHeMble cpe~CTBa npellIIOnaralOT H Hcnonb30aaIlHe «HOBeHlIIHX llOCTH' >KeHHH 3neKTpOIlHKlI, H Henocpe~CTIlCIiHoe TarlJlOe HaonlOlleHHe, H Kpa>KH CO B3nOllOM, H lIIaHTa>K. Pellb HlleT 0 IlaCTOHmeH TaHHoi! BOHHe - CTonb 1I,e pacnpOCTpaHeHHOH H CTonb >Ke HCOUbIIIIlOrl, KaK oopuoa BoeHHbIX pa3­ BellllHl<OB H KOHTppa3Be~IIHKOB». XOTenOCb ObI C caMoro Hallana nOllllepKHyTb, liTO llnH HanHcaHHH Ta· KOH cnCUHanbHOH MOHorpa¢HH, KaK llaHHaH KHHra, Hy>KeH allTOp, OCIIOBa­ TenbllO 311alOmllii cnOIO TeMy H nHlIHO 3Hal<OMbIH C HaH(')onee THnHllHblMH nepCOlla}{aMH onHCbIBaeMOH HM Cpellbl. Ha nocnelllleH CTpaHHue OonO}/(J{H ¢paHIlY3CKoro H311aHHH KIIHrH II. Bep}/{be ~aHa cnellYIomaH xapaKTcpucTHKa: «8 HaCT05ImcM, KaK H B 6YllymeM, npoMbllIIneHllblH UlnHOHa}{ Bee oonee pa31lHIlaeTCH H oy~eT pasllHBaTbcH, H aBTo~ - cneUHanHCT Hay11Iloi! pa3BcllKH, OblBUlHH B no­ 3 5-t!3'"-36-7J r-H--5
  • 4. CJle./lHIOIO MHpOBylO BOHHy O./lIlHM H3 OTBeTCTBeHliblX HCnOJlIIHTMeH nJlaHa pil3pYlleHHSI repMaHCKOH paKeTHOH 6a3b1 Ha OCTpOBe neHeMIOH./le. - Be­ lleT Hac B 3TOT IIlpatlllblH IIlHP, r.ue »<HBa51 .ueHCTBHTeJlbHOCTb... npeBOCXO­ HHT BCSlKHH B6IMbICeJl». cBo <!>paHuHH, no ./laHllblM nOJlHUHH, 3a npOlllblllJleHHbllllH ceKpeTaMH OXOTlITCSI 50 TbiC. llnHOHOB». cB HallH ./lHH, - OTMe'laJlH H3.uaTeJlH KHHrH Oep)f{be, - npOMblllJleH­ HblH mnHOHa)f{ npH06peTaeT 60Jlbllee 3Ha'leHHe, '1eM llnHOHa)f{ BoeHHblH. PacnOJlarall BHYllHTeJlbHblM <jJOH.uOM cpe.uCTB - nopSl.uKa 1 MJlP.u. <jJpaH­ I(OB 0 ro.u, npOMblllJleHHblH llnHOHa)f{ HcnoJlb3yeT CTOJlb )f{e Moryw.ecT­ oeHHble opraHH3aUHH, 'ITO H BoeHHbIH llnHOHa)f{. 11 OH Be.ueT 6ecnow.a.u­ HylO COUllaJlbH,Y1O BOHHy». Cooe Ha'laJlO npOlllblllJleHHblH llnllOHa)f{ Be.ueT 113 rJly61lHbI BeKOB. KHHra Oep)l(be .uaeT .uOCTaTO'lHO nOJlHblii HCTOpH'IeCKHH aHaJlH3 pa3BHTHSI npOMblllJleHHOrO llnHOHa)f{a. B oc06eHHOCTH no.u'lepKHOall ero 60JlbWYIO POJlb B nepHO.u Me)f{.uy .uByMSI MHPOBblMH BoHHaMH. AOTop KHHrH CTpeMHT­ cn ew.e 60Jlee YCHJlHTb Bne'laTJleHHe. nopo»(.uaeMoe HapaCTalOw.ell yrpo­ 30il npOMblWJleHHOrO llnHOHa»(a, H npe)f{.ue Bcero .uJlll caMblX Henocpc.u­ CTBeHHblX. 3rOHCTH'IeCKHX HHTepeCOB npe.unpHHHMaTeJlbCKHX Kpyroll­ MHpa 60JlbWOrO 6H3Heca. OH npHoo.uHT xapaKTepHble BbI.uep}KKH H3 Kpyll­ IIblX aMepHKaHCKHX )f{ypHaJlOB (cnonyJlap MHI<3HHKC», «OH3Hec yHI(», «HbIOCyHK» 3a 1968 r.). B KOTOpblX npOMblWJleHHblH WnHOHa)f{ xapaKTe­ pH3yeTcli KaK «caMali 60JlbWali onaCHOCTb .uJlll npOMblWJleHHOCTH».. cHe­ nocpe.uCToellHali yrp03a aMepHKaHCKOH Hay'lHo-HCCJle.n.OBaTeJlbCKoH pa60­ Te» Il KOHcTaTHpyeTcli HapaCTaHlle HHTeHCHOHOCTH npOMblWJleHHOrO llnH­ iHa»(a H 06paw.eHHe ero KO Bce 60Jlee KpyTblM MeTo.uaM. o 6blCTpOM nporpecce BeCbMa cneUIl<jJH'IeCKHX H caMbIX COBpeMeH­ IlblX MeTo.uOB npOMbIWJlelIlIOrO llnHOHa)f{a aBTOp 3nH'IeCKIl nOBecToyeT B r J1a13e 1: C... WIIIlOHbI rOlllllOTCli Tenepb 3a ceKpeTaMH, XpaHilllIlMHCli lIe TOJlbKO y OT.ueJlbHblX J1HU, HO Ii B 3anOMllnalOw.HX yCTpoHcTBax 3J1eKTpOH­ nO-BbI'IHCJlHTeJlbllhIX MaWIlH». npHBeJl.eM call1blH COe)f{HH npllMep, no.u­ TBep)f{.uilIOW.HH MblCJlb a13TOpa. B Ha'laJle <jJeBpaJlll 1971 ro.ua alllepHKaHcKali nOJlIlUHlI apeCTOBaJla B CalI-<!>paliuHcKo 29-J1eTHerO 3KcnepTa no C'IeTHO-pellalOw.HM yCTpOHCT' llaM Yop.ua 3a cHcTeMaTH'IecKylO Kpamy HH<jJopMaUIlH H3 6J10Ka nalll5lTIl 3J1eKTpOHHO-Obl'lIiCJlIlTeJlbIlOH MallHHbI OJl.HoA <jJIlPMbI B OKJleH.ue. 3aKa3­ '1HKIl 3Toil ¢IlPMbl MOrJlIl 3a nJlaTY nOJlY'laTb IlH<jJopMauHIO OT MaWHHbI 110 cel<peTllolllY TeJle<jJoliHoMy HOMepy. Yop.u paCKpbIJi 9TOT HOMep, H, 1I0Jlb3YllCb IIC'IaTaIOw.eH npllcTaoKoA K cooeMy TeJle<jJoHy. lIOJly'lIlJl B Te­ '1eHHe rO./la HH<jJopMaulllo. oueHHBaeMylo B 25 TbiC• .uOJlJl. Bop nonaJlClI, KOr./la MaWIlHa 061>51BIlJla, 'ITO CIO lIenpaBIlJlbHO nOJlb3y1OTCli. TaKOBO O.uHO 113 no.uToep}/·;Jl.eHHH Te3Hca !3cp»(be 0 TOM, 'ITO 3anOlllHHalOIUHe YCTpoHCToa·3J1eKTpOIIHO'Bbl'lHCJlHTeJlbllbIX MaWIlH xpaHlIT CeKpeTI>I H 3TH ceKpeTbi MoryT 6bITb lIOxllw.eHbI. CK.~a.ublBalOw.a5lCli B 3TOH 06J1aCTH cllTyaUHn Tpe6yeT, no CY}KJl.eHHIO aOTopa KHllfll, 06paw.ellll51 K lIlem.uyHapo.uHbllll CaHKUIl5lM llJlll 3aw.IlTbl rpa)f{./laH 01' Kpa)f{H npHHa./lJle)f{aw.HX 11111 ceKpeTOB, Haxo.ullllIlXCn Ha xpaHeHIlH B 3anmlllHalOw.IlX yCTpoilCTBax 3.~el<TpOHHO-BbI'IIlCJlHTeJlbHbIX MaWIlH. 0 '1elll KOliKpeTIIO H./leT pe'lb? 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IlMelOTCli He TOJlbKO 0 CiliA, HO H B Kanl!­ TaJlHCTH'IeCKHX rocy.uapCTBax K BOCTOI(y OT ATJlaHTH'IecKoro OKeaH3. «B J11060111 <jJpaHUY3cKOIII ropo.uKe MO}KIIO HaHTH KOHTOpbI <pHHaHcoBbix H IOp".uHtICCI<HX 3I(cnepToB, KOTopble 3a onpeJeJleHHYIO 1113.uy nOMorillOT KJllleHTaM 06XO.uIlTb HaJlOrOBble 6apbepbI II JI013 YW!<H. 11 4elll 60ra'le TOp­ roneu IlJlll npe./lnpHHHMaTe.%. TeM CMeJlee OH HrpaCT n KOWKH-MbIWKIl C Ha.~orOBbllIIll BJlaCTlIIIIH», - co06w.aJlOCb 4 MapTa 1971 r. B ra3eTe «1-'13­ BCCTlIlI» B KoppeCnOH./leHUHH H3 Oapll}Ka. Bce 3TO, KOHe'lHO, He HOBO: «... OpaKTHKa Y!(PbITHlI peaJlbHbIX ./lOXO,'l.OB OT 6.uIlTeJlbIlOrO OKa HaJlOrOBbiX BJlaCTeH np04HO yKopeHIlJlaCb B CTpaHe. «<1lpo.u <jJIlCKaJlb», KaK ee 3.ueCb Ha3b1BaIOT, pa3Ho06pa3l1a. 3TO H 3aHH· )f{eJlHe 060pOTOB, H npeyBeJlH'IeHHe y6bITKOB, c.ueJiKH B 06xo.u 6aHKOB, 6e3 C'IeTOB H naKJla.uHblX, BnJlOTb .uo Be.ueHIl51 Jl.BoflHOH 6yxraJlTepHH (UMeIOT. ClI B BH.uy He TeXHH'IeCKHH CMblCJI nora TepllIHna, a npOTH1303aKOHHblC lIlaXHHaUHH C ueJlblO 06MaHa Ka3HbI. - H. JI.)~. HeJlb3l1 He OTMeTHTb CIlMnTOMaTH'IeCKIlH <jJaKTOp npOBaJla BO <jJP31i­ UY3CKOM napJlaMeHTC BHeceHHoro oceHbIO 1970 ro.ua 3aKOJIOnpOeI(Ta 06 YCIlJleHHH 60Pb6bl C YKpblTlleM .uOXo.uOO OT Ha.~orOBbiX opralloB. «OTHlOJb y)f{ He TaKOH CYPOBbiK 3aKOHonpoeKT )KllcKapa .u'3CTella (MHHHCTpa 31<0­ HOMIlKIl II <pllllaIlCOB. - H. JI.) 6blJl BCTpe'lell B WTbIKH npaOHTeJlbCTSeH­ HbIM 60JIbWIlHCTBOM 0 napJlaMellTe. 06BHHtUHblH B nonbITKe BBeCTH «IIHI<­ BIl3IlTCpcKlle» Mepbl, BO BMellaTeJIbCTBe B J1H'IHYIO )f{H3Hb .uo6ponopll.u0'I. HbIX 6yp)f{ya. MIlHHCTP BbIIiY)f{.ueH 6blJl nOHTIl Ha nonllTHYIO», - rOBoplI­ J10Cb B TOft )I(e 3aMeTKe. Ha.uoJlro JIll <jJpaHuY3cKHM napJlaMeHTapllllM y.uaJlOCb OTOllBHHYTb yrpo3Y pa306J1a'leHIl1i IlX nO)l.JIHHHbIX J11l'lHbIX .uOXOJl.OB II npl16blJlefi 1<011­ nanHH, B KOTOpblX OIlH y'laCTByIOT, CKa3aTb Tpy.uHO, BbI./lalOg(HeClI ycne. -5
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Bce 3TO HaCTOJlbKO llJHpOKO HaBeCTHO, 'ITO KOMneTel/THbIe BJlaCTH H He OTpHualOT cymecTlloBaHHH TaKOH npaKTHKH, 3a KOTOpMl IlH./lHO BblP0}l{­ ./leHHe CoellHHelIHblX WTaTOB B rOCYJapCTBO BoeHHoll ./lHKTaTypbl. HY}I{HbI JlH eme oOJlee BeCKHe ./lOKaaaTeJlbCTBa, '1eM npH3HaHHe nOMOmHHKOM MH­ HHCTpa 060POHbl CWA Ha aaCe./l3HHH ceHaTCKOH nO./lKOMHCCHH no BO­ npocaM KOHCTHTyUHOHHblX npaB Toro <j>aKTa, 'ITO BoeHHOH paaBe./lKOH H opraHaMH oeaonaCHOCTH OblJlH aaBe./leHbl-./leJla Ha 25 MJlH. aMepHKaHueB, KOTopbIe C'IHTaJlHCb «nOTeHUHaJlbHO onaCHbIMH». TmeTHblMH OblJlIl ObI YCHJlHH «aaceKpeTHTb» 3ace./laHHiI ynoMHHYToll ceHaTCKOH nO./lKOMHCCHH no BonpocaM KOHCTHTYUHOHHbIX npaB. I<aK aa­ HBHJI ceHaTOp 3./lBap./l I<eHHe./lH, flBJlHlOmHlkfl '1J1eHOM nO./lKOMHCCHH, «lloeHHaH pa3Be./lKa 3anHCblBaeT Bce, 'ITO rOBopHTCH H npOHCXO./lHT Ha SaCe./laHHlIX». B COe./lHHeHHblX WTaTax cymecTllyeT orpaHH3aUHH - «I<oHTHHeHT3J1 IOHaHTe./l CTeHTC HHTt'JlJlH./l}l{eHC» (<<I<OHyC HHTeJl»), 3aHHMalOmllHCfl cJle>l<Koll sa rpa}l{./laHCKHM HaCeJleHHt'M H nOJlHTH'IeCKHMH ./leHTeJIHMH, npo­ BO./lHMOA BoeHHOH paaBe./lKOA BO BceaMepHI<aHCKOM MaCWTaOe. LJHTaTeJIb MO}l{E.'T oaHaKOMHTbCiI He TOJlbKO C caMblMH HHaMt'HHbIMH peaKUHOHHo-no­ JlHTH'IeCKHMH UeJIHMH H aa./la'laMH, KOTopble B03J10}l{eHbl Ha «KOHyC HH­ TeJl», I/O H C nepe./lOlJoH TexHHKoI'I, HCnOJIbayeMoH 3THM oome<j>e./lepaJlb­ HblM opraHOM, KaK-TO: 3J1eKTpOHHble KOMnbIOTepbl, 06meHaUHOHaJIbHaH TeJleTaimHall CBHab H ./lpyme Cpe./lCTBa COBpeMeHHOH CJIY>l<ObI KOMMyHH­ KaUHH. COTPY./lHHKH «KOHYC HHTeJI» 3pH BpeMeHH He TepHIOT: TaK, HanpH­ Mep, Il OKTH6pe H HOHope 1969 rO./la BeJlOCb HenpecTaHHoe Ha6JIIO./leHHe 3a ./leMOHCTpaUHHMH npOTHB aMepHKaHcKoi! arpeCCHH BO BbeTHaMe; 3a 3TO BpeMH HaKOnHJIOCb 120 TbIC. CTpaHHU MHKPO<j>HJlbMOB, cO./lep}l{amHX HH<j>opMauHIO 06 «HHaI<OMbICJlHmHX». 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OH cooOUtaeT rJlallIlble TeMbl, OCO­ 00 HHTepeCOBaBWHe npOMblWJleHHblX wnHOIlOB B 1969 rc./lY: 3TO H 9J1eKT­ pOTexHHKa, H cneUHa.%Hble MOTOpbl ./lJIH rOHO'lHblX aBTOMallIHH, H nopw­ HeBble /lBHraTeJlH, H peaKTHIlHble CaMOJleTbl nma «KOHKOPll». H TpaH3HC­ TOpbl H3 nJlaCTH'IeCKHX MaTepHaJIOB, H Ht'KOTOpbIC BIIllbl p3JHonpH' eMIIHKOIl. B KHHre H3.'IO>l<eHHI0 3J1000./lHeBHblx np06.~eM npOMblWJleHHOrO mnHO­ Ha>l<a Hamero BpeMeHH npe./lWecTBYIOT HCTopH'leCKHe 3KCKypCbI. OlteHb 60JlbWOe BHHMaHHe. no HaweMy MHeIlIIIO, aa}l{e tlpeaMepHoe II B Hay'IHo-HcTopH'IecKoM nJl<!I1e ./la.~eKO He oeccnopHoe, )It 5ep}Kbe y./leJIHeT aJIXHMIIKaM rpeUHH, rocy./lapCTB 5ml}l{HerO BocToKa, 3ana/lHOH EBponbl, oc060 OCTaIlaBJII1BaHCb Ha paCKpblTHH HMH pH./la npOMblWJleHHblX ceKpeTOB: HanpHMep, repMeTH'IeCKOli 3aKynopKH; nopoxa; KHCJlOT; xpalle· HHH nHmellblX npO./lYKTOB; MeTaJlJlOe; XOJlO./lHorO CBeTa; O'lHmeHHlI 3J1Ma· lIOIl H - 'ITO oc06elill0 YB.~eKaTeJlbHO- npOH3BO./lCTBa SOJlOTa. 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  • 6. .nalOluerOClI COBeTCKOrl> YlJellOrO aKa,neMHKa r. <1>,lepOOa. B CTaTbe, 03a­ rJIaBJIeHHOH «nYTb K CBepX"lI,npaM», r. <1>'lepoB nHcan: «COBpeMeHHblir (j>H3HK. 06JIYlJIIIJ pTyTb B HellTpOHHOM nOTOJ(e peaKTopa, «npeBpaTHT» ee B SOJlOTO». )lanee allaJleMHK r. <1>.~epOB BblCKaSblBaeT CJIeJlYlOlUYIO Mblcnb: «OJlHaKO HCCJleJlOIJaTenll XX BeKa npHBJleKaeT lie 30,~OTOir 6neCK... HaWIl COBpeMeHHIlKH CTPE'MllTCll C03JlaOaTb aTOMbl HeH3BeCTHblX npHpo,ne HCKYC­ CTBeHHblX 3J1eMeHTOB». 30nOTO lIe npHHa,nne>KHT K HCKYCCTBeHHblM 9J1eMeIITaM, TaK >Ke KaK PTYTb, COHHeu H MHorHe ,nPyrHe 3J1eMeHTbl nepHOJlHlJeCKoir CHCTeMbl )l. H. ME't1JleJleeBa. AJlXHMHKH, pa60TaBWHe B JlOHaYlJHblH nepHOJl pa3BH­ THll XHMHH, CTpeMHJlHCb npeBpaUtaTb He6JIaropOJlHble MeTanJIbl (MeJlb, CBHHeu H Jlp.) B JlparOUeHHble, 6J1arOpOJlHble - SOJlOTO H cepe6po - npH nOMOIUH «¢HJlOCO¢CKoro l(aMHlI», 6b1BWerO, KOtlelJHO, He 60Jlee lJeM npo­ ,nYKTOM HX ¢aHTa3HH. 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He Mor SBIUHTHTb M<lrHlfeCKYIO cllny «<Imnoco¢­ CKoro KaMHJI» cpe.nlleBeKOBblX anXHMHKOB H nOToMy npH6er K cne,nYlOwe­ My orlXO.nHOMy MallelJpy: «EcnH Jla>Ke ceKpeT sonOTa - BblMblcen, TeM He ME'Hee 011 npllRneKan K ce6e H<lH60nbWee lJHCnO wnHOIIOB B HC'fO!)HIl lJe,lO­ BelJeCTBa... 11 B HaWH ,nHIl wnHOHbl HHTepcCylOTclI HCKOTOPbIMH' anXHMII­ KaMH, KOTopble H nOHblHe s.npaBcTByIOT». ABTop KHHrII yTBep>K.naeT, 'ITO eMy «H3BeCTHbi KpynHble KOMnaHHH, KOTopble 6esycnewJ:0 nblTanHCb nOit­ BeprHyTb aHanH3Y CTapaTeJIbHO OblKpa.neHHble 06paSllbl, KOTopble npeJlJla­ raJlIICb K:JK «¢HJlOCO<j>CKHil KaMeHb», TO eCTb R,nepllblil KaTaJlHSaTOp, no­ :lBOJlHIOll.lHH npOH300JlHTb npeBpaweHHlI (TpaHcMyTiU:W). 51 BHnen,- nH­ IllCT Oil, - ,nBa Tal<HX 06pasua. KOTopble BblrJlJI,neJlIl Kal( llyCKH KpacIloro CTeKJla. MeTo.nbl XHMHlJeC/IHX H ¢H3IllJeCKHX aHanH30B JlanH CTonb lIpOT:J­ Bope'IHllble pe3YJlbTaTbl. lJTO lIa IIX npllMCHeJIHH He lIaeraHOaJlIl. np06J1eMa OCTaeTCll JIepeweHlJoA». Ha 9TOM, K<lSaJlOCb 6bl, MO>KIIO 6blJlO 6b1 H OCTaHOBHTbCll. O,nnal<O OH He COBceM OTKa3bIBaeTCJI OT cooeir HCXOJlIIOA nOSHUHH, npH6erall K CJleJlY­ loweil HIlTCpnpeTflItHH «OJIOBa C SeJIellblM CllelJeHHeM»: «EcnH npeJllloJlo­ )llliTb, 'ITO OJlORO C SeJlCHblM COelJeHHeM - 3TO TaJlJlHli, KOTOpblA nOXO>K Ha OJlOBO H B OnIe CHeTHTCR SeJleHblM coeTOM, TO, MO>KeT 6blTb, Mbl 6YJleM H~leTb 06bllCHeHHe 9Toro ceKpeTa. )leno B TOM, lJTO ,nOCTaTOlJHO TannHIO nOTepllTb aJlb<j>a-lJaCTHUY, lJT06bl npeopaTHTbCH B :3O.10TO. 11, HepOl1THO, «¢llnOCO¢CKHH KaMeHb» - 9TO KaTanH3aTOp, I<OTOPblH MOlKeT, MelKJlY npO'1HM, Bbl3BaTb 9TO llB,~eHHe. 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BCTynHB 0 XIX BeK, npOMblWJlCHIIblA WnHOHa>K, KaK nHWCT BeplKbC, «nOQTH o<j>HllHaJlbHO nOOlUplleMblH npOMblWJleHHHKaMH H rocyllapcTIlaMH. npeBpaTHJlClI B Ba>KHbIA ¢aKTOp KaK npOMblWJleHHOfl pCBOJIIOUHH, TaK H nOJlHTHKH:', npH06peTWCC H3HeCTHOCTb arCIITCTIlO nHHKepTOHa OJl<lro.napn nOCllll­ weHHhlM ero ,nellTeJlbHOCTH JleWCHblM pOMaHaM (nlO,nH CTaplllcro nOKOJlC­ IIHR, npaBlla, SalJHTblllaJlHCb nOXO>KllCHHlIMH HaTa nHHKepTOHa, HHKa KapTepa H JIpyrHx aMepHKaHCKHX llCTCKTHBOIl, npHlJCM XYJl.OlKCCT8enHble «llOCTOHHCTlla» 3TOft MaCCOIlOH npOJlyKUHH He HMeJlH HHlJerO 06Ulero C HCCOMHCIIIlO TanaHT.~HBbIMH np0l13BeJleHHHMH aHr,~Hi1cKoro Bpa'Ja H nHca­ TeJlll KOHall D.o/iJIa 0 IlJcp.10Ke XOJlMCC) npOlJllO BOUIJlO B HCTCpHIO rp<l}K­ JlaHCKOH BO(lIlbl 50-x rOllOIl B CiliA, 8 AJleH nHIIKCpTOH no nopYlJellHIO npe3H,neHTa Jl HHKonbHa «eraJl PYKOIlOllHreneM pa3Bc.nKH H KOIlTppa3IlC,n­ KH ceBepllH». He :lIIaIO, saCJly>KHBaeT JlH 3TO areHTCl'BO nOXBaJIbl )1(. 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  • 7. .., CTBa .!1RpHlKa6JIell lSe3 ra3a, H3 CBepxnpOtlHOro MeTaJIJIa, B KOTOpbIX ISblJI 6b! C03naH BaKyyM. D:HpHiKa6JIH TaKoro THna C aTOMHbIM nBHraTeJIeM MorJIH ISbI CJIYlKHTb nJIaT¢OpMOH nJIll 3anycKa JIyllllblX paKen. 113 ypOKOB lKe npOilIJIOrO, no MHeHHIO )1. BeplKbe, 3aCJIylKHBaIOT BHHMaHHll CJIe,ll.YIOmHe BonpOCbI: 0 He06xo,ll.HMOCTH npOMbIIlIJIeHHOrO UInHOHalKa H 06 «orpoMHoH TeXHH'leCKOH OTCTaJIOCTH COI03HHKOB, B '1aCT­ HOCTH AHrJIHH, no cpaBHeHHIO C repMaHHei'l. aTa OTCTaJIOCTb 6b1JIa TaK BeJIHKa, 'ITO AHrJIHll BbIHYlK,ll.eHa 6h1JIa 'lepe3 nocpenCTBO HeihpaJIbHbIX CTpaH nOJIy'laTb KpaCHTeJIH H3 repMaHHH ,ll.JIli KpaIlIeHHlI COJI,ll.aTCKHX . uIHHeJIeA». ( npOMbIIlIJIeHHoMy IlInHOHalKY B nepHO,ll. MelK,ll.y ,ll.BYMlI MHPOBblMH BollHaMH B KHHre nOCBllmeHbI ,ll.Be rJIaBbI: 6-1I - nOCBlImeHa npOMblIlIJIeH­ HOMy IlInHOHalKY B EBpone H 7-11 - B CiliA. 3,ll.eCb oc06eHHo OCTaHOBliT BHHMaHHe 'lHTaTeJIll TecHeHIlIHe KOCMOnOJIHTH'IeCKHe CB1I3H ¢HHaHcoBoro KanHTa.~a cTpaH, npHHa,ll.JIelKaBIlIHx K ,ll.ByM BpalK,ll.e6HblM KOaJIHUHllM. HeKoTopble yTBeplKneHHlI )1(. BeplKbe HaM KalKYTCli CKopee ,ll.Ora,ll.Ka­ MH, 'leM HeocnopHMbIMH ¢aKTaMH: HanpHMep, CCbIJIKa Ha TO, 'ITO «3a OtleHb He60JIbIlIyIO CyMMy (200 TbiC. ¢paHKoB) <1>paHuHlI MOrJIa Cibl B 1936 ro,ll.y BOCnOJIb30BaTbCli yCJIyraMH 3HaMeHHToro BepHepa ¢OH Bpa­ yHa, KOTOpbIA XOTeJI nOKHHyTb repMaHHIO H CTpOHTb CBOH paKeTbi BO <1>paHUHH». COMHHTeJIbHO H ,ll.pyroe BblCKa3bIBaHHe aBTopa KHHrH: «...<1>paHuHlI MOrJIa 6bI pacnOJIaraTb aTOMHblM opylKHeM ylKe B 1940 ro,ll.y, H60 ero npOH3BO,ll.CTBO rOpa3,ll.0 npome, '1eM 06bl'lHO ,ll.YMaIOT»; B CiliA lKe H3­ CipaJIH «caMbie ,ll.JIHHHble nyTH» ¢a6pHKaUHH aTOMHOH CiOM6bl, TOr,ll.a KaK, no CYlK,ll.eHHIO BeplKbe, «eCTb KpaT'laHIllHe nFH, n03BOJIflIOmHe npOH3BO­ ,ll.HTb aToMHyIO CiOM6y C TaKoit lKe JIerKOCTbIO H no TaKoA lKe ueHe, no KaKoit CTpOHTCli CaMOJIeT-HCTpe6HTeJIb:t. . B Hallie BpeMli TeXHHKa IlInHOH3lKa HenpepbIOHO COBcpIlIeHcTByeTClI: OT MHJlHaTIOpHbIX ¢OToannapaTOB, BMOHTIIpOBaHHblX B 3aMOK nOpT¢eJIli HJlH B aBTopy'lKy, yCTaHoBKH aBTOMaTH'leCKHX 6eCIlIYMHbIX KHHOKaMep ,ll.0 MHOfO'lHCJIeHHbIX cpenCTB nOJIy'leHHlI HH¢OPMaUHH 0 KOHKypeHTax; aBTOp KHHrH co06maeT CBeneHHll 0 20 TaKHX cpencTilax (H3 HHX 13 llBJIllIOTCll He3aKoHHbIMH) no cnHcKy, ony6JIHKOBaHHoMy B lKypHaJIe cKeMHKJI HH,ll.­ lKHIIHpHHr» 23 Mall 1966 r. He JIHIlIeHa oc060ro KOJIOpHTa H BenYlliaRCll B KOMnaHHllX CJIeil<I<a 3a BceMH B03MOlKHbIMH conepHHKaMH npe3HneHTa cooTlleTcTByIOmeA KOM­ naHHH; TaK, B O,ll.HOH H3 lleCbMa KOMneTeHTHbIX cKoHcyJIbTauHA» no ceMy Bonpocy rOBopHTCll: C...D:JIll BHue-npe3I1neHTa e.nHHcTllellHbIli cnoc06 CTaTb npe3HneHToM ,ll.0 Toro, KaK nOCJIeAHHH yil,ll.CT Ha neHCHIO, - 3TO paccTa­ BHTb ceTH, 'lTo6b1 OH nOnMO'lHJI CBOIO penyTaUHIO». BnpO'leM, C Cepe,ll.HHbI 30-x rOnOB HCKOTopble Kpynllei'lIlIHe aMepHKaH­ cKHe KOMnallHlI IICnOJIb30BaJIH KyAa 60JIee 3¢¢eI<THIlHblC cnoc06bI: OIlH cnpHIIHMaJIH Ha pa60Ty nCHxHaTpoB, 'lT06bI MOiKHO 6bIJIO THXO H 6e3 10 CKaH,ll.aJIOB nOMemaTb B nCHXHaTpH'IeCKHe JIe'leCiHHUbi reHepaJIbHblX llH­ peKTopoB H BHue-npe3H,ll.eIlToB». PaccKa3bIBali 0 ceKpeTax BTOPOH MHpOBOi'l BoAHbI, allTop KHHrH oCi'b' llCHfieT nepeHeceHHe B CiliA pll,ll.a Hay'lHblX HccJIelloBaHHiI, BKmO'lali npoH3BollCTBO aToMHoil 60M6bI, B03Be,ll.eHHoe aBTopoM B pallr cIlIe,ll.eBpa aMepHKaHcKoil npOMbIIlIJIellHOCTH H CIlH,ll.eTeJIbCTBa 3Ha'lHTeJIbHOrO ycnexa aMepHKaHcKoit npOMblIlIJIeHHOil H Hay'lHoH KOHTppa3Be,ll.KH», TeM, 'ITO «AHrJIHlI CJIHIlIKOM MaJIa H ee TeppHTopHli nOllBepraJIaCb CJIHIlIKOM 60JIb­ woll onaCHOCTH, '1T06b1 MOiKHO 6bIJIO npOllOJIiKaTb HX TaM». KOHe'lHO, lleJIO 3lleCb He B TeppHTopHH, a B 06meM 3KOHOMH'IeCKOM H Hay'lHo-TeXHHtleCKOM OTCTaBaHHH AHrJIHH OT CiliA YlKe nepe,ll. BTOpoA MHpOBOH BoAIIOA. HeJIb311 He OTMeTHTb H BeCbMa cBoe06pa3Hoe npe,ll.CTaBJIeHHe HeMeu­ KHX CneUHaJIHCTOB (He Bcex, KOHe'lHO) 0 naTpHOTH3Me. KpynHbli'I cneUHa­ JIHCT no OpraHH'leCKOil XHMHH B. Penne, KOTOpOMy )K. BepiKbe, ,ll.OnpaIlIH­ BaBIlIHH ero B 1945 ro,ll.y, rOBOpHJI 0 npecTynJIeHHllX fepMaHHH, OTBeTHJI: «51 lie 3HaIO repMaHHH. MOll p0,ll.HHa - "l1r <1>ap6eHHHllycTpH"I» 11, KaK OKa3aJIOCb ,ll.aJIee, e,ll.HHCTBeHllbIM nocTynKoM COI03HHKOB, npoTHIl KOTOpO­ ro lIeMUbI npoTeCTOllaJIH, 6blJIO pa3fJIaIIIell He lIeMeUKHX npOMblIlIJIeHHblX ceKpeTOB. rOBOpll 0 BoeHHO-TeXHH'IeCKHX HCCJIenOllallHlIX caMblX CJIOlKHblX npo­ 6JIeM, aBTOp BblCKa3bIIlaeT CJIe,ll.YIOIUYIO MbICJIb: c...repMaHHlI He onepe­ iKaJIa COI03HHKOB, HO H He OTCTaBaJIa OT HHX, - OHa IlIJIa PlillOM»• .LI.o­ Ka3aTeJIbCTBO? «HeMUbI He Bblpa6aTblBaJIH aToMHyIO 3HepfHIO, He npOH3­ BO,ll.HJIH aTOMHblX 60M6, HO OHH C03,ll.aJIH caMoJIeT-p060T «<1>AY-h H paKeTy «<1>AY-2». ABTOp KHHfH npHBollHT ,ll.JIHIIHblit nepe'leHb lIeMeUKHX npaKTHtlecKHx H306peTeHHi'I B 06JIaCTH XHMHH, KJIeHKHX MaTepH3JIOB, nJIaCTHKOB, MeAH­ KaMeHTOB. Ha MHOrO'lHCJIeHHbIX 3aBOJJ.ax no 06e CTOpOHbI ATJIaHTH'leCKOrO OKeaHa peaJIH30BbIBaJIHCb HeMeUKHe H306peTeHHll, HO BCKope HacTynHJIO nOXMeJIbe: OKa3aJIOCb, 'ITO, nOCKOJIbKY HeMUbI B CBoe BpeMli yKpaJIH C no­ MombIO IlInHOHOB ~lIIoroe B AHfJIHH H B CiliA, conyOJIHKOBaHHbIe MaTepH­ aJIbi BbI,ll.aBaJIH He TOJIbKO HeMeUKHe, HO TaKiKe ¢paHUY3CKHe, 6eJIbrHA­ CKHe, rOJIJIaH,ll.CKHe, aHrJIHitcKHe H aMepHKallCKHe ceKpeTbI»• .LI.eJIO IlIJIO K 06meMy KpyIlIeHHlo Bcex naTeHTllbiX CHCTeM, KOTopbIe C Tex nop «TaK H He OnpaBHJIHCb OT TaKoro nOTpHceHHlI». TIocBlImall OTlleJIbHYIO r JIaBy MeTO,ll.aM COBpeMeHHoro npOMbIIlIJIeHHO­ ro IlInHOH8iKa, )K. BeplKbe cpa3Y iKe npe,ll.ynpeiK,ll.SeT CBOHX 'lHTaTeJIeH o TOM, 'ITO npHMeHeHHe B 3TOft 06JIacTH HOBCi'lWHX AocTHiKeHHit 3JIeKT­ pOHHKH CTaJIO H8CTOJIbKO onaCHblM, 'ITO JIIO,ll.H 6011TCll, KaK 6b! IlInHOHaiK cHe npHBeJI K nOJIHoA JIHKBH,ll.aUHH '1acTHoil iKH3HH H K pacna,ll.y Hawero 06meCTBa:t. KaKoA CKBepHblA napa,ll.OKC: Be,ll.b pe'lb H,ll.eT 06 onaCHOCTH B olSmecTBe, KOTopoe B 6ypiKya3HoM MHpe HMeHyeTcli CCB060,ll.HbIM» 06me­ CTBOM, oCimecTBoM c6JIarOCOCTollHHll» H T. n.1 Jl'
  • 8. H HeJlb311 He «n03.1lpaaHTb» C ('jO_~bIllHMH TeXIIH'IeCKHMH «.IlOCTIUKeHH­ JlMH» Uel"ITpaJIblIOe pa3ae.llbiBaTeJlbl-lOe ynpaaJJellHe (UPY) CWA, KOTO' poe, no .IlaHHblM «TaliMC:l> OT 19 llllaapll 1965 r., coa.llaJlo Tenepb «anna­ paT, nOaBOJllllOlUHii 06HapY)fUIBaTb lIa paCCTOlHlHH a lIeCKOJIbKO .IleClITKOa MeTpOB aH6puUHIO OKOHlloro CTeK_~a 33KPbIToii KOMllaTbJ H no.uCJlYIllHaaTb TaKHM 06paSOM paarOIlopbl, .Ila)Ke eCJIH 3Ta KOMHaTa 060pY.lloaalla aByKo­ nOrJlOlUalOlUHMH MUTepHaJlaMH H Ha Hee Y.llaJleHbl Bce 3J1eKTpH'leCKHe. HJlH 3J1eKTpOHllble npH60pbl:l>. "-­ C Tex nop TeXIIHK3 CHJlbH"O IllarHYJla Bnepe.ll, H DOT Mbl Y)f{e yallae~ o CBepXMlIHllaTlOpHOM pa.llHonpHeMHHKe, BbmYlUeHHOM aHr,~HiicKoii tj>Hp­ Moii «Ball .QaaeH 3iipKpatj>T C311Jlaiia KOMnaHH». PaaMepoM HC 60Jlbille l<apaH.IlaIlla, npHCMlllfI< 1J.OCTaTO'lHO MOlUHbIH: 011 npllllHMaeT CHrHaJlbl C paCCTOSJIIHlI OKOJIO 40 KM. np"e.llHaaHa'leHHe MHHH-pa.uHollpHeMHHKa - HC' nOJlbaOBaHHe ero JleT'IHKaMH B cJlY'Iae a~xo.ua Ha CTpOll pa.llHo060PY.u0­ IlaHHS!. ABTop nO.llp06HO onHCblBaeT caMble paaJlH'Illble annapaTbl, BKJlIO'IaH .naMCKHe 6lOCTr8J1bTepbl C MHHHaTlOpHblMH TeJleJ<aMepaMH H BWHTble B 1I0.uKJla.uI<Y My)f{CKHX KOCTIOMOB TpaHaHCTopbl, nepe.llaIOlUHC «Bce, 'ITO ro­ BOPHJlOCb Ha 3ace.llaHHlIx npaB.~eHHH, a TaK)f{e, paayMeeTclI, Bce, 'ITO ro­ BOPHJlOCb B 60Jlee HHTHMH~X YCJlOBHlIX». BccnpHMepHbl AIaCUITa6bl no.uCJJYUlHBaHHlI Te.~etj>OHH~X paarOBopOB B CiliA. B 1965 ro.uy 39 MJlIl. pasrOBopOB no TeJletj>oHy 6b1J1H HeaaKOHHO no.uCJlYillallbl H aanHcaHhl llPY, Ha.~orOBhIM ynpaBJlCHHeM, npOMbIWJlCH­ HblMH wnHOHaMH. 'IaCTHhIMH .ueTCKTHBaMH, IllaHTa)f{HCTaMH H .ua)f{e npo· CTO Jl1060nblTllblMH. CMechlo HarJlOCTH H UHHHa~la lIDHJlOCb HHTepBblO npeaH.ueHTa «CeHTp­ ¢aftJl JlHMHTe.ll» A. BaTTeBHJllI: «HaHHM811 CJlyx<alUHX, MbI CTapaeMClI He BnyC'f!ITb B KOMnaHHIO JlIO.ueii, Bpax{.ue6HO OTHOClIlUHXClI K KanHTa.~HCTH­ 'IeCKOH CHCTeMe». Hepe.uKo no.uCJJYIllHBaHHe HMeeT, TaK CKaaaTb, lIpKO BbIpa)f{eHHYIO K.~aCCOBYIO ueJleHanpaBJleHHOCTb: «O.uHH npotj>COlO3 )f{aJlOBaJlCJI Ha TO, 'ITO "B KOMHaTe, OTBe.ueHHOli .uJlfl c06paHHH npotj>COloaHbIX .ueJleraTOB KpynHoii cjlHPMbl, HMeeTClI cjlaJIbIllHBblH nJIacjloH, OCHalUeHHblii tj>OToannapaTaMH, TeJIeBH3HOHHblMH KaMepaMli H MHKPOtj>OH3MH• .QHpeKUHlI 6hlJla, TaKHM 06­ paaoM, B Kypce 6Y.llYlUHX Tpe60B3HHH nOBblIlleHHlI 3apa60THOH nJIaTbI H nJlaHOB aa6aCTOBOK». «BblJIa B Kypcel» " )K Bep)f{hC He TeplieT Ha.lle)f{.uhl H Ha TO, «'ITO ,,06lUHii PhlHOK" 3JleKTpOHHoro IllnHOHax<a He aa ropaMH». Co06lUall 0 Kpa)f{e HHcjlopMaUHH H3 aanOMIiHalOlUHX yCTpOHCTB 3JleKTpOHHO-Dbl'lHCJlHTeJlhHbIX MaIllHH, aBTOp co06lUaeT MHOfO HHTepeCHoro TaK)f{e 06 yTe'lKc Ha MaIllHH, c06HpalOlUHx HH¢opMaUHlo. npe.uMeTaMH 3THX cBepxcoBpeMeHHbIx xHlUeHHii lIB.~lIIOTClI .uoKyMeHTbI, HaYlfHhle .IlOKJIa­ .IlbI, TeKCTbl naTeHToB, nOJlHTH'IeCKall HJIH nOJlHuelkKall .uoKYMeHT8UHlI. «HOBOCTb ce30Ha» B nOCJIe.llHHe ro.ubl - CKpa)f{H npoToTHnoB HOBOH .12 3J1eKTpOHHOl'l Tpy6KH, 06pa3uoB CTeKJla, MaKeTOB CUMOJleTOB H .Ila)l<e KyJlhTyp MHKp060B». r.lle Kpa)f{H - TaM H y6l1ilCTaa: cylUeCTByeT .ua)f{e Me)f{.IlYllapo.uHall opraHH3aUHlI npOMbIIllJleHHOfO WnHOlla)Ka, KOTOpylO ee )f{epTBbI lIa3BaJlH «Cnaff3 HIIKopnopeiiTe.ll» (<<KopnopauHeff IllnHOHOB»). OHa «pa60Taen He TOJlbKO Ha npOMbIIllJleHHHKOB, HO H Ha pa3J1H'IHbIX raHrCTepOB: KBapTHp­ HblX BOpOB, rpa6HTeJleH H T. n., .uaaall opraHHaOBaHHblM 6aH.IlaM, opy­ .uYIOlUIlM B AHfJlHH, CBe.lleHHlI, n03BOJlllIOlUHe BopOBaTb KpynHble CYMMhl, B HeKOTopblX cJlY'lallx -.uo 1400 TbIC. HOBblX ¢paHKoB a Hen.eJIIO. 3a .ueHbfH OHa yCTpaHaaeT H n06ern H3 TlOpeM. HaKoHeu, HeJlb311 npoHTH H MHMO cepepbl «nJlaHHpOBallml:l>, npHHHToH Ha Boopy)f{eHHe npOMblIllJleHHblMH wnHOIlaMH. COCTaaJlfllOTCH no.up06HbIe nJlaHbI 3aBO.llOB O.uHHMH IllnllOHaMH, KOTophle 3aTeM npo.ualOT HX n.py. rHM IllnIlOHaM. aTO CJJy'IaJlOCb, B 'I8CTHOCTH, BO ¢lpaHUHH, B WBel'luapllll, B 3ana.uHoH repM811llH. KaI< BH.uHO, cylUecTByeT cnpoc Ha TaKHe nO.llp06. Hhle "JlaHbl• PlI.uOM C 3THM Kpa)f{H H no.u.ueJlKIl KJllO'Ieil OT celi¢oB Ka)f{YTclI y)Ke cYlUcli Oe3.1leJlHueH. B Haw BCK 6ecnpHMepHoro nporpecca HayKH H Tex­ HHKH BCKpblTHe ceH¢OB, DH.IlHMO, OTHOCHTClI IC y)f{e npol'l.lleHHblM 3TanaM B npaKTHKe npOMblIllJleHHOrO WlIHOHa)f{a. .Qllana30H COBpeMeHHoro IllnHOHa)f{a oe3fpaHHlIeH Il, cJle.uYll BblBO.lly aaTopoa O.llHO{' otj>HUHaJlbHoff 6POIlllOpbl. H3J1aHHOli B CWA B Ha3HJ1aHHe npoMbllUJleHHoMy MHpy, OH «6y.ueT Haxo.uHTb lUHpOKoe none npHMeuellHff B 06nacTH HayKH, TeXIIHKll, Bo06lUe 3KOHOMIlKH:l>. B 3aKJlI0'lHTeJlbHoA 'IaCTH 9TOl'l 6pOIlllOpbl, BeCbMa xapaKTepHo 03a­ rJlaBJleHlIoA «WnHOHa)f{ - BOT peaJlbHOCTb:l>, rOBopHTCH: «4achI, BpetoH! .ueliCTBHlI, HallBHblC HJlIl MeepHCTO¢eJleBCKUe Cpe.llCTBa, pOJlh, BHeIllIIHH DHIl .ueACTBYIOlUHX JlIIU - Bce MeHlICTClI no npOH3110JlY nOJlHMOP¢H3Ma, .uo­ CToirHOfO aHTH'IHOrO MH¢a, 'IT06b1 npCBpalUaTb lUnHOHa a CYlUeCTBO He­ YJlonHMoe». l.JTO KacaerClI Bbl60pa cpe.uCTB .uJIH .uOCTHX<CIIHlI ueJleA npOMbIWJleH­ 1I0ro IllUIlOH8)f{a, TO 3J1eCh Bce .IleClITb 3anoae.lleil BeTxoro H HOlloro 3alle­ TOB oT6paCbIIlaIOTClI B CTOpOHy KaK HeHY)f{H811 BeTOlllb: CnpOMbIIllJleHIIbIe 1IJ11110HhI, - ablHOCHT caoii Bep.ullKT 6ep)f{be, - 3TO elUe 60Jlee 6ecCOlleCT­ Hble aBaJlTlOpHCTbl, 'IeM BoeHllblC IllnllOllbl. Olill, He KOJle6J1l1Cb, IIpH6cra. lOT K lUaHTa)f{y, Kpa)f{e, nopoli H K yOli{ICTBY». HHTepeCHO, 'ITO Wnl10llbl-rpa6HTeJlII B eBoe BpeMlI 0POXO.llIIJlH KypC oOy'leHHH npo<peCCHOHaJlhHbIX 1111,"OHOB: raK, 06Y'leHHble B «WIWJlelt nOJ)­ KOBHIlKa AJlJlHCOH8 I1HJ1a (PYKOflO.LlHTeJlll pa3BCD.KH B lUT86e reJlepaJla MaKapTypa) rpa6HTeJlH «Mofyr BCKphl'rb m06ol! ceA¢ B cpeJ1l1eM 3a .ue­ ClITb eeKyJl.ll H M3KCHMyM 3a 'IeThlpe MHHyThl». 06 ypoatJe «lIepe.uODoi!» TeXHH'IeCKOli KBaJlIl(~HKaUHH Il o.uHoBpeMell­ HO ° BbICOKOi'! «MopaJlII», yKpenHBilleilca 8 MHpe 6M3Heea, KpaCHOpe'lHBO CBU.ueTCJlhcTflyeT craThH BHilliOro HHrJlHHCKOro 0pOMbIIllJleHHIIKa nay­
  • 9. 9J1J1a, Hane'laTaHHaH B ra3eTe «TaAMc». «4HCJlO WnHOHOB, - nO./l'lepKH­ BaJl aBTOp 9TOA CTaTbH, - YBeJlH'IHJlOCb B OrpOMHblX pa3MepaX 3a no· CJle./lHHe ./leCHTb JleT, B '1aCTHOCTH B OOJlaCTH 9J1eKTpOHHKH H npOH3BO./lCTBa ¢OToannapaTOB». Day9J1J1 C CO>KaJleHHeM KOHCTaTHpOBaJl, 'ITO «./la>Ke He­ KOTopbIe ynpaBJlHIOWHe ¢HpMaMH CTaHOIlHTCH wnHOHaMH Ii np0./laIOT HX ceKpeTbI conepHHKaM». 4HTaTenb, KOHe'lHO, C oonbWHM HHTepeCOM 03HaKOMHTCH C nHKaHT· HbIMH nO./lpOOHOCTHMH TarlHof! BoAHbl (rJl. 10) «oeJlbIX 3yOOB H CBe>KerO ./lbIxaHHH», KOTOpyIO BeJlH Me>K./ly coooii ./lBe HSBeCTHbIe ¢HPMbI - «KoJl­ reftn Ii «DPOKTOP 9H,n r3MOJl». He JlHWeHa cBoeii KOJlOpHTHOCTH H CBoero po,na HaSH,naTeJlbHOCTH npaKTHKa npOMbIWJleHHbIX wnHOHOIl «ooJlee cno· KoilHoro THna», OrpaHH'IHBaIOllHXCH cKynKoA «HH¢opMauHH». 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O,[lHaKO rJlaBHyK> 3a./la'lY KOHTppaSBe./lKH aBTOp KHHrH BH./lHT B OOMaHe «Bpa>KeCI{HX wnHOHOU TaK, '1TOObl OHH nOCbInanH CllOHM IIle¢aM HeBepHbIe CBe./leHHfI». OCHOBbIBaHCb Ha CBoeM JlH'IHOM onbITe «9KcnepTa no CY,[leOHblM ,[leJlaM a nO,[l,[leJlKaX H npOMbIWJleHHOM IIlJIHOHa>Ke» H Ha HHTepBbIO C aHrJlHii­ CKHMH, aMepHKaHCKHMH H HeMeUKHMH cneUHanHCTaMH no BonpocaM oe3­ onaCHOCTH, Oep>Kbe pa3paOOTan ueJlYIO cHcTeMy peKOMeH,[laUHH- npeBeH­ THBHbIX Mep ,[lJlH OOPbObl C yTe'lKoit ceKpeTHOH HH¢opMaUHH. rnaBHoe, TaKHM 00pa30M. He B apeCTe IIlnHOHOB nocT¢aKTyM, TO eCTb nocJle Taro, KaK ceKpeTHbIe CBe,[leHHH y>Ke nOXHlleHbI, HJlH B MOMeHT HX Kpa>KH. AB­ Tap nOHCHHeT CBOK> MbICJlb CJle,[lYK>llHMH conOCTaBnellHHMH: «CneUHanHCT no oopboe C OrHeM ooopy,[lyeT Bce nOMelleHHH TaK, '1TOObI nO>Kap He Mar B03HHKHyTb. CneUHaJlHCT no BonpocaM npOMbIWJleHHOH oe30naCHOCTH op­ raHHsyeT ./lBH>KeHHe HH¢opMaUHH TaK, '1TOObl He GbIno ee yTe'lKH». 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  • 10. K Oopa3UaM 4:TBOpqeCKOil pa60Tbl», KyJla (JoJlee flHTepeCHOH, qeM 06blqHaR 6aHaJlbllaR pa60Ta no oxpaue 6e3011aCHOCTfl npOMblllMellllblX Tai'III, aoTOp OTHOCHf cJlyqafl KBaJlHljlfll,HpoBaHlloro 06Malla ljlHpM-KOHI<y­ peHTOB. TaK, OlUJa ljJHpMa OpraJlH30BaJla <jJHKTlfOHble HcnblTaHHH roHOlJ­ Horo aBrOMOOIIJl51 Ha Kopcl1I<c, H, «B TO apeMlI KaI< ce nporHOHIIIHI no;!­ CMaTplWaJlII C nOMOUlblO reJle06beKTlloa 3TH HcnblTaHHlI Ii <jJOTorp;l(jJlipO­ BIlJlli fiX, HacrOlluure licnblraHliH 6blJIH npoue.u.CHbl 0 Jl.pyroM Mecre». 3rOT npHCM He OrpaHllqHBaeTClI B HaWH Jl.HH MliPOM qaCTHOro 6H3Heca: «Do­ CKOJlbKY MHorHe npOMblW,leHHhle pa60Tbi Tenepb seJlYTClI npaOHTCJlbCTBa· MH, OHfI, B CBOIO OlJepeJlb, BblXOJlIT Ha apCt!y npOMblWJleHHOH KOHTppa3­ DeJI<H:t. Pa(JO'IHe KOJlJleKTriBbI pRlla npennpHlITHII TalOKe He CTOHT B CTopOlle OT' oxpaHbl npOH3BOllCTBeHHbiX ceKpeTOB. 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Tal<, HanpHMep, pa3BHTHe HHJycTpl1aJlbHOH MOmH 5InoHHH, Bep05lTIIO, 51BH.~OCb B:J>KHeHUJI1M ljJaKTOpOM YOCJlHqeHII5I qHCJla npOMblW­ JlCHHblX UInHOIIOO 0 3TOH cTpaHe AO BHYIllHTeJlbHOH UH<jJpbl - 10 TblC.; BMCCTe C TeM "lWOHCKHe npOMblWJleHHbJe ceKpeTbI, DHAI1MO, xopowo 3a­ UlHlueHbl KaK TPYJlHOC1'blO 113b1I(a, TaK H npOMbJWJleHHOH TaHHoH nOJlHUHeil». B npOMblIllJleHHO pa3DI1Tblx cTpaHax KanHTaJlHCTlllleCKoro MHpa Il yc­ JlOBHRX coopeMelllloro roeYJapcTlleHllo'MoHonOJlI1CTHQecl<oro KanHTaJlH3Ma pa3pblllbi H JHcnpOnOpUI1H Mei!<Jly HaY'lHo-TeXIlHQeCI(I1Mli ypOBHlIMIf pa3­ JlIIQUblX cTpaH ue TOJlbl<O lIe IlCQe3alOT, HO 060CTp5liOTCfl H yrJly6J1HIOTCl1. Ha YCHJleHHe KOCMOnOJlllTll'leCI(llX cB1I3eH HaUHOlla,lbHblX H Me>K,llyHapOJl­ HblX MOllOIlOJlHH areHTbl npOMbJIll,lCUUoro IllnHOHaiKa OTDe'IalO1' TeM >Ke 0pYlKBeill - BblXOJlOM oprauI13aUHiI npOMblWJleHHblX WHHOHOB C ux BeCb' Ma HiiTellcHBHoi'I «Jlem eJlbHOCTbIO» Ha illeil(JYllapoJHYIO apeHY. OnHcaH­ Ha51 Bblwe "KopnopaUHlI IlllIIIOHOIl», HeCOMHeHHO, pacnOJlaraeT pa3BeT­ BJleHHbl~IH Me>KJlYHapoJBbIMH 3ilelIbHiIlH H CDH311MH. Oo:;noMy MbJ OCTaHOllllillC5I HlIiKC Ha Tex DLlBOJlax H 3aKJlJOQellH5IX, KOTopble cOAep>KaTcH B lIawYillcDIllllX D lIe,llallllHe rOALl KIIHrax <jJpaHUY3­ CRoro >KypHaJll1cTa H napJlailleHTapHlI )KaH-)KaKa CepDaH-Wpefl6epa (<<AMepHKaHcKHH Bb130S») H allrJlHllCKOro )I(ypUaJllICTa, CB!JllUC 10 JleT nponaraHnHpylomero Ha cTpaHHuax JlOHJlOHCKOro )I(ypHaJla «3KoHoillHcn uaelO IlcTynJleHII5I AHrJlIIH Il EllponciicKoe 3KOHOMHlJeCKOe co06mecTDo, II aBTopa BHywHTeJlbHoH MOHorpa<jJI1H 06 aMeplll<allCI<HX KanHTaJlODJlO>KeHlI­ ilX n EBpone KpHcTocjJepa JIeiiTolla *. )I(.-)K CepBaH-WpelIGep KoaJlIl<jJIlUHpyeT orpoMHblH pOCT aMepHKaH­ CKHX KanHTaJlOBJlO>KeIlHH B CTpallax 3anaJlHOI"1 EBpOllbl KaK «aMepHKaH­ CKHH Bbl30B», KaK «BOHHy, KOTopaH co CTOpOHbl ClllA BeJleTClI He JlOJl­ JlapaMH HJlH He<jJTblO, He TOHHaMH CTaJiH, He Aa)l(e HOBeHJJ.:HMH MaWH' HaMH, HO nOCpeJlCTIlOM TBOpQeCKOH MblCJlH, oprallH3aUHH H TaJlaHTa». B XJleCTKOM ny6J1HuHCTHQeCKOM CTHJlC CepDaH-l.llpeH6ep nHweT: «3TO-' nepBa51 60Jlbillall BOHHa 6e3 npHMCHeHHH Opy>KHH. B caM OM JleJle, aMe­ p"KaHCKaH aBHaKOMnaHHlI «)],)I(eHepaJl MOTOp3" - He BepillaXT, norJlome­ HHe <jJpaHuy3cKOH 3J1eKTpOHHOH <jJIlPillbl «BIOJlb» - 31'0 He MIOHXCH (1938), a aHrJlo-cjJpaHUY3CI(HH npOCKT ccopy>KellHH CBcpx30yKoBoro CaMOJleTa «KOHIWPJl» - 3TO He CeJlaH (1870) ». l(aKlie 3HaKOMble llpe;<iIleTbl H MeTOJlbl, CKa)l(CT tJaW QHTaTCJlb, Jla He nOCll5lmeHa JlH H KHllra )KaKa Bep)l(be 0 npOMblIllJleHHOM wnHOHa>Ke Te~1 >Ke np06J1eMaM H TeM >Ke BonpocaM? KOHeQHO, lla, H HHalle 6b1Tb He MO­ )I(CT, BeJlb HeAapOM aBTOp KHHrH YJleJlI1J1 CTO.~bKO BHl1i1laHHl1 H JII0JlllM, II TeXHIlKe, H MeTOJlaM npOMblWJleHIIOrO WnHOHa>Ka. 5I6J10KO - npOMblW­ JleUHblH IlInHOHa)l( - OT 1I0JlOHH - COBpCiIleHHOfl HaYQHO'TeXHHlleCKOH pe­ BOJIIOUHH, pa3BepHyBillcHClI B caMblX cneUH<jJHtICCKHX <jJopMax B KanHT<1­ JlHCTHlJeCKOM MHpe, - Aa.neKO HC llaJlaeTI AMepHKaHcKHe <jJHpMbl, KOMMeHTHpyeT «BblCaJlKyaMepHKaHucn B EB­ pone" CepBaH-ll1peH6ep, OAHa sa Apyrofl OTI(pbWaIOT coon wTa6-KllapTH­ pbJ B CTpaHax 3anallHOH EoponbJ 0 ueJlllx ueHTpaJlll30BaHHoro ynpaBJle­ HH5I CBOI1MH npeJlnpH5ITHl1MH. 3TOT nO-HaCToRmcMy peaJlbHblfl <jJeAepa· * Jean Jacques Servan-Schreiber, Le defi americain, P., 1967; «The American Challenge", L., 1968; C h r i s top her L a y­ ton. Europcan Advanccd Technology. A Programmc for Integration, L., 1969.· 1716
  • 11. JlH3M - e./lHHCTBeHHblI1 B EBpOne, OCHOBblBalOlllHHClI Ha BbiCOKOM HII./lYCT­ pHaJlbHOM ypoBue - H./leT Tenepb rOpa3./l0 ./laJlbllle, lleM 06 3TOM ./lYMaJiH 3KcnepTbi «061l1ero pbIHKa». Eho CY1K./leHHe KpynHoro naiilllHKa na· pHlKcKoro elKeHe./le.%HHKa «3Kcnpecc». O./lHoro H3 JlH./lepOB napTHH pa./lH­ KaJlOB BO l1>paHl.I,HH, Bce TOro lKe CepBaH-W peii6epa MOlKHO BnOJIHe pel 30HHO JlOnOJlHHTb Ha6JI1o./leHHlIMH )1(. EeplKbe 0 npOHCXOJlllllleii «rapMo­ HH3al.l,HH» ./lellTeJlbHOCTH H TaKTHKH aMepllKaHcKHx H 3ana./lHoeBponellcKHx npOMbIllIJleHHblX llInHOHOB. l1x 3aCeKpetleHHbie «llITa6-KBapTHpbl» Haxo­ ./lflTClI B JIoH./loHe H flapHlKe, EOHHe H MH.~aHe, EplocceJle H CTOKrOJlb­ Me - OCIO./ly, KY./la npOTflHYJlHCb llIynaJlbl.l,a aMepHKaHCK~ro60JlblllOrO 6H3­ Heca. yOJlJl-CTpHTOBCKHX npOMbillIJJeHHblX KOHllepHOB H KOHfJlOMepaTOB H 6allKOBCKHX rpynn H CHH./lHKaTOB. 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  • 13. HM SaHHMalOTCH rocy.napCTBa, Me)l{.nyHapo.nHhle OpraHI1Sa­ 1.1.1111, OT.neJIhHhle JIl1ua. HeCOMHeHHO, npOMhlWJIeHHhIH wnl1o­ Ha)l{ nepe)l{l1BeT BoeHHhI~I Wn110Ha)l{, ecmI nOCJIe.nHHH Kor­ .na -JI1160 HCqe3HeT B pe3YJIhTaTe .ueHCTBI1TeJIhHOrO pa30py­ )l{eHI1H I1JII1 c.uaql1 Bcex BI1.uOB Opy)l{I1H Op ra HI13aUI111 06'he.uI1HeHHhIX HaUI1H. YTBep)l{.uaIOT, 6y.uTO CYIJ..I.eCTByIOT .ua)l{e 6I1P)KI1 cneUl1a­ JIH311pOBaHHhIX ceKpeTOB, r.ue nOKynaeTcH H npo.uaeTC5I Kpa.ueHaH TeXHl1qeCKaH I1H<popMaUI1H; 6y.uTO TaKaH 6l1p)l{a, cneUl1aJIl13l1pYIOIJ..I.aHCH Ha 3JIeKTpOHI1Ke 11 nJIaCTl1qeCKI1X Ma­ TepHaJIaX, cymecTByeT B 5InoHHI1; .upyraH 6Hp)l{a, CneUHaJIH­ 3HpYlOmaHCH Ha H3.ueJIHHX <papMaueBTHqeCKOH npOMhIWJIeH- HOCTH, Haxo.uI1TCH B HTaJIHH. . TaKHM 06pa30M, npOMhIWJIeHHhIH WnHOHa)l{ Bce 60JIhWe npeBpamaeTCH B Ba)l{HOe COUHaJIhHOe HBJIeHHe, 3aCJIy)l{HBa­ IOmee 113yqeHI1H. Pa3yMeeTcH, cephe3HO H3yqaH npOMhIWJIeH­ Hhlir WnHOHa)K, He06xo.uHMO yqHThlBaTh Hero nOJIHTHqeCKOe 3HaqeHHe. KpoMe TOro, He06xo.uHMO KOHCTaTHpOBaTh, 'ITO wnHOHhI pacnOJIaraIOT Ba)l{HhIMH cpe.nCTBaMH He TOJIhKO HH<popMa­ UHH, HO H .ueHCTBHH• .lI.oKa3aTeJIbCTBOM TOMy CJIy)l{aT 3JIOKJIlOqeHHH, npOHCXO­ .nHBWHe no OKOHtlaHI1H BTOpOH Ml1pOBOH BOHHhI C nopTyraJIh­ CKHM HH)I{eHepOM BHceHTe-I1-AMaTOM. 9TOT HH)I{eHep nOCT­ pOHJI no 3a.uaHHIO CBoeR CTpaHhI 3aBO.u CHHTeTHqeCKOrO 6eH­ 3HHa Ha 6a3e 6yporo yrJIH. 3aBO.u pa60TaJI npeKpaCHO, H Ha Hero 06paTHJIH BHHMaHHe npOMhIWJIeHHhle Wnl10Hhl. AM aT OTKa3aJICH npo.uaTh CBoe H306peTeHHe. CnycTH .uBa ro.na nOCJIe OKOHqaHHH BOHlihI 011 6hIJI Ha OCHOBaHl111 JIO)l{HbIX nOKa3aHHH 06BHHeH B MOWeHHHqeCTBe, npe.uaH cy.ny H npH­ rOBopeH K 18 ro.uaM TlOpeMHoro 3aKJIlOqeHHH. 3aBo.u 6bIJI pa3pyweH. O.nHaKo oCY)l{.ueHHhIH npe.unpl1HHJI cOBepweHHo 6ecnpeue.ueHTHhlH B I1CTOpHH TeXHHKH TpIOK: eMy y.uaJIOCh CKJIOHHTh H~ CBOIO CTOpOHy HaqaJIhHHKa TlOphMhI 11 nOCTpo­ 11Th B CaMOI1 TlOphMe npHMHTHBHylO Mo.ueJIb CBoero 3aBo.na. lVlo.ueJIh npHMHTHBHylO, o.uHaKO .uocTaTOqHYIO .uJIH cHa6)1{e­ HHH BceH TlOphMhI 6eH3HHoMl 11 .upyraH TIOphMa nOTpe60Ba­ JIa nocTpoHTh aHaJIOrHqHYlo yCTaHOBKy, KOTopaH <PYHKUHO­ HHpOBaJIa TaK )l{e HcnpaBHo. 5hIJIO npe,lI;CTaBJIeHO npOWeHl1e o nepecMoTpe .ueJIa. OpraHhI npaBocy.uHH B nOpTyraJIHH, KaK H BO MHorHX .upyrHX cTpaHax, Me.uJII1TeJIhHbl, TeM He MeHee AMaTa OCB060.nI1JIH no I1CTeqeHHH ceMH JIeT. CJIe,lI.OBa­ TeJIhHO, HHKOHM 06paaOM HeJIh3H npeHe6peraTh onaCHOCThlO npOMhlIl,lJIeHHOrO WnHOHa)l{a. 11 samHTa OT ~lToro wnHOHa­ ma, KOTopaH SlBJISleTCSl .neJIOM H O<pHUlIaJIhHOii, H qaCTHOff nOJIHUHH, TaK)I{e npe.uCTaBJIHeT C060H peaJIhllhlH <paKT 11 HH­ I<OHM 06paaOM He HBJIHeTCH BbI,lI.YMKOH aBTopOB nOJIHueH­ CKHX pOMaHOB. B CiliA cymeCTByeT aCCOUHaUHH 6hlBWI1X areHTOB <f>e­ nepaJIhHOrO 61Opo paCCJIe,lI.OBaHI1H (<f>5P). Ee a,lI.pec: HhlO­ HopK, M9,lI.HCOH-aBeHIO. 274. OHa HaCqHThIBaeT 4,5 ThIC. 'lJIeHOB, KOTophle npe,lI.JIaralOT CBOH yCJIyrl1 npOMhIWJIeHHOC­ TH .uJIH 60Ph6hI co wnHOHaMH. AccoUHaUHH Ha.naeT cnpaBotJ­ HylO KHHry 0 cB060.uHbIX .ueTeKTHBaX, a TaK)Ke ny6JIHKy­ eT cnHCOK .neTeKTHBOB, y)l{e pa60TalOIJ..I.l1x B npOMhIWJIeH­ HOCTH. TOJIhKO B O,lI.HOR I<OMnaHHH «<f>op.n» pa60TalOT 39 6hIBWHX areHTOB <p5P, 3aIJ..I.HmaH ee OT npOMhlWJIeHHOrO WnHOHa)Ka. no CJIOBaM «YOJIJI-CTPHT .n)l{OpH3J1», lIelWTOphle H3 3TI1X areHTOB 5IBJI5lI0TCH He PH.uOBhIMH CJIY)l{alUHMI1 KOM­ naHHH, a aaHllMalOT B HHX Ba)l{Hhle nOCThl. Y 3TI1X .ueTeKTH­ BOB H3p5l.nHaH Harpy3Ka, H B03MO)l{HO, 'ITO CO BpeMeHeM OHa 6y.neT Bce 60JIhWe H 60JIhWe YBeJIHqHBaThC5I. .lI.eJIO B TOM, 'ITO wnHOHhI rOHHIOTC5I Teneph 3a ceKpeTa­ MH, xpaHHmHMI1CH He TOJIhKO y OT,lI.eJIbHhIX JIHU, HO H B 3a­ nOMHHalOmHX yCTpoHcTBax 3JIeKTpOHHO-BhIqHCJIHTeJIhHhIX MaWHH. Ha He.naBHeH KOH<pepeHUHH IOHECKO KpynHhIH aMepHKaHCKHH CneUHaJIHCT no 3JIeKTpuHHO-BhlqHCJIHTeJIb­ HhIM MaWIIHaM 5epHap.u 5eHCOH 3aHBI1JI, 'ITO HaKOnJINlI1e ceKpeTOB B 3anOMHHalOIJ..I.HX yCTpoHcTBax npe.uCTaBJI5IeT onaCHOCTb. KOTopaH MO)l{eT 06epHyTbcH KaTaCTpo<pofl. no ero CJIOBaM, IOHECKO ,lI.OJI)I{Ha HeMe.uJIeHHO 3aHHTbCH 3a­ UlHTOH rpa)l{.uaH OT Kpa)l{H npHHa,lI.JIe)l{aIJ..I.HX HM ceKpeTOB, HaXO,lI.HmHXCH Ha XpaHeHI1H B aanOMHHaIOmHX yCTpoHcTBax 9JIeKTpOHHO-BhI'II1CJIHTeJIbHhIX M aWI1H. B ca MOM ,lI.eJIe, KOr,lI.a y3Haewh, 'ITO HaJIOrOBOe ynpaBJIeHHe CiliA 6y.ueT pacnoJIa­ raTb MawHHoH, xpaHHmeH B CBoeM 3anOMHHalOIJ..I.eM yCTpoH­ CTBe Bce 'IeKOBhle C,lI.eJIKI1, KOTophle 6y,lI.yT COBepweHbl B ClllA nOCJIe nycKa 3TOH MaWHHbl, eCTb OT qero aa6HTb Tpe­ Bory. B 3TOH pa60Te MhI eme npHBe,lI.eM npHMepbI xHlllelmH HHepopMauHH Ha aanOMHH31OIJ..I.HX yCTpoikTB 3JIeKTpOHHO­ BhI'IHCJIHTeJIbllbIX MaWHH. TaKI1M 06pa30M, HaqaJIaCb OXOTa 3a caMblMH nporpec­ CHBHblMH HCTOqHHKaMH HH<popMaUHH, H, HeCOMHeHHO, OHa npe.uC'raBJI5IeT C060H 60JIbWyIO yrpoay. B npoTHBOnOJIO)l{­ HOCTb BoeHHoMy WnHOHa)l{y, npOMblIllJIeHHblH eme He CTaJI TeMOH MHOrOqHCJIeHHbIX penopTa)j{eH H pOMaHOB. TeM He Me­ Bee y)l{e WHpOKO pacnpOCTp<lIICIIO 60JlbiliOe qHCJIO JICreH.u 0 22 23
  • 14. npOMblIlIJIeHHOM IlInYIOHa)Ke, H o,D.Ha H3 ueJIeH E)TOH KIHlrH­ pa3Be5ITb 3TH JIereH,D.bl. A Me)K,D.y TCM, KaJ{ nOKa3bIBaeT IlH)I{eCJleAYloma5I HII' q.)OpMaUH5I, nOJIy'leHHa5I BO BpeM5I pa60Tbi Ha,D. 3TOfI KHHrOH H nOflBHBIlla5ICfl B «napH->I<yP» 3 HlOJIft 1968 r., peaJIbH851 neHCTBHTeJIbHOCTb npOMblIllJIeHHOrO IllnHOHa>l<a nopoH yLUI­ BHTeJIbHee, lJeM JIl060H BbIMbICeJI. «MoJI'lHTe, oCTeperaHTecb, CTeHbl HMelOT yUIHI» - cPop­ MyJIa TpacpapeTHaH, HO OHa YCTapeJIa. CeH'laC HMelOT yUlH H OKHa, TO'lHee - OKOHHble CTeKJIa. 113y'la51 CBOHCTBa creR­ JIa, OD-Ha CneUHaJIH3HpOBaHHafl cpHpMa CKOHCTpyHpOBaJIa JIa3ep-UlnHOH, KOTOpblH OHa neMOIlCTpHpOBaJIa B JIoHnoHe Ha Cbe3ne npenCTaBHTeJIeH CTeKOJIbHOH npOMhlUweHHOCTH. bJIarOLtap5I np0>l<aHHlO CTeKOJI 3TOT npH60p n03BOJI5IeT CJIbl­ maTb na)J<e Ha 60JIbWOilf paCCTOflHHH, TO eCTb Ha BceM npo­ Tfl>KeHYlH JIy'l3 CBeTa, H3JIy'laeMOrO JIa3epOM. BnpO'leM, y)Ke cymeCTByeT npeBOCXOnHaft 3aUUlT3 OT 3Toro HOBoro annapa­ To Wnl10Ha>l<a: 'lT06bl npeCe'lb nOnCJIywHBaHHe, nOCTaTOIJHO nOCTaBHTb nBol"lHble paMbl. CTOJIb )J<e He06bl'lHblM HBJIfleTCfl 06b5IBJIeHHe, nOMemeH­ HOe B 1968 rony B aBrycToBcKOM HOMepe aMepHKaHcKoro )1<ypHaJIa «CneHc yopJIn», B KOTOpOM cnHCblBaeTC5I MeTaJI· JIHtlec[we HaceKOMoe C MHKpO¢OHOM, nOnaIOmHM CHrHaJIbI. 3TH CHrHaJIbl MoryT 6bITb npHH5ITbl Ha paCCT05IHHH 70 At JIIO­ 6blM panHOnpHelfHHKOM C 'laCTOTOH MonYJI5IUHI"I B nHana30­ He OT 80 no 90 Merarepu. HaceKoMoe noxo>l<e Ha 06bl'lHYIO 60)KblO KOPOBKY. npOnaeTC5I OHO 3a 14,95 AOJIJI. 3anJIaTHB eme .3 AOJlJI., MO)J<HO npH06pecTH nonp06HblH KaTaJIOr umHOHClwro H1meHTap5I. 06pamaTbC5I: HbIO-Y!OpK, 19ft y.'1Hlla, aKUHollepHoe o6luecTBo «3JIeKTpOHHKC M3HlOcpe{· 'lypHllr KOMnaHH». 9TH ABa C006meHH5I ne~laTH, nO>l<aJIyH, OTHOC5ITC5I, CKopee, K HH¢opMaUHH 3a6aBHoro )KaHpa. fIpH­ BeneM TpeTbe, 60JIee cepbe31·:0e coo6melme, 0 KOTOpOM 6y­ neT HHTepeCHO Y3HaTb 'lHTaTe.'15IM. B JIoHnoHe Hen3BHO 61>1.110 paCKpblTO AeJIO 0 npOMblIlJ' JIeHHOM IllnHOHa)l<e, KacalOmeeC5I ceKpeToB, ouellHBaeMblX MHJIJIHOllaMH cpyHTOB CTepJlHHroB. )l'-(epTBoH HBJTlTeTC5I 3H­ rJIHHCKa5J al3J1aUHOHHafl KOMnaHH5I «5PllTllll1 oBepcHc sj{py­ 3rlC KopnoperllllH» (<<503K»), J{oTOpa5I B naqa.'1e 1968 rona 06bflBHJIa 0 BpeMeHHoM oTcTpaHeHHH OT pa6oT~ Tpex CAY­ >l<amHX, nOl10:1pCB3eMb1X B Bhlna'le KOHKypHpylOUleH KOMna­ HUll ceKpeTOB BCelmpHOM ceTH Kacc npenB3pHTCJIhHofJ npo­ n3)](JJ 6HJIeTOB. LJeTBepTbIl1 areHT KOMnaHHH, TaK)Ke 3aMe­ UJaHHblH 0 neJIe, 6e>l<aJI. CBeneHH5I, n03BOJIHBUme AHpeKUHH «509K» pa300JI8 HTb flIUIOBHHKOB «yTe'lKH ceKpeTon», " 6blJIH co06IJJ.eHbl, KaK YK83blBaiOT MHorHe JIO~AOHCKHe ra­ 3eTbl, KOMnaHHeH, BOCnOJIb30Bal3IlleHC5I «yTe'lIWH». OCYIUeCT­ BJIeHHe HOBoro nJIaHa npeABapUTeJIbHOH npOAa~H 6HneTOB «503K» AOmi<HO 6blJl0 HaqaTbCfl oceHblO 3Toro >l<e rOlla. BcervlHpHa51 ceTb, n03BOJlHlOIJJ.a5I 3a HeCKOJlbKO MHHyT BbI5l.C­ HYlTb KOJIH'leCTBO cr;OOOAHbIX MeCT Ha Bcex CaMOJIeTaX KO.lI· naHHH, pa60TaeT npH nOMomH 3JIeKTpOHHO-Bbl'lHCJIHTeJIbHbIX MaUlHH KOMnaHHH «l1HTepH3lUHJI 6H3Hec MaWH1I3» (<<l1EM»). CTOHMOCTb nporpa MMHpOBa HH5I HOBOH CHCTeMbl oueHHBaeTCfl B 40 MJIH. cp. CT., HO OHa, BHAHMO, n03r30JIHT KoMnaHHH C3KOHOMHTb J1.0 1980 rona 48 MJIH. <p. CT., B 'laCT­ HOCTH B pe3YJIbTaTe JIHKBHnaUHH 2 Tbl.C. LtOJI>I<HOCTeH. npH HblHeIllHeM COCT05IHHH aHrJlHHCKOro 3aKoHon~Te.'Ib­ CTBa npOMbllUJIeHHblH wnHOHa>K He nonnaAaeT nOA neHCTAHe 3aKOHa, H nOA03peBaeMbie pHCKylOT, B KpaHHeM c.1YlJac. 6blTb YBOJIeHHbIMH. TeM He MeHee 3aKOHOAaTeJIbHaH KOMHC­ CH5I naJI aTbl 06mHH paCCM aTpHBaeT B HaCT05I~ee 0 pelHl H3MeHeHH5I, KOTopble MoryT 6bITb BHeceHbl B JJ.eHcTBylOmee 3aKOHOnaTeJIbCTBO no 3TOMy Bonpocy, H B03MO>l<HO, liTO tIC­ pe3 nBa rona COOTBeTcTBylOIJJ.HH 331WllOnpoeKT 6YAeT OHe­ ceH B napJIaMeHT. 3TO co06melIHe 113 JIOIlnoHa 6blJIO nOMe­ meHO B ra3eTe «MoHA» 28 anpeJIfl 1968 r. non 3arOJIOB­ KOM «PacKpblTl1e l<pynHoro AeJIa 0 npOMblUJ.TTeHHOM UInHO· Ha>l<e». 113 3Toro TpeTbero, H nOCJIeAHerO, npHMepa OHAHO, liTO npOMbllUJIeHHblH IllnHOHa)K -ll,eJlO ne nYCTfll<OBoe. OH 3a­ TparHBaeT O'leHb KpynI-!ble IlllrepeCbl, H n03TOMY Ba>l<II0 pa306paTbCfl B 3TOM Bonpoce. npOMblWJIellHblfl wnHOHa>K He TaK npaMaTH'leH, KaK 130­ eHHbIH, H TeM He MeHee C HHM CB5I3aHbl cynb6bl orpOMHblX pecypCOB, a nopoH OH npHBoAHT K KOH<pJIHKTaM. Paccl,33hl­ Bafl 060 BceM E>TOM, lie XOTeJIOCb neJI aTb CBoe 11 OBecTEona I! He HH cyry60 CneUHaJl bHblM TpaKTaToM, HH pa3£lJleKaTeJIbHbl"'! pOMalioM. 51 TmaTeJIbHO npOBep5I.TJ HHcpopMaUHlo, H BC5IKIHI pa3, KOI'/l3 cpaKTbl He nOJIy'laJIH oqlHUl1aJibHOrO nOnTBep>l<ne ­ HH5I BO BpeM5I cyna I1JlH 0 ocpHlJ,l1aJlhHOM 3a5lBJleHI1H, HO Korna 51 ClIHTalO IIX Bep05ITllbIMH, 51 OTMe'laJI HX, KaK Ta­ I<OBble. MOH HCTO'lHHKH t1HcpopMaUHH- 3TO rJIaBHblM 06pa30M MaTepHaJIbl cyne6HbiX nponeccol3. nonp06Hble OTlJeTbl 0 cy­ nax no neJlaM npOMblUlJleHHOrO mnHOHa>l<a nOCTaT04HO 06HJIbIlbl; B TO >Ke BpeMfl OIlH npenCTaBJImOT C0601"1 He06b1K­ HOBeHHO CblpOH MaTepHaJI, KOTOpblH, HeCOMHeHHO, Korna­ 25 24
  • 15. f1H6ynb HCnOJIbsyeT He onHH pOMaHHCT. 51 DCTpelJaJICH TaK)Ke C HeKOTopblMH JII0nbMH, KOTopble OXpaH5IIOT npOMbIlllJIeH­ HOCTb OT lllnHOHa.>Ka. 51 6eCenOBaJI H C JIlOnbMH, KOTOpblX 06BHHHJIH B npOMbllllJIeHHOM llInHOHame H KOTopble, Bnpo­ lJeM, ClJHTalOT ce6H HeBHHOBHbIMH. HCCJIenOBalHIH npHDeJIH ~leHH K yoemneHHlO, lJTO npo­ MbIlllJIeHHblH lllnHOIla)K MO)I<eT BTOprHyTbCH B mHSHb Kam­ Aoro. TaKoro me IVlHeHHH npHAep)KHBaeTCH aHrJIHHcKHi'1 HCCJIenOBaTeJIb <PHJIHnn XHKCOH B pa60Te «[JPOMbllllJIeHHaH KOHTppaSBenKa». OH nHllleT, lJTO sa aHrJIHikKHM npOMbllll­ JIeHHHKOM MO)l(HO BeCTH CJIe)J<KY BcerAa - 11 AHeM, H HOlJblO, npOCJIemHBaTb BCIO ero AeHTeJIbHOCTb, sanHCblBaTb ero pas­ rOBopbl B noeSJl.e, 6ape HJIH B JII060M npyroM MeCTe. [JoceTHTeJIb saBona, MOHI.lI.HK OKOIIHblX ,CTeKOJI, 1II0epep BSHToro HanpOKaT aDTo?',w6HJIH MoryT 6blTb lllnHOHaMH. B CIllA B KaTaJIOre, pacnpOCTpaHeHHOM COlO30M nOTpe6HTe­ JIeH, npHBo.n.HTCH no.n.po6Hble .n.aHHbIe 0 npH60pax H TeXHHKe npOMbllllJIeHHOrO lllnHOHama C YKa3aHHeM u,eH. B 3TOM KaTaJIOre npHMelJaTeJIbHa CJIe.n.Y10l.ll.aH <ppasa 0 cneu,H3JIbHOM npH6ope, CJIym31.l1.eM .n.JIH BbI51BJIeHHH HCTOlJHH­ Ka TeJleepOHHoro pa3rOBopa: «;:hOT OC06blH npH60p HCnOJIb­ 3yeTcH rJIaBHblM 06pa30M raHrCTepaMH H <pBP». B KaTaJIOre yKa3blDaeTCH, KpOMe TOro, 'ITO HeKOTopLle 3JIeKTpOHHble npH60pLI .n.JJH lllnHOHama, B qaCTHOCTH npH6opbI, H3rOTOB­ JIHeMble KOMnaHI151MH «Mo::)JIep pHCeplJ» H «KeJI Kopno­ pefllllH», npe.n.Ha3Ha'lalOTCH HCK.TItQ'IHTe.'lbHO JI.JI5I aMepHK:l H­ CKOi'1 nOJIHu,HH H KOHTppa3Be.n.KH. Bee HCnOJIb30BaHHbie MHOH .n.OKyMefITbl I1MelOTCH B CBO­ 60.n.HOH npo.n.ame, H He 6blJIO, HHKaKofl He06xo.n.HMOCTH nOJIbSOBaTbCH KaKHMH-JIH60 ceKpeTHblMH HCTO'lHHKaMH IiJlI! pa3rJIalllaTb KaKHe-JIH60 .n.OBepHTeJIbHbIe C006I.l1.eHHH. Lto­ CTaTO'lHO 06paTHTbCH K 06bl'lHOH .n.OKyMeHTau'H1i, KOTOpylO JIenw MomeT npH06peCTH BC5IKI1H, 'IT06bI y6e.n.HTbCH D peaJIbHOCTH npOMblillJIeHHOrO lllnHOHama. [JPOMbllllJIeHHbIH lllnHOHa)l< H COOTBeTCTBYlOl.lI.a51 KOHTp­ paSDe.n.Ka HBJIHIOTCH HeH3MeHIIblMH peaJIbHOCTHMH Halllero MHpa. 3TOMy B SHalJHTeJIbHOH Mepe 6blJI nOCDHl.l.l,eH lJHKar­ CKI1H KOlIrpecc no Bonpocy 0 npHMeHeHHH HaYKH H TeXHHKI1 n pH pellleHHH nOJIHu,eHCKI1X 3a.n.a'l. Ha KOHrpecce, B lJaCT­ 1I0CTH, .n.eMOIICTpHpOBaJICH CKOHCTpyHpOBa HHbllJ a MepHKaH­ CKOH KOMn3HI1eH «JIOKXH.n. MHCHJIC 31I.n. cneHC KOMn31IH» npll60p, n03BOJIHI0l.ll.HH OlJeHb 6blCTpO 06blCKHBaTb nOceTII­ TeJIerI SaDOJl.a, BbIHBJIHH JII060H MeTaJIJIH'IeCKHlJ npe.n.MeT, JII06yIO KaMepy, JII060H caMonHlllYI.ll.HH npH60p. 26 )KypHaJI «AHTpenpHS», opraH <ppaHu,yscKHX .n.eJIOBbIX KpyroB, nl1caJI 28 OKTH6p51 1967 1'.: «HaH60JIee arpeccHDHbl­ MH HBJIHIOTCH HnoHu,bl. IllnHoHam cTpaH BocToKa HOCHT cHcTeMaTHlJeCKHH H u,eHTpaJIH30BaHHbIH xapaKTep. 4TO Ka­ caeTCH aMepHKaHu,eB, OHH y.n.eJIHIOT 3HalJI1TeJIbHYIO 'IaCTb CBoero BpeMeHH B3aHMHoMY lllnHOHa)KY. XHMHH H aBTOMO­ 6HJIeCTpOeHHe - OTpaCJIH npOMbllllJIeHHOCTH, r.n.e oxpaHa ceKpeToB HrpaeT BamHeHlllylO pOJIb. LtBa ro.n.a Ha3a.n. npem­ .n.eBpeMeHHoe peKJIaMHpOBaIme HOBOH MOneJIH «Mepce.n.eca » HaHeCJIO cepbe3Ilbifi ¢HHaHcoBbIH Yl.ll.ep6 epHpMe. XHl.lI.eHHH KOJIJIeKu,HH MO.n. lllHpOKO HSBeCTHbl. KOMnaHHH «I1pOKTOp 3H.n. fElM6JI» nOXHTHJIa nOJIHblfl KOMMep'leCKHH nJIaH O.n.HOf! epHpMbl. OnHa)J(.n.bl cj)HpMbl «PeBJIOH» H «KOTH» o.n.HoBpeMeH­ HO BbmycTHJIH I<OCMeTHlJeCKOe H3.n.eJIHe o.n.HHaKOBoro o6pa3­ u,a. CJIYlJaHHocTb? <PHpMbl CHCTeMaTHlJeCKH BblCJIemHBalOT .n.BHmeHHe rpy30BHKoB CBOHX KOHKypeHToB». BOT npHMep He TOJIbI<O npOMbllllJIeHHOrO, HO TaKme H 3KOHOMH'IeCKOrO .1llnHOHama: B 1968 ro.n.y .n.Ba aHrJIHHCKHX npOMblllIJIeHHHKa, no.n.rOTaBJIHBaBlllHe CJIH5IHHe CBOHX npe.n.­ npHHTHH, pellll1JII1 BCTpeTHTbcH B cTpomaHllleH TaHHe Ha BeplllHHe O.n.rIOH lllOTJIaH.n.cKoH ropbl no.n. npOJIHBHblM .n.om­ .n.eM. Ho HeOIOTpH Ha Bce Mepbl npe.n.ocTopOmHOCTI1, coxpa­ HHTb TaHHy He y.n.aJIOCb: B aBTOM06HJIe, B KOTOpOM exaJI O.n.HH H3 HHX, 6blJIH 3aMaCKHpOBaHbl MHKPOepOH H pa.n.Hone­ pe.n.aTlJHK. CJIHHHHH, KOHu,eHTpau,HH, yBeJIH'IeHHe KanHTaJI a, HOBbIe HaYlJHble OTKpblTHH, peKJIaMHble nJIaHbl, npoeKTbl BbmycKa HOBblX 113.n.eJIHH, YlJpe)K.n.eHHe epl1JIHaJIOB 3a rpamlu,eH - Ta­ KOB nepBblH, .n.aJIeKO He nOJIHblH nepelJeHb 06'beKTOB npo­ MbllllJIeHHOrO lllnHOHama. [JPOMbIlllJIeHHble lllnHOHLI HCnOJIb3YlOT JII06ble cpe.n.CTBa: 3J1.eCb H npHMeHeHl1e HOBeHlllHX .n.OCTHmeHHH 3JIeKTpOHHKH, H , Henocpe.n.CTBeHHoe TaHHoe Ha6JIIo.n.eHHe, H KpamH co B3JIO­ MOM, H lllaHTam. PelJb H.n.eT 0 HaCTOHl.lI.eH TaHHOH BOHHe­ CTOJIb me pacnpOCTpaHeHHOH H CTOJIb me Heo6bllJHOH, KaK 60pb6a BoeHHblX paSBe.n.lJHKOB H KOHTppasBe.n.lJHKoB. Ee OTpa)l<eHHe 'IaCTO MomHO DH.n.eTb B raseTax: «HHme­ Hep-H3b1CKaTeJIb ynaJI HS OKHa», «B KaMeHOJIOMHe o6Hapy­ meH Tpyn IlIImeHepa-xHMHKa», «He nOToMy JIH npOH3011IeJI B3pblB Ha «1(apaBeJIJIe», 'ITO Ha ee 60pTy Haxo.n.HJICH YlJe­ HbIH-aTOMHHI(?», «TaHHcTBeHHoe caMoy6HHCTBO CneUHaJIHC­ Ta no u,BeTHoH epOTorpaepHH». 3TO - KpaHHHe ¢OPMbJ. 3TO - Te C06bITIl5I, KOTopble Bcer.n.a npHBJIeK810T BHHMaHHe 11<ypH8JIHCTOB. 27
  • 16. Ho TO, tITO BH.n.HT ny6.TIHKa B 06JIaCTH npOMhlWJIeHHOrO WnHOHa}l{a,- He 60JIee lJeM BepWHHa aflc6epra. LI:eB5lTb }1.eCSlTbIX npOHcweCTBHH OCTaIOTC5I CKpblTblMH H He n05lBJI5I­ IOTCSl B nelJaTH. O.n.HaKO CJIe.n.bl HX OCTaIOTC5I B MaTepHaJIaX Cy.n.OB Ii nOJlHueflCKHX .n.eJIax. Ha 3aBo.n.ax BHCSlT nJIaKaTbI, .n.OBOJIbHO Cxo.n.Hble C TeMIi, KOTopble MOR<HO 6blJIO BH.n.eTb BO BpeM5I nepBOH MHpOBOH BOHHbl: «MOJIlJHTe, 6y.n.bTe OCTopmKHbl, Bac CJIblWaT yWH Bparal» 3THMH ywaMH H .n.a}l{e rJIa3aMH Bpara MoryT 6bITb MHHHaTlOpHble TeJIeBH3HOHHble KaMepbl, HaCTOJIbKO XopOWO 3aMaCKHpOBaHHble, lJTO HX no.n.tIac HeB03MOR<HO 06Hapy­ }lmTb. Bce 31'0 C03.n.aeT, no KpaHHeH Mepe B HeKOTopblX CTpa­ Hax, aTMocepepy no.n.03pHTeJIbHOCTH, KOTOpylO MOR<HO cpaB­ HHTb C aTMocepepOH, uap5llUeH npH XYJ1.WHX epopMax .n.HKTa­ Typbl H He HMelOlUeH HHlJerO 06lUero c' .n.eMoKpaTHeH. 31'0 npHBeJIO TaKR<e IC ylJpeR<.n.eHHIO WKOJI npOMblWJIeHHOrO wnHOHa:m:a. O.n.Ha H3 TaKHX WKOJI B CiliA He.n.aBHO .n.aJIa 06b5lBJIeHHe, B KOTOpOM npe.n.JIaraJIa nOJIHblH KypC, n03BOJI5I­ IOIUHH CTaTb wnHOHOM H HCnOJIb30BaTb HOBeHWHe npH60pbl 3JIeKTpOHHKH. H Bce 31'0 3a 22,5 .n.OJIJI. HeKoTopble ClIHTaIOT, lJTO npOMbIWJIeHHbll1 WnHOHaR< H pa3JIHlJHble ero nOCJIe.n.CTBH5I C03.n.a1OT OlJeHb cepbe3HYl0 yrp03Y HallleMY 06lUecTBy. Bo BC5IKOM cJIylJae, CJIe.n.yeT 01'­ HeCTHCb K 3TOMy 51BJIeHHIO co BceH cepbe3HocTblO. H3BecTHo, lJTO B CiliA .n.eTH yR<e nOKynaJIH 3JIeKTpOHHhIe npH60pbl .n.JI5I WnHOHaR<a 11 «npHcMaTpHBaJIH» 3a CBOHMH po.n.HTeJI5I­ MH I B 1962 ro.n.y aMepHKaHcKoe npaBHTeJIbCTBO 06b5lBHJIO, lJT~ 8126 ThIC. JIHU, cnoc06HblX Bbl.n.aTb npOMblWJIeHHble TaHHbI, 6blJIH nOCTaBJIeHbl no.n. Ha.n.30P OcilHUHaJIbHOH HJIH lJaCTHOH nOJIHUHH. TpH KpynHhIx aMepHKaHcKHx R<ypHaJIa B HalJaJIe 1968 ro.n.a BblCKa3aJIH CBoe MHeHHe 0 npOMblillJIeHHOM llInHO­ HaR<e. BOT 3TH MHeHH5Il «ITonYJIap MHK3HHKC»: «Tenepb B KpynHeHllIHX epHpMax npH3Ha1OT, lJTO npOMblillJIeHHblH llInHOHa)K npell,CTaBJI5JeT caMylO 60JIbWylO onaCHOCTb .n.JI5I npOMbllllJIeHHOCTH». «BH3Hec YHI{»: «ITo.n.HHMalOlUa5lc5I BOJIHa npOMbIWJIeHHO­ ro IllnHOHaR<a C03.n.aeT Henocpe.n.CTBeHHylO yrp03Y aMepH­ KaHCKOH HaylJHO-HCCJIe.n.OBaTeJIbCKOH pa60Te H 3KcnaHCHH HailleH npOMbIIllJIeHHOCTH». «HbIOCyHK»; «ITpe.n.npHHHMaTeJIH HalJHHalOT BeCTH ce651 KaK BOlOlOlUHeHaUHH. ITPOMblIllJIeHHblH IllnHOHaR< CTaHOBHT­ C5I C KaR<.n.bIM .n.HeM Bce 60J1ee HHTeHCHBHbIM, a. ero MeTO­ .n.bI - Bce 60JIee KPYTbIlIIl1». 28 JII06ble ycnexH HayKH, KaK B KocMoce, TaK H Ha .n.He MO­ peH, BbI3blBalOT HHTepec npOMbIIllJIeHHbIX IllnHOHOB. BnoJIHe Bep05lTHO, Kor.n.a lJeJIOBeK nepeH.n.eT 01' H3YlJeHH5I KOCMoca H OKeaHOB K H3YlJeHHIO «BHyTpeHHero KOCMoca», Kor.n.a OH HalJHeT 6ypHTb CKBaR<HHbl B ueHTpe 3eMJIH, npOMblWJIeHHble IllnHOHbl He oCTaHyTc5I B CTopOHe. .ll.yx npOMblIllJIeHHOro IllnHOHaR<a pacnpOCTpaHeH Ha­ .cTOJIbKO IllHpOKO, lJTO, KaK 31'0 HH CTpaHHO, CTaJIO Tpy.n.HO 6eCnJIaTHO pacnpOCTpaH5ITb TeXHHlJeCKHe H306peTeHH5I! B CiliA 31'01' epaKT KOHCTaTHpOBaJIa HACA, aMepHKaHCKa51 opraHH3aUH5I, 3aHHMalOlUa5lC5I H3YlJeHHeM KOCI'!Oca. HACA 6eCnJIaTHO npe.n.JIaraeT npOMblIllJIeHHOCTH H306peTeHH5I, c.n.eJIaHHble B npouecce H3YlJeHH5I KOCMoca . .ll.Hana30H 3THX H306peTeHHH IllHpOK: HalJHHa51 01' HOBoro nJIaHepa H KOHlJa51 KJIe5lMH HJIH HOBblMH MeTo.n.aMH CBapl<H. 31'0 - TaK Ha3blBa­ eMble «n060lJHble npo.n.yKTbl» KOCMHtIeCKHX HCCJIe.n.OBaHHH. JIl060H aMepHKaHCKHH npOMbIllIJIeHHHK MOR<eT nOJIYlJHTb .n.oKyMeHTaUHIO 060 BceM 3TOM cOBepIlleHHo 6eCnJIaTHo. O.n.HaKo HACA lJpe3BbIlJaHHO Tpy.n.HO 6eCnJIaTHO pacnpocT­ paH5ITb 3TY HHepopMaUHlo cpe.n.H npOMbIIllJIeHHHKoB. Olm nOlJTH He HHTepecylOTc5I elO H, Bep05lTHO, nOToMy. lITO ClJH­ TalOT CBe.n.eHH5I, KOTopble HHlJerO HM He CT05lT, He npe.n.CTaB­ JI5IIOllI,HMH HHKaKOH UeHHOCTH. H B TO R<e BpeM5I 6blJIO apec­ TOBaHO MHOR<eCTBO npOMblIllJIeHHhIX IllnHoHOB, KaK aMepH­ KaHueB, TaK H HHocTpaHueB, KOTopble npHJIaraJIH orpoMHble cTapaHH5I, lJT06bl nOXHTHTb 3TY .n.OKyMeHTaUHIO, KOTOpylO OHH, MeR<}1.y npOlJI1M, MOrJIH JIerKO nOJIylJHTb, nOCJIaB B HACA Bcero JIHillb 25 ueHTOB 3a ee nepeCblJIKY. PyccKHe TO)Ke HCnbITblBalOT 3aTpy.n.HeHH5I B .n.eJIe pac­ npocTpaHeHH5I 3a npe.n.eJIaMH CCCP HeKOTopblX HOBblX H306peTeHHit O.n.HO BpeM5I pyccKHe HcnblTblBaJIH 3aTpy.n.lle­ HH5I B .n.eJIe 6eCnJIaTHOrO pacnpocTpaHeHH5I 06pa3uoB Bblpa­ 60TaHHoro HMH HOBoro BellI,eCTBa .n.JI5I lJHCTKH TplOMOB Cy.n.OB H y.n.aJIeHH5I H3 HHX BC5IKOrO 3anaxa. ,UJI5I cOBepillelU15I 3TOH onepaUHH .n.OCTaTOlJHO npHMeIllaTb HeCKOJIbKO KaneJIb 3Toro BellI,eCTBa K 60lJKe BO.n.bl. O.n.HaKo B TO BpeM5I, Kor.n.a HIIOCT­ paHHble nOCeTHTeJIH He peillaJIHCb npHH5ITb 3TH 06pa3Uhl, HeCKOJIbKO CKJI5IHOK C 3THM BelUeCTBOM 6blJIO nOXHlueHO II, Bep05lTHO, npo.n.allo no OlJeHh BbICOKOH uene. TaK R<e 06CT05lJIO .n.eJIO C COBeTCKOH MaIllHHOH .n.JI5I oopa­ 60TKH aJIMa30B. YCTpOHCTBO MaIllHHbl, cBoe06pa3He ICOTOPO!1 3aKJlIOlJaeTC5I B TOM, lITO OHa HMeeT peaKTHl3llylO lallepy 113 6epHJIJII1Sl, MeTaJIJIa npOlJHOrO, He nponYCKalOUl,ero I1KC­ JIylJH H n03BOJI5IIOllI,erO CJIe.n.I1Tb 3a 3T,WaMI1 np0!13Bo.n.CTB8, 29
  • 17. 01>IJlO OnHCaHO B COBeTCKOH 6pOllllOpe, np0,lI.aBaBllleiicH B naplOKe 3a 60 caHTlIMOB. O,lI.HaKO ,lI.aHHble, B3HTbie H3 ,HOll OPOllllOPbl, oe3 BCHKlIX 1I3MeHeHlIH OblJIlI np0,lI.aHbl 3a orpoM­ HylO CyMMy O,lI.HOH aMepllKaHcKoH KOMnaHlIlI: lIHepopMaUlIH, IfCxO,lI.HlUaH OT npOMblWJIeHHOrO lllnllOHa, BHylllaeT OOJIbllle ,lI.OBepllH, lJ.eM Ta )Ke lIHepopMaUlIH, pacnpocTpaHHeMaH oec­ nJIaTHO. fOBOpHT, lJ.TO JIylJ.lI1l1H cnocoo COKpblTlIH Ba*HoH lIHqJOp­ MaUHlI OT 13HlIMaHlIH wnllOHOD - 3TO nyOJIlIKaUlIH ee. HlI­ KTO He B COCTOHlIlIlI lJ.lITaTb Bce HaYlJ.Hble *ypHaJIbl, II ,lI.OKY­ MeHTbI, K KOTOpblM He npllJIo*eH rpllep «ceKpeTHO», «KOH­ qlH,lI.eHUlIaJIbHO», He npllBJIeKalOT BHlIMaHlIH lllnllOHOB. 3TO 3aMelJ.aHHe OY,lI.eT OCTaBaTbCH BepHblM ,lI.0 Tex nop, nOKa areHTCTBa npOMblWJIeHHOrO lllnllOHa*a He OY,lI.YT pac­ nOJIaraTb MaWHHaMlI, aBTOMaTlIlJ.eCKlI npOCMaTpllBalOlUHMH nce HaytIHble )Kyp1l8JIbl. B03MO)KHO, OJIH30K lJ.ac, KOma KpynHble Me)K,lI.YHap0,lI.Hble opraHH3aUHH npOMbllllJIeHHOrO lllnilOHa)Ka OY,lI.YT lIMeTb TaKHe MaWlIHbJ. KaK H B OOJIaCTH BoeHllOro lllnifOHa*a, 311a'lHTeJIbHaH ,lI.OJIH C13e,lI.eHII H, KOTOpblX ,lI.OMOraIOTCH npOMbllllJIeHHble mnHOHbl, CO,lI.ep)KHTCH B JIlITepaType, ,lI.OcTynHoH BceM. O,n:­ HaKo 3,lI.eCb 3Ta ,lI.OJIH Mellbwe, lJ.eM B OOJIaCTH BoeHHoro HJIH nOJIHTHlJ.eCKOrO lllnllOHa*a. ,lJ,eJIO B TOM, 'ITO KaK naTeHTbl Ha H300peTeHHH, TaK H HaYlJ.Hble nyOJIHKaUHH, OTHOCHlUHeCH K npOMbl~JIeHHbiM HCCJIe,lI.OBaHHHM, nO,lI.BepralOTCH npe,lI.BapH­ TeJIbHOH ueH3ype. 3Ta ueH3ypa ocymeCTBJIHeTCH C TaKlIM paClJ.eTOM, lJ.TOObl MeCTHblH HJIlI HHOCTpaHHblH KOHKypeH1' lIaWeJI B HHX Ka K MO)l{HO MeHbllle ceKpeTOB. I1HalJ.e OOCTOHT ,lI.eJIO C oepHUlIaJIbHblMH .n.OKyMeHTaMH. THnHlJ.HbIM B 3TOM OTHOIUeHHH npHMepOM, Ha KOTOPbli'1 '1aCTO CCblJIalOTCH H KOTOpblH .n.eHCTBlITeJIbHO npHMe'laTeJIeH, HBJIH­ eTCH HaJIeT Ha pe,lI.aKUlIlO )KypHaJia «AMcpa3HH», cOBcpweH­ HblH <1>5P 11 MapTa 1945 1'., TO eCTb nO'lTH B caMOM KOIIue BTOPOH MlIpOBOil Boi!HbJ. 3TOT )l{yplIaJI 1I3.n.aBaJiCH THpa)KOM 1,7 TbIC. 3K3. THpa* HeOOJIblllOH, HO BJIlIHlIHe *yplIaJIa OblJIO BeJIlIKO. B KaOHlIeTax «AMepa3HH» oOHapy)I{HJIH 1,5 TbIC. oOJIee HJIH MeHee Ba)IUIl,IX oepHUHaJIblIblX .n.oKyMell­ TOB. OHH OblJIH nOCJIaHbl Ha3BallllOMY iKypHaJIy no npocToii ero npocboe pa3JII1'iHbIMIf npanHTCJIbCTBeHlIblMH YlJ.pe*.n.e­ HlIHMHI BnpolJ.eM, pe.n.aKUHH )l(ypHaJla COCTOHJIa, BH,lI.HMO, He H3 UlnllOHOB, a H3 *ypHaJIHCTOB. Bo BCHKOM cJIylJ.ae, OIm BbmYTaJIHCb H3 3TOH HCTOplIlf, OT,lI.eJIaBlllllCb wTpaepoM B 3 TbIC. 1l0JIJI. TaKoro po.n.a COOl,ITHH lie MoryT npoIl30HTH B OOJIaCTH npOMbllllJIeHHOrO wnllOfla*a, 1I00 npOMbllllJIeHHaB IWMnaHHH, y KOTOpOH npocHT TeXHlIlJ.ecKYlo lIHepopMaUHlO. C OOJIbWHM BHlIMaHlIeM OTIIOCHTCH K TOMy, lJ.TO OHa nOCblJIa­ eT. BOT nOlJ.eMY lllnHOHbl .n.omKHbl CHHMaTb epoTOKonHlI .n.o­ KyMeHToB, noxHlUaTb 00pa3Ubl, no.n.CJIYlllHBaTb pa3roBopbl, CMaHlIBaTb YlJ.eHbIX H CneUHaJIIfCTOB. Bce 3TO .n.eJIaeTCH B lllllpOKHX MacwTaoax B napll)Ke, HblO-VIopKe, TOKHo. HII O.n.HH H3 npHMepoB, KOTopble tIHTaTeJIb HaH,lI.eT B 3TOii KHHre, He OblJI HII BbIMbIWJIeH, HII OOJIelJ.eH B epopMy pOMaHa. ,lJ,ocTaTOlJ.HO OblJIO rOJIblX epaKTOB 1I3 OTlJ.eTOB 0 cy.n.eOHblX npoueccax H cy.n.eOHblX OObHBJIeHHH. KpOMe Toro, H nOCeTlIJI ueHTpbl npOMblWJIeHHOrO lllnHOHa)l{a B iliBeHuapHlI. no npll­ '-!HHaM nOHHTHOH c.n.ep)KaHHOCTlI, 51 He Mory CKa3aTb 0 HHX MHororo. 3TlI YlJ.pe)K.n.eHHH He OTJIlIlJalOTCH H3JIlIlllHeH ceHTlI­ MeHTaJIbHOCTbIO, na HX ,lI.BepHX KpacyeTcH npOCTeHbKoe, e.n.Ba 3aMeTHoe CJIOBO «KOHcyJIbTaUHH». OHII lIMelOT lVIHoro­ lJ.HCJIeHHylO KJIlIeHTypy. 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  • 18. <pOpMy JlHCTa, K KOTOpOMy MO)(CHO nO,lI.KJIIOqaTb TOK,­ OqeBH,lI.HO. TI03TOMY BnOJlHe eCTeCTBeHHO, tITO a KTHBHOCTb wnHOHOB pa3BHBaeTCH H B 3TOM HanpaBJlemlH; - pa,lI.HOJlOKaUHOHHoe yCTpoi'IcTBO ,lI.JlH aBTOM06.lJIeH, )J(eJle3HbIX ,lI.opor H T. ,lI.. 3TO yCTpoilcTBo B HaCToHw,ee BpeMH p33pa6aTbIBaeTCH B AHrJIHH 11 CiliA. B oCHoay ero nOJIO>KeH 3cj)¢eKT faHHa, KOTOPbI~l COCTOHT B 06pa30BaHHH YllapHblx BOJIH a 3JIeKTpOHHOM ra3e KpHCTaJlJIa. PH,lI. aMepHKaHCKHx pa60T nOKa3aJl, lJTO TaKoro p0,lI.a H306peTeHHe, n03BOJIHIOmee H36e>KaTb 60JIbllll1HCTBa meJIe3' IIO,lI.0P0)KHbIX 11 aBTOM06HJIbHblX KaTaCTpoep, I1MeJlO 6bl Or­ POMHblH nOTeHUl1aJIbHbIH pbIHOK, cyMMa C,lI.eJlOK Ha KOTOpOM, COrJIaCHO HeKOTopbIM no.n.ClJeTaM, COCTaBHT MHHHMyM 500 MJIH. .n.o.'IJI. B ro.n.. TI03TOMY BnOJllie nOHHTHO, lJTO HHepOP' MaUHH, OTHOCHmaHCH K TaKoro po.n.a npl160py, nOJIb3yeTcH 60JIbIllHM cnpocoM Ha pbIHKe npoMbJUlJIeHHOrO IllnHOHa)Ka. Y1TaK, 3TO TO, lJTO 51 BI1,lI.eJI B WBeHuapl1l1. MHe C006mHJIH H3 MHorHX ,lI.p yrH X CTpaH - CiliA, AHrJlHH H <I>paHUHH - y.n.I1BHTeJIbHble I1CTOpI1H, KOTopble BocnpoH3Be.n.eHbl B 3TOH KHHre C npe.n.eJIbHOH TOlJHOCTbIO. O,lI.HaKO np06JIeMy npOMbIIllJIeHHOrO Illnl10Hama MO)KHO nO'HaCTOHmeMy nOHHTb, eCJIH BepHyTbcH B .n.OBOJlbHO .n.aJIe­ Koe npOIllJIOe. D03TOMY .n.anaflTe yrJIy6HMcH BO TbMY BeKOB... 2 fJIABA APEBHEE BOEHHoro illIIHOHAjRA ~ ~ 11 I1JIa-6blJIa OlJapOBaTeJIbHaH npl1HueC­ ~~A ca, 3HaIOmaH 60JIblllOH ceKpeT..." - TaK MOrJIa 6bl HalJHHaTbCH CKa3Ka H3 «TbICHlJH H o.n.Holl HOlJl1». B .n.eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH 3TO - .n.ono.n.­ JlI1HHblH epaKT, 3anelJaTJieHHbIH B KHTaHCKHX XpOHI1Kax. DOJIblllOH ceKpeT - 3TO ceKpeT np0I13Bo.n.CTBa IlleJIKa. DpHH­ uecca OTnpaBI1JIaCb 3a rpaHI1UY, Ha.n.eB Ha rOJIOBy lJy.n.ec­ HylO IllJIHny C >KHBbIMI1 UBeTaMI1. B UBeTax oHa CnpHTaJIa meJIKOBI14HblX lJepBeH, KOTopble OT.n.aJIa C!30eMy B03JII06JIeH­ 1I0My, HH,lI.I1HUY. TaKI1M 06pa30M meJIK 6blJI BblBe3eH 3a npe.n.eJIbl KI1TaH. aTO nOHCTHHe K.TIaCCl1lJeCKI1H npHMep npo­ 32 MbllUJleHHor.? 11l1lI10Ha)Ka, BOCXO,lI.HlUerO npHMepHO K XV Be· KY ,lI.0 Ha llIeH 3pbI, HO ,lI.aJIeKO He nepBbIH. J1IO,lI.I1 C ,lI.OHCTOpHqeCKHX BpeMeH nbITaJIHCb BbIBe,lI.bIBaTb .n.pyr y .n.pyra npOMbIWJIeHHble ceKpeTbI, H npe)I<,lI.e Bcero ceKper .n.06bIBaHHH orHH. YI «Bopb6y 3a orOHb» POHH CTap­ wero '" cnpaBe.n.JIHBO MQ)KHO 6blJIO 6bI paccMaTpHBaTb KaJ{ nepBblH pOMaH 0 npOMblIllJleHHOM I1lnHOBa)Ke, 1'160 nJIeMeHa, pacKpbIBlllHe ceKpeT orHH, 6bIJiH aO>K,lI.eJIeI-IIIbIM 06beKToM Wnl10Ha>Ka .n.JIH MeHee y.n.alJJIHBbIX nJIe!'leH. 04eBHjJ:Ho, jJ:OMO­ raJIHCb paCKpbITI1H 11 .n.pyrHX ceKpeToB, B lJaCTHOCTI1 ceKpeTa 06pa60TKI1 KpeMHH. 3TO - OqeHb CJIOmHaH TeXHHKa, KOTO­ PYIO cOBpeMeHHble HCCJIe.n.OBaTeJII1 C 60JIbl1lHM Tpy.n.OM OT­ KPbIJIH BHOBb JIHlllb lJaCTHlJHO. CymeCTByeT, Hanpl1Mep, cnoc06 ~aCKaJI~BaHI1H O.n.HHM y.n.apOM npHMoyrOJIbHOH KpeMHeaoH nJI aCTHHbI Ha lJeTblpe KycKa J./.JIH Bbl.n.eJleHHH )KeJIBaKa. 3Ta pa60Ta Tpe6yeT OlJeHb 60JIblllOH CHOpOBKH. ilimIOHbI OXOTHJIHCb 3a 3THM ceKpeToM H, BepoHTHo, nOXH­ 1ll.aJIH ero He pa3 10 TbIC. HJIH 20 TbIC. JIeT Ha33.n.. HecoMHeH­ HO TaK)Ke, lJTO .n.pyrHe IllnHOHbI 6e3ycnelllHo ,lI.OHCKHBaJIHCb ceKpeToB MacTepcTBa KpHTHH. Ho T3K, BHjJ:HMO, H He ,lI.OHCKa· JIHCb. TIPHIllJIOCb 06paTHTbCH K KpHTCKHM CneUHaJIHCTaM, lJT06bl nOCTpOHTb B AHrJIHH He06blKHOBeHHbifi aHCaM6J1b Me­ r3J1HTOB - CTOHxeH.n.)I<, B KOTOpOM HeKOTopble XOTHT BH.n.eTb Tcnepb rHraHTcKyIO MaIllHHY .n.JIH npe.n.CKa3aHHH .n.nH>KeHHH He6eCHbiX CBeTHJI. BH.n.HMO, KpHTHHaM .n.OJIroe apCMH npHHa.n.JIC)I<3JIa MOllO­ nOJIHH 06pa60Tlm KpeMHH. KpynHeHllleMY KpHTCKOMy I1H)Ke­ Hepy .Qe.n.aJIy npHnHCbIBaeTCH TaKoe MHO)KeCTBO He06h1K­ HOBeHHbIX H306peTeHHH - nJlaHepbl, p060Tbl, npOTHB03alJa­ TOlJHble cpe.n.CTBa, HCKycCTBeHHoe oceMeHCHHe, KJIeH H T. .n..,­ lITO Tpy.n.HO nOBepHTb, lJT06bl 3TO 6blJIO ,lI.eJlOM O,lI.Horo lJeJIO­ BeKa, .n.a)Ke reHHaJIbHoro. 5l, CKopec, CKJIOHCH .n.yMaTb, lJTO .QeJ./.aJI - 3TO c06HpaTeJIbHOe HMH Tex, I<TO OKaH4HBaJI onpe­ jJ:eJIeHHYIO IIIKOJI y, no.n.06HO TOMy KaK CJIOBO «nOJIHTeXHHK» B Hallle BpeMH OTBOCrlTCH K nHTOMuaM TIOJIHTeXHHlJeCKOH I1lKOJIbl B DapmKe. TaHHa .Qe.n.aJIa eme m.n.eT CBoero pac­ KpbITHH. Me>K~y BeJlIiKOH KpHTCKOH 3nOXOH H Cpe.n.HCBeKOBbeM 6blJIH HaH.n.eHbl, nOTepHHbl, 3aTeM BHOBb HaH.n.eHbl MHOrHe IlPOH3Bo.n.CTBeHHble ceKpeTbl, B oc06eHHOCTH ceKpeTbI aJIXH­ .. '" POHH (TapwH!, - nceBjJ,OHI1M eppa'HUY3cKoro nHcaTeJlll )Ko3eepa BeKca. Ero pOMaH «Dopb6a 3a oroHb», pacCKa3blBaKJll.Hi't 0 )l{H3HH J1KJjJ,ei't KailleHHoro BeKa, HanHcaH B 1911 ro.n:y. - [JPUAI. pea. . 33
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  • 20. epopOJ3aH Mallyepalnypa. OH OI1HCaJI 3TOT ropoLl. B CBOHX I1HCbMax, L1.aTHpOBaHHWX ceHTH6peM 1712 rOLl.a H HHJ3apeM 1722 rOLl.a. B U3HHLl.3lDK3HH npOlliHBaJI B TO BpeM5I I l'iJIH. pa60t JHx. TPH TbIC5IlIH epapepopOBbllX flelleH 03apHJIH HallHoe He60 HaLl. ropOLl.OM KpaCHo-opamKeBblM CBeTOM. AHTpeKOJIb­ CKHH MOHax neTaJIbHO H3YllHJI TexHHKy flPOH3BOLl.CTBa TBep­ L1.0I'O epa pepopa H3 KaOJIHHa, 11, HeCMOTp51 Ha 6L1.HTeJIbHOCTb KHTaHCKOH I<OHTppa3BeLl.KH, elvlY YLl.aJIOCb nOCJIaTb PeOM:O­ py * 06pa3J,1.bl Cblpb5l. KaK pa3 13 3TO BpeM5I XHMHKH )lapce H NlaKep 06Hapy)(HJIH KaOJIHH B OKpeCTI-IOCTHX flHMmKa. BeHceHHCKa51 epapepopOBa51 MaHyepaK'rypa M5IrKOrO epPHTTO­ 1301'0 epapepopa, nepeBeLl.eHHa51 B 1756 roLl.Y B CeBp, Yllie C 1764 rOLl.a HallaJIa npOH3BOLl.HTb TBepLl.blH epapepop, KOTOpbll1 nOJIyllHJI WHpOKylo H3BeCTHOCTb. B 1876 roLl.Y OHa 6blJIa ne­ peBeLl.eHa B napK CeH-KJIy. . 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  • 21. llbl, HCnOJlb3YI0l.UHe naJleOMarllenf3M B TepMOJlIOMHHeCUCH­ UHIO *, n03BOJlHIOT HbIHe jlaTl1pOBaTb o..1ap¢Op H YJlHlJaTb npOH3BOllBTeJleU nOlllleJlOK. B ::lTOll OOJlaCTB eUle npellCTOHT OTKpbITHH, 8 li3CTHOCTH OTHOCHllUleCH K npOMe)1{YTO'lHbIM npollyKT3M Me)1{llY epap­ (~OPOM H CTeKJlOM, HMeHyeMblM mlpOKep3MHKoH. XOTeJlOCb ObI 3HaTb, KCKHM 06pa30M aJ1XHMHKH nOJlY'lC.rm O'leHb 8blCO­ I(He TeMnepaTypbl B CBOHX ¢apcl'JOpOBbIIX ne'lax H I<aIUlM 00­ pa30M I{HTaUClme ammMHKH, H3rOT08J1HBWHe ¢apepop, Mor­ .nH npOH3BO.ll.HTb aJIIOMHlmeBYIO OPOH3Y . .L!.eJlo B TOM, lJTO B HX MOrHJJaX oI;.!JJ1i HafllleHhI npellMeTbl H3 aJIIOMHHHeBOU OPOH3bl. 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CBeTJlH40K H3JlY4aeT XOJlO;lHbIH CBeT 6Jla ro.n.a pH OKHCJle­ HHIO opraHH4eCKHM KaTaJlH3aTOpOM, HJJH 3H3HMOM, Ha3bl­ BalOlIJ.HMCH JllOlI.Hepepa30H, BelIJ.eCTBa, HMeHyeMoro aKTHBH­ pOBaHHbllM JllOlI.HepepHHOM . .O.n.HaKO 3TO 51BJJeHHe HHKor.n.a He y.n.aBaJJOCb BocrrpOH3­ BeCTH .n..OCTaTOtIHO y6e.n.HTeJ1bHbIM 06pa30M. ECJlH aJlXHMH­ KaM .n.eHCTBHTeJJbHO y.n.aJlOCb .n.06blTb HCT04HHK XOJJo.n.Horo CBeTa, TO, BepOHTHO, 6JlarO;lapH HeH3BeCTHOMY HaM crroc06y rrpHMeHeHI151 epocepopa. Terrepb MbJ 3HaeM, liTO I1MeHHO cjJCC­ epop B ¢opMe opraHH4eCKHX rrpo.n.yKTOB rrepeHOCI1T 3HeprHlO B >KHBble opraHH3Mbl, B tIaCTHOCTH B paCTeHI1H. J.1MeHHo 3TH BelIJ.eCTBa rr03BOJJ5IIOT norJJOlIJ.aTb H HaKarIJJHBaTb COJlHe4HYlO 3Heprulo, 3aTeM rrpe06pa30BbIBaTb ee BO Bcex 48CTHX )KHBOrO opraH~3Ma,XOTH MexaHH3M rror.nOlIJ.eHHH H HaKOrrJleHHH COJl­ HellHOH 3HeprHH .n.aJJeKO elIJ.e He H3Y4eH. BblTb MO>KeT, aJJ­ 47
  • 23. XHMHIUI, KOTOpbIe paCCMaTpl'IBa.7IH 3TH 5IBJleHHH non OHOJIO­ rHLJeCI<HM, a He XHMHtJeCI<HM yrJloM 3peH115I, non KOTOpbIM paCCMaTpJ-iBaeM HX Mbl, HaWJlH OpraHHLJeCKOe ¢Oc¢opHoe coenHHeHHe, HaKanJlHBaIOw.ee Orp0l'vIHOe KOJlHlleCTBO COJlHeLJ­ HOH 9HeprHH nHeM H OCBoOmK,rJ.aIOw.ee HOtIblO.. Bo BCHKOM cJlyLJae, B HaCT05Iw.ee BpeMH 3TO - nOTepHHHbIH ceKpeT. CeKpeT OlfHU.eHlHI aJlMa30B. A.iIMa3bI HepenKO HMelOT uneTHble BKJIlOlfeHHH, CHH)l{aIow.He HX U,eHHOCTb. MHorO'lHC­ JIeHHbI:e COBnanaIow.He CBH;leTeJIbCTBa nOKa3bIBa1OT, 'lTO B cpenHHe BeKa aJIXHMHKaM H n03nHee rpa¢y CeH-)KepMeHY * ynaBaJIOCb O'lHw.aTb aJlMa3bI. 3TO BblnBHraeT CBoeoopa3HylO npOOJIeMY. TeOpeTH'leCKH IlOnOOHa51 onepall.HH B03MO)l{Ha JIHWb npH yCJIOBHH OOeCUBe'lHBaHH5I I~BeTHbIx BKJIlO'leHHH, HanpHMep npeBpaw.eHH5I )I<eJIe3a B THTaH. Ho 3TO nOTpeoo­ naJIO ObI O'leHb MomHoro aTOMHoro peaKTopa, npH I10MO'll.H I<OTOpOro MO)KHO ObIJIO ObI OOMoapnHpOBaTb aJIMa3 HeHTpo­ HaNlH. YrOJIb norJIow.aeT O'leHb MaJIO HeihpOHOB, H n03TOMY B I(alleCTBe 3aMenJIHTeJlH B peaKTopax npHMeH5IeTC5I rpalpHT. OnHaKO HH aJlXHMHIUI, HH rpalp CeH-)KepMeH He pacnOJIara­ JIH aTOMHbIM peaKTopOM. KaK ){<e OHH nocTynaJIH? 3TO TO)l{e nOTepHHHbIH ceKpeT. 3aMeTHM, lITO 8JIXHMHKH HHKorna He CTpeMHJIHCb npOH3BonHTb aJIMa3~. TaKOBbl HeKOTopble H3 ceKpeTOB, 3a KOTOpbIMH rOH5IJIHCb npOMbl!WJIeHHbIe wnHOHbI cpenHeBeKOBb51 H 3nOXH B03polK­ neHHH. VI 3neCb MHe Ka)l{eTC5I HeOOXonHMbIM 3aOCTpHTb BHH­ MaHHe Ha nOJIO>KHTeJIbHOH CTopOHe npOMbIWJIeHHoro wnHO­ Ha)Ka. B TO BpeM5I Kal<, no npenaHHIO, MHOrO'lHCJIeHHble <pH­ 3H'leCKHe, XHMH'leCKHe H OHOJIOrl1'leCIme Onepall.HH HJIH Ma HHnyJI5Ill.HH OblJIH y neJlOM onHHX JIHWb nOCB5Iw.eHHbIX, wnHOH cpenHeBeKOBb51 HJIH 3nOXH B03p0)l{neHH5I C'lHTaJI, 'lTO 3TH onbITbl MoryT OblTb nOBTopeHbl, pa3yMeeTC5I, eCJIH oyneT BblKpaneHO nOCTaTOlIHoe I{QJI!1'leCTBO CBeneHHH, 'lTOObI He npHXOnHJIOCb oeCKOHe'lHO opeCTH B nOTeMKax Hayran. Tal<HM oopa30M, eCJIH OTBJIe'lbC5I OT MOpaJIbHOH CTOpO­ HbI Bonpor-a, wnHOH C'lHTaJI TaK, KaK C'lHTaIOT COBpeMeHHbIH Y'leHbIIH H TeXHHK: 3KcnepHMeHT, eCJlH OH ObIJI 5ICHO onHcaH, MomeT OblTb nOBTopeH npyrHM 3KcnepHMeHTaTopOM. 11 He CJIeJlyeT 3aObIBaTb, 'lTO HMeHHO wnHOHbI pacnpOCTpaH5IJIH 3TY BamHylO MbICJlb. TaKHM oopa30M, HayKa H HHnycTpH5I CBOHM pa3BHTHeM B orpOMHOH Mepe 005l3aHbI WnHOHa)l{y. .. CCII·>Kep~,eH - }KIlBWHfl B XVIII BeKC «ral1HCrBeHHblfl rpaqJ», JlOBKHH 3BHHTIOPI1CT, a KOTOPO~I pacnpocrpaHello MHO)l{CCTDO JlereHA.­ npUAI. pea. BnpO'leM, MbJ yBHnHM naJIee, 'lTO TaKHe BbInaIOl1~HeC5I YlIe­ HbIe, KaK, HanpHMep, B. <ppaHKJIHH, He rHYW3J1HCb npOMbILII­ JIeHHblM WnHOHa){(eM, paBHO KaK nOJIHTHLJeCImM H BOeHHbIIL TaKHM 06pa30M, B 3noxy, npenweCTBoBaBwylO pO)KneHHIO naTeHTa Ha H300peTeHHe, npOMblWJleHHbIH mnHOHa)l{ v.rpaJI onpeneJIeHHO nOJIO)l{HTeJIbHYIO pOJIb. B XVII I BeKe pO){<neHHe naTeHTa Ha H300peTeHHe Hat;aJIO B KaKoH-To Mepe OXpaH5ITb H30opeTaTeJI5I HJIH HCCJIenOBaTe­ JI5I OT BOpOB. llepmaTeJIb naTeHTa Ha H300peTeHHe Mor r;pe­ CJIenOBaTb no 3aKoHy nOXHTHTeJIei1 CBoero ceKpeTa B Te'leHHe 20 JIeT, nOCJIe 'lero ceKpeT CTaHOBHJIC5I nOCT05lHHeM oome­ CTBa. C Tex nop nOJIO)l{eHHe lfpe3BbI'laHHO OCJIO)l{HHJIOCb. HO Bce-TaKH p0)l{neHHe naTeHTa Ha H300peTeHHe 3HaMeHyeT OKOH'laHHe nepHona, KOTOpb!lH MO)l{HO OblJIO Obi Ha3BaTb KYC­ TapHbIM nepHOnOM npOMbIWJIeHHoro WnHOHa)!{a. 3 rJlABA 1791-1875 rOAM -=-~I OnbI, CT05lw.He B 3arOJI.oBKe :>TOH rJIa· ~ _ BbI, B351Tbl He CJIy'laHHO. 7 5IHBap51 1791 1.- naTa H3naHH5I <ppaHUY3CKO­ ro 3aKOHa 0 naTeHTax Ha H300peTeHHe, BnepBbIe onpeneJIHB­ wero npaBa H30opeTaTeJI5I. 1875 ron - naTa opraHH3aUHH nOJIHll.HH Ha 3aBonax Kpynn8 B ll.eJIHX oxpaHbI ceKpeToB qmpMbl. KOHe'lHO, 3aKOH OT 1791 rona He 5IBJI5IeTC5I nepBOH 3aKO­ HOnaTeJIbHOH Mepoi:j BO <PpaHll.HH HJIH 3a rpaHHueH, HanpaB­ JIeHHOH Ha 3aW.HTy npaB H300peTaTeJI5I. MbI eme BepHeMC5I K 3TOMy Bonpocy. OnHaKO 3TOT 3aKOH, HaCKOJIbKO MHe H3Be­ CTHO, 51BHJIC5I nepBbIM 3aKOHOM, noow.p5IBWHM npOMbI!WJIeH­ . HbIH WnHOHa)l{ 3a npeneJIaMH <ppaHUHH. B caMOM neJIe, OH npH3HaeT «3a BC5IKHM, KTO nepBbIM npHBe3eT BO <ppaHUHIO I<aKOH-JIHOO HHOCTpaHHbIH npOMbICeJI, TaI<He )l{e JIbrOTbI, Ka· KHMH nOJlb30BaJlC5I ObI ero H300peTaTeJIb»). 3TO He 'lTO HHoe, I<aK caMoe 5IBHOe nOow.peHHe npOMbIWJIeHHOro WnHOHa)l{a. KOHe'lHO, H no npHH5ITH5I 3Toro 3aKOHa HHOCTpaHll.eB, BJIa­ nelOw.HX npOMblllIJleHHbIMH ceKpeTaMH, nooy)l{naJIH I< TOMy, 'lTOObI OHH nepee3:>KaJIH Ha )l{HTeJIbCTBO BO <PpaHUHIO. TaK, HanpHMep, KOpOJIeBCKHH naTeHT npenOCTaBHJI B 1551 rony HTaJIb5lHcKOMY nBop5lHHHy H3 DOJIOHbH no HMeHH TeCI<O MYUHO npaBO «eMy onHoMy npoH3BOnHTb B Te'leHHe 10 JIeT 48 49
  • 24. BCHKoro po.na CTeKJlHHHble H3.nemiH no BeHelJ,HaHcKoMy eno­ c06y». To 06CT05lTeJlbCTBO, T-ITO 3TOT 6J1aropo.nHbIH .nBOp5l­ HHH, BepoHTBo, nOXliTHJI cnoc06 npOH3B01l.CTBa y BeHeIJ,HaH­ lJ,eB, He npHBHMaJlOCb BO BHliMaBHe. KOpOJleBCKHe naTeHTbl Hepe.nKO OrpaHJilIHBalOTCH Jll1111b IOpH.nJilleCKoH IWAH<pHKa­ llHeH CBeplllHBlllerOCH cPaKTa. C .npyroH CTOpOHbl, 3alWB OT 7 HHBap51 1791 r., .nonoJl­ HeHHbIH nOCTaHOBJleHHeM 0 ero npHMeBeHHH OT 25 MaH TOro llie ro.na, B TO llie BpeMH 13BOJl.HT B 06pameHHe KaTeropHIO naTeHTa Ha H306peTeHHe. nOCTaHOBJleHHe OT 25 MaH npe.ny­ CM<lTpHBaeT 06ecne4eHHe npOMbIlllJleHHOH 6e30nacHocTH H pelllaeT cy.nb6y «H306peTeHHH, KOTopble Hy)J(HO xpaHHTb B TaHHe no nOJlHTH4eCKHM co06palli~HHHM». I13Jl.aB<lH 3aKOH 1791 rona, 3aKOHo.naTeJlH pyKOBO.nCT­ BOBaJlHCb B OTHOllleHHH ero TeXHH4eCKoro acneKTa aHrJlHH­ CKHM 3aKOHOM 1623 ro.na, a B OTHOllleHHI1 peBOJllOl~HOHHOii rrOJlHTHI(H - aMepHKaHcKoH KOHCTliTYIJ,HeH 1787 ro.na. Pe3YJlbTaTbI npHHHTHH 3aKOHa He 3aCTaBHJlH ce6H )K.naTb. Cpe.nHero.nOBoe 4HCJlO Bbll.naHHblx BO <PpaHIJ,HH naTeHTOB yBe­ JlH4HJlOCb C 19 3a nepHo.n 1791-1804 ro.nOB .no 71 B cJle­ .nYlOmeM .neC5ITHJleTHH (1804-1815 rr.). C 1815 no 1831 ro.n e)Kero.nHO BbI.naBaJlOCb 230 n<lTeHTOB, C 1831 no 1841 ro.n­ 750, B 1855 ro.ny - 4 TbIC., B 1876 rOAY - 5 TblC. H B KOHlJ,e CTOJleTH5I-60Jlee 10 TbIC. 50JlblllHHCTBO 3TH X naTeHT013 nOCJlY)!<HJIO HCT04HHI(aMH Me)K.nYHa PO.nHbIX KOHq)JlHI(TOB, Ii BOKpyr HHX pa3rOpaJIC5I lllnHOHalli. MbI paCCKallieM 0 HeKOTopbIX H3 HHX, He c06J11O­ .na51 XpOHOJlOrH4eCKoro nOp5l.nKa. O.nHa H3 C<lMbIX nopa3HTeJlbHblX HCTOpHH 04eHb 6J1H3Ka no BpeMeHH K HallleH BTOPOH .naTe. Pe4b H.neT 0 naCTepe H 0 nHBe. naTpHOTH3M nacrepa HeocnopHM, o.nHalW MbICJlb 06 OTMllleHHH 3a nopallieHHe 1870 ro.na nyTeM C03.naHH5I 130 <ppaHIJ,HH nHBoBapeHHoH npOMbIlIIJleHHOCTH, KOTOpa51 Mor­ JI<I 6bI BeCTH BO BceM MHpe 60pb6y C HeMelJ,KHM nHBOM, KallieTCH no MeHbllleH Mepe :~a6aBHoiL TeM He MeHee HMeH­ HO TaKylO lJ,eJlb npeCJle.nOBaJlH naTeHT naCTepa 3a Ng 91941 OT 28 HIOHH 1871 r., a TaKllie ero «I1cCJle.noBaHH5I 0 nHBe», KOTopble no cnpaBe.nJlHBOCTH MOlliHO 6bIJlO 6bD Ha3BaTb Ma­ HHcPecToM, ony6J1HKoBaHHble B 1876 ro.ny. nacTep HHKor.na He HCnOJlb30BaJl CBoe nOJlOllieHHe .nJlH nOJlY4eHHH MaTepHaJlbHbIX Bblro.n. Bnp04eM, BOT 4TO OH 3a5l­ 13HJI 10 cPeBpaJl51 1862 r. no nOBOJl.Y CBoero HOBoro cnoc06a H3rOTOBJleHH5I yKcyca: «nOCKOJlbKY 4aCTO CJlY4aeTC5I, 4TO HaY4Hble npHHIJ,HnbI, npeAaHHble OrJlaCKe HX aBTopClMH, 50 npeBpa lllalOTC5I B 4YlliHX pyKax B npe.nMeT 3a5lBKH Ha no­ ny4eHHe naTeHTOB Ha H306peTel-IHe 6Jlaro.n.ap51 .n.06aBJleHI'I~o npH60poB, annapaToB HJlH He3Ha4HTeJlbHbiX H3MeHeHHH, 51 no COBeTy aBTopHTeTHblX JlHIJ, B351Jl 11.0 Moero co06meHH5I B <peBpaJle TIaTeHT, KOTOpbIH,. BH.nHMO, 6y.n.eT HMeTb npHopH­ TeT nepe.n BceMH TeMH, n05lBJleHHIO KOTOpblX MOrJla 6bl .naTb nOBO.n. M051 pa60Ta, H 51 .no6aBJl5l1O, tITO HCnOJlHeH pelllHMO­ CTH cero.n.H5I llie npeJl.OCT<lBHTb 3101' naTeHT B pacnOp5l)J(elme rocy.n.<lpCTBa». O.nHaKO OH XOTeJl c6epe4b ceKpeT OT HeM­ lJ,eB H OCTaJlbHOrO MHpa. <ppaHIJ,Y3CKoe TIHBO npeB30111JlO no CBOHM KatleCTBaM He­ MelJ,Koe. WHpOKO pa3BepHYBllla5lC5I .ne5lTeJlbHOCTb lllnHOHOB, 3aCJI<lHHbIX HeMelJ,KHMH flHBOBapaMH, n03BOJlH.T1a HM .n06I,liTb ceKpeT, H... paBHOBeCHe 6bIJlO BOCCTaHOBJleHO. naCTep npo.n.oJl)J(aJl HaCTaHBaTb Ha «HallHOHaJlbHOM 3Ha­ 4eHHH» CBoero nHBa. OH nHCaJl B CBoeM naTeHTe: «51 >KeJlalO, 4T06bl nHBo, npOH3Bo.nHMoe no MoeMy ,~eTO.n.y, HOCHJlO .,Ha­ 3BaHHe "nHBO IjalJ,HOHaJlI,HOrO peBaHllla .., a 3a rpaHHlJ,eH-­ th ",,'t'paHIJ,Y3CKoe nHBO ». B 1889 ro.n.y <ppaHIJ,Y3cKHe nHBoBflpI,l, c06paBlllHcI, H3 KOHrpecc, ToplliecTBeHHo Bblpa3HJlH CBOIO npH3HaTeJlI,HOCTb nacTepy. BepHeMc5I TenepI, K ro.ny, 60Jlee 6J1H3KOMY K HallleH nep­ BOH .naTe. 16 Ma51 1805 r. lllBeHlJ,apelJ, I1caaK PHBa3 no.n.aJl 3a5lBKY Ha naTeHT 06 «HcnOJlb30BaHHH B3pI,IBa ra3~B H .apy­ rHX ra3006pa3HI,lx BemeCTB B Ka4eCTBe .nBHlliymeH CHJlbl B MexaHHKe». B .noKJla.n.HoH 3anHCKe C006111aJlOCb 06 HCnI,lTa­ HH5IX H306peTaTeJleM nOB03KH C r<l30BbiM .nBHraTeJleM, pa60­ TalOmHM Ha BO.n.Opo.n.e, H npHBo.nHJlCH ero 4epTe)!(. TaK po­ .n.HJlC5I aBTOM06HJlb. CJlyXH 06 3TOM H306peTeHHH pacnpocT­ paHHJlHCb .n.OBOJlbHO 6bICTpO, Ii HHTepec K HeMy np05lB.'151J1H MHorHe lllnHOHW. B CBOHX .nOHeceHHHX HeKoTopwe Ii3 HliX BnOJlHe cnpaBe.nJlHBO YKa3I,IBaJlH, 4TO npHHIJ,HTI ra30Boro . .nBHraTeJl51 MO>KeT 6bliTb HCnOJlb30BaH, KpoMe Toro, H B B03­ .nyxonJlaBaHHH. Bep05lTHO, HMeHHO 3TH CJlyXH, 0 KOTOpI,IX co06maIOT pa3­ JlHtjHbie HCTOpliKH, no.n.aJlH MblCJlb <ppaIIIJ,Y3CKOMY TIHCaTeJIIO )KaHy ArpeBy HanHcaTb Hay4HO-<paHTaCTH'IeCKHH pOMaH «ABHaTOp 50HanapTa». ArpeB 06b5lCHHeT n06eJIbI HanoJleo­ Ha TeM, 4TO Oli TaHHO BJla.neJl nJlaHepOM, npHBOJIHMblM B .nBH)KeHHe nepHOJIH'leCKHMH B3pbIBaMH. C04HHeHHe HanHca· HO B 1925 ro.ny. JIeTaTeJlbHblH annapaT, onHcaHHbu'i <ppall­ IJ,Y3CKHM nHCaTeJleM, 04eHb nOXOlli Ha «<PAY -I », CKOHCTpyH­ pOBaHHbI~ B 1944 rOJIY. 5.
  • 25. Y}l{e B 3noxy nepBOH pecny6JIHKH 6bIJIO 04eHb MHOrO WnHOHOB, B OC06eHHOCTH aHrJIHikKHX. B KOHI.~e XVIII BeKa OHH nOXHTHJIH naTeHT HHKOJla P06epa «Ha npOH3BO.ll:CTBO He06bIl{HoBeHHoH 6yMarH .ll:JIHHOH OT 12 JJ.O 15 At 6e3 nOMomH pa60lJero H 4HCTO MeXaHHlJeCIUIMH Cpe,ll.CTBaMH». 3TO H30­ 6peTeHHe n03BOJIHJIO nelJaTaTb aCCHfHaUHH, H HMeHHO GJIB­ rO,ll.ap~ eMy, CTaBweMy H3BeCTHbIM B pe3YJIbTaTe WnHOHa}l{a, aHrJIHHCKOe npaBHTeJIbCTBO I1MeJIO B03MO}l{HOCTb ne4a faTb ¢aJIbWHBble aCCHfHaUHH - cTpaHHoe JJ.eJIO, B KOTOpOM npo­ MbIIWJIeHHbIH wnHOHa,K COlJCTaJICH C nOJIHTHlJeCKHM. Pa3YMe­ eTCH, caM H306peTaTeJIb He nOJIy1mJI npaB Ha nelJaTaHHe ¢aJIbUlHBbIX aCCHfHaUHH, a pa3JIHlJHble npaBHTeJIbCTBa, CMe­ HHBWHe JJ.pyr JJ.pyra BO <PpaHUHH,)].O ero CMepTH B 1828 roJJ.Y nOJIHOCTblO 06JJ.eJIHJIH ero H HaCTOHmHMH 6aHI<HOTaMH. OH OKOHlJ.~JI CBOH lliH3HeHHbIH nYTb YlJHTeJIeM B BepHyHe, 611H3 npe. Ero OCHOBHOH naTeHT JJ.aTHpoBaH 29 HHB03a VII rOJJ.a. 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  • 26. wlte YlJeHble cymeCTBYIOT He TOJIbKO B HaYIJHO-<p3HTaCTHtle­ CKHX pOM3Hax H I<HHO, HO H B peaJIbHOH )KH3HH. B 3TO BpeMH YiKe Ha4aJIaCb TaihlaH 60ph6a BOKpyr epo­ Torpa<pHH. Hbenc yMep, He 1l0JIY4HB naTeHTa. llarepp, KO­ Toporo HH)KeHep-OnTHK llleBaJIbe n03HaKOMHJI C HbenCOM, nOCneUlHJI 3anaTeHTOBaTb CBOH cnoc06 B AHrJIHH. Cnocoo .llareppa HanpaBHJI epOTorpaepmo Ha JIO>KHbIH nYTb, O.l/.HaKO npOHHKHOBeHHe nora H306peTeHH5I B AHrJ1HIO HaHeCJIO or­ POMHblH ylljep6 cDpaHUHH. AHrJIHlJaHe HMeJIH y ce6H caMO­ CTOHTeJIbHOrO H 4ecTHoro H306peTaTeJIH - epH3HKa BHJIbH­ Ma-cI>oKca TaJIbooTa, KOTOpOMy COBepmeHHO He 6blJIH H3BeCTHbl pa60Tbli Hbenca H nareppa. EMy nepBoMy npH­ Ha.l/.JIe)J(aJIa H.l/.eH HeraTHBa, n03BOJIHIOlljerO pa3MHO)KaTb CHHMKH Ha 6yMare. 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B 1816 ro1l.Y Kpynn BOlileJI B KOMnaHHIO C Mem.n.yHapo.n.­ HblM lllnHOHOM no HMeHI1 HHKOJIal1. ::hOT HHI<OJIal1 OpraHI1­ 30BaJI B MecTHoM ra3eTe peKJIaMHyIO K3MnaHI1IO B01{pyr CBO­ era I1MeHl1, 06'b5IBHB, tlTO OH MHoro nyTelllecrBOBaJI no <VpaH­ UHH, rOJIJIaH.n.HI1 H AHrJIHH 11 npHBe3 C C060H HH¢OpMaUI1IO 60JlhlllOH npaKTH4ecKoH ueHHOCTH 0 BCHKoro po.ua MalllHHax. 3TO 06b5IBJIeHHe MomeT nOKa3aTbCH llHHI1'lHblM B HalllY 3noxy, Kor.n.a peKJIaMa KO.n.H<pI1l1,HpOBaHa 11 perJIaMeHTl1pOBa­ Ha HO B Ha43JIe XIX 13eKa H anJIOTb ,uo SO-x ro.uOB pa3IIorO po~a npocTHTyTIUl, lllITHOHbl H .n.a»<e HaeMHble y6HHUbl 4a· eTO ny6JIHKOnaJIH 06bHBJIeHHH B caMblX cepbe3Hblx ra3eTax. 51
  • 28. OlleHb CKOpO Kpynn 3ClMeTHJI, liTO HHKOJIaH npHKapMa­ HHBaeT 3apa60THylO nJIaTy pa60llHX, H K TOMy me CTaJIO H3­ BeCTI-IO, liTO OI-l caM c¢a6pHKOBaJI peKOMeH)].aTeJIbHble mlCbM3 o ce6e. B C}lJIY p51)].a npHlIHH B HIOJIe 1816 ro)].a 3aBO)]. OblJI 3ClKPblT. Ho BCKope Kpyrrn BHOBb OTKpblJI 3<1BO)].. B 1819 ro)].y 6bIJIH nOCTpoeHbll HOBble 3)].aHH5I. B 1823 ro)].y )].eJIa ero no­ IllClTHyJIliCb, HeCMOTp51 HCl nOJIylleHHe 3aKa3Cl OT npyccKoro KOpOJIeBCTBa Ha IlITClMnbl 11.JI5I lleKaHKH MOHeT. 8 OKT5I6p51 1826 r. <I:>pH)].pHX Kpynn yMep B B03pacTe 39 JIeT, OCTClBHB )].OJIm npH6JIH31lTeJIbHO Ha CyMMy B 9 M.'m. HblHeIlIHHX ¢paHKoB. Ero CbIHY AJlbtPpe)].y, KOToporo npo3BCl.nH BnOCJIeLI.CTBIHl nYiliellHbIM KOpOJICM, K 1834 ro)].y y)].aJIOCb C)].BHHyTb )].eJIO C MepTBoH TOllKH. TeM He McHee ero CTClJlb Bce ell(e He MOrJIa OaBH5ITbC51 C ClHrJlH}ICKOH. )'1'1bl y>Ke BH)].CJIH BO BTOPOH r JlCl Be, ;<al< CTpaHCTBYIOIlHj;'1 MeHeCTpeJlb )].OCTaBliJI B AHrJIHlO Bce ceKpeTbI npOH3BO,lI.CTBa CTClJlH Ha KOHTHHeHTe, lIT06bI C,lI.eJIaTb HX ,lI.OCT05lHHeM AHrJIl1H. A B 1838 ro,lI.y oTnpaBHJIC5I B-JhJH­ ,lI.OH lIT06bl JlHtIHO IlIITHOHHTb 3a aHrJlHlIaHaMH, A./lbtPpen KpYnn. Oll OCTaHOBlIJIC5I B OTeJle «Ca6JIOHbep» B JleikeCTep­ CKBepe, nocraBHB B pemCTpe OTeJI5I nO)lnHCb - A. KpHfI, nepe,lI.eJlaB CBoe HM5I HCl ClHrJIHHCI<HH MaHep. Ope,ncr3BHTeJIb­ HbIH, xopomo O,lI.eTbIH, H3CT05l1l(HH ,lI.>KeHTJIbMeH, OH 6blJI npHH5IT KaK B BbICllieM aHrJIHHCKOM CBeTe, TaK H B npOMbliill­ JleHHblX Kpyrax. CBoeMy 6paTy OH nHCaJI: «51 pen.KO 06e)].aJl HJlH 3aBTpaK3iI y ce651. KaKa5l 3KOHOMH51!» AJIb(ppe)]. Kpynn sepHyJ1C51 Ha KOHTl1HeHT C ceKpeTClMH, KOTopble eMy y)].aJIOCb )].06brfb. Tenepb nepen HHM CT051J13 e)].HHCTBeHHa51 3a.uatIa - C)].CJlaTh TaK, lIT06bl OHYI He 6b!JIH IrOXHlll.eHbl. n03TOMY OH CTpaCTHO yBJICKC5I )].eJIOM npOMbIW­ JleHHOH 6e30naCHOCTH, Hero ;V1O}J<H0 no npaBY CtIHTaTb OTIlOM npOMblIlIJIeHHOH KOHTppa3Be)].KH. Kpynll npOCHJI npyccKoe npaB~lTeJIbCTBO 065l3a1'b pa60!.fHX npHC5IraTb eMy B JI05lJ!bHOC­ TH H oc060j:j BepHOCTli. fIpyccKoe npaBHTCJlbCTBO OTKJIOIHlJ10 npocb6y, HO 31'0 He nOMelIIaJIO Kpynny 3aCTaBJI51Tb npHHO­ CHTb ell'IY npHClU'y He TOJlbKO paOOllHX, HO H IllnHOHOB, 3aCb1­ JlaeMblX K I<OHl<ypeHTaM. OH nO)].03peBClJI Bcex. 6paTy CBce­ My Kpynn nOCJIaJI CJ1e)].YIOlll.YJO CJlYiKeOHYIO 3anHcKy: «51 no­ )].03peBaKJ HOllBoro CTopomCl. OH llaCTO 6blBaeT Ha 33BO,lI.e 1l.HeM». Bce 31'0 MOiI<eT KCl3aTbC5I CMCIlIHbIM, 01l.HaKO HaLJaJIO npOMbliIlIJlel-IHOH 6e30naCHOCTH 6blJIO nO.lJOiKeHO. HeMllaM OC­ TaBaJlOCb TOJIbKO H306peCTH reCTano, liTO 1'1 6bIJlO c)].eJIaHO n03)].Hee. BnpOlleM, AJIb(ppe)]. Kpynn CTpa)].aJI MaHl1eH CJIy­ me6HbIX 33nHCOK, H OJlHH 1'13 ero 6j'lOrpa¢OB CLJHTaeT, !.fTO OH l-IanHCaJl HX 30 TbIC. OH OTJlHLJaJlC5l «TporClTeJIbHOH CKpOM­ HOCTblD»: «MHe He Hy>KHO CnpaBJJ51TbC5I 0 lIeM ObI TO HH 6bl­ JIO Y feTe HJIH Koro ObI TO HH 6b!JlO.5IBcc)].eJ]a[OCa~I».XOT5I AJIb~)pe)]. Kpynn )].yM3JI, LJTO OH Bce3HaHKa, TeM He MeHee ('My Hy>KHO 6blJlO BblKpa)].blBaTb H306peTeHH51. TaK, OH nOXH­ HIlI y O)].Horo 113 CBOI1X nOKynaTeJICH tIepTe>KH M31i1HHbl )].JIlI H3rOTOBJIeHI151 JIO/KCK 1'1 BHJlOK. MaKCHM3JIbHblii BHeIlIHHii IlInHOH3m, )].OBc)].eHHa51 )].0 no­ CJle11.HeH KpaiiHOCTH BHyTpCI-IH5l5l 6e30naCHOCTb - TaKOBa, BH)].HMO, 6blJIa nporpaMM3 pa60Tbl Kpynna, KOTOpylO OH BbInOJIH5lJI BnOJlI-Ie ycnclllHo. 24 ¢eBpClJl51 1848 r. Kpynn paCnJIaTH.lJCli co Bce!'vIH CB0I1­ MH nOJIraMH, paCCTaJIC51 co BCCMH CBOHZI'!H KOMnaHbOHaMH. OH CTaJl e)].HHOJ1HlIHbIM c06cTBeHHHKoM epHPMbl, KOTopa51 npe13paTHJiaCb B aocoj]JoTHYIO MOHapxHlo. C ! 843 r011.3 OH HallaJI npoH3Bo11.HTb MywKeTbI. B 1847 ro)].y OH OTJIHiI CT3JIbl-IyW nywKY. LLo 3Toro nywKH OT.TIHBaJlHCb H3 6POH3bl HJIH lIyrYH3. KOHelII-lo, eMy rOBOpHJIH, liTO OHa He Bbl30BeT Hl'lTepeca. O)].HaKO Ha JlOH11.oHCK0J1 BblCTaBKe 1851 ro)].a CTaJlbHa51 nyIllKa HMeJIa 60JIbWOH vcnex. BCKope BHlle-KO­ POJIb ErHnTa 3a Ka33J1 36 cTaJlbHb~X 'nymeK, 11pyCCH5I -:- 312. PyccKHe KyflHJIH 1,·rO)].2JIb CTaJlbHOH nyllllm, H3 I<OTOpOH np?­ I-i3BeJlH 4 TbIC. BbICTpeJlOB, a 3aTCM nOMeCTHJlH ee B My3eH. B 1861 ro)].y y Kpynna pa60T3JIO 2 TbIC. pa60lJHx. B !87i ro)].y, nOCJIe n06e)].bl HCl)]. tPpaHlLHeH, tIeM HCMllbI, B orpoMI-lOt Mepe 06513aHbl Ipynny, tmCJIO HX COCTaBHJIO 10 TbIC. B 3TH iKe rOAbl, oTcryna51 01' CBOHX npaBHJI, Kpynn KynUJI aHriIHAcKyKJ JlHIleH3HKJ H3 6ecceMepOBCKHH I<OHBep­ 'fep ,lI.JI5I npoH3Bo)].CTBa CTaJIn. B 1867 ro.D.y no npocb6e HallOJleOHa III OH BbIC'faBHJI Ha Ma pCOBOM nOJle KpynHeH­ WYIO B MHpe nyLUKy --- n5lTH;leCWfHTOHHYIO. 0/-1 6blJl B03BC­ )].eH B KaBClJlepbl Op)].eHa OOlleTHoro JIerHOHa. TeM He Me­ /-iee <I:>paHIlH51 He KynHJIa nyiliKH Kpynna. A BCRope ray6HIlbl Kpyrma pa36HJIH B nyx H npax tPOPTbl MeTlla H Ce)].aHa, H HeMllbl )].BHHyJIHCb HCl f1apmK, OKpyIKHB ero. Kor)].3 faM6eTTa 6elliaJI H3 flapHR<Cl Ha B03)].yIlIHOM ma­ pe, AJlb¢pe,lI. Kpynn pacnop5l,lI.I1J1C5I HeMe1l.JIeI-lHO CKOHCTpy­ HponaTb 3eHHTHYIO nywKy, CTpeJlHIDIlYIO nOllTH no BepTHKa­ JIH. 3Ta nyIllKa 6LIJIa CKOHCTpyHpoBaHa B PCKOP)].HbIH CpOK. TaK po)].HJlaCb npOTlmOB03)].yWH351 060poHa. B 1872 ro,lI.y Kpynn ony6.rIHKoBaJl npaBHJIa BHyTpeHHero pacnop51)].Ka H p03)1.3JI HX CBOHM pa60LJHM. BnepBble 6blJla JIeraJII-I30BaHa COBpeMeI-IH3S-I npOMbIW,lJeHH351 6e30nacHocTb. Mbl MOJKeM npHBecTH cJle)].YlouWIO ¢pa3Y H3 3THX npaBHJI: 58 59
  • 29. «He3aBHCHMO 01' Hs,nep)KeK rrpOHSBo,nCTI3a, He06xo,nHMO, lJTO­ 6bl 3a pa60lJHM nOCT05lHHO Ha6JIIo,naJHI :meprI1lJHhle II OIlhIT­ Hble JIlO,nH, KOTopble rrOJIylJaJIH 6bl IlpeMHID BCl1KHH pas, KO­ r,na sa,nepIKHI3aJIH Ca601'a)KHlIKa, .neHT515I HJIH WIlHOHa». B ,nonOJIHeHHHX K npaBHJ1aM, nOHBHBUIHMC5I nos,nHee, yKaSbII38JIOCb, lJTO 3aBO,n ,nOJIlKeH npeCJIellOI3aTb H COUHaJIH­ CTOB. He06xo,nHMO npHSHaTb, liTO AJIb<ppell.Y Kpynny y,na­ JIOCb cos,naTb onpe,neJIeHHyfO «KpynnoBcKyIO an.wcepepy», K01'Opa51 cyweCTByeT H B HaWH ,nl-IH. O,nHOBpeMeHHO C pac­ llIHpeHHeM CBOHX CJIyIK6 WnHOHa)!{3 H I<oHTppaSI3e,nKH Kpynn cos,naBaJI lJpe3BbllJaHHO KpynHble, xopowo OnJIalJH­ BaeMble HaYlJHO-Hcc.ne,noBaTeJIbCKl1e rpynnbL no carvlOH CBO­ eH CMepTl1 AJIb<ppe,n Kpynn, He BhlllycKaBwHH aKUI1H H He I1MeBWH~1 KOM na HhOHOI3, OCTaBaJICH nOJIHOBJIaCTHhlM BJIa­ ,nbIKOH CBoeH npOMhlWJIeHHOH HMnepHH, KOTOpyIO nepe,naJI cBoeMy CWHy. Ero JIHlJHOe COlT05lHHe oueHHBaJIOCh nOlJTH B 300 M.'lH. cOBpeMeHHblx eppaHKOI3. OH 6hlJI y,nOCToeH op,ne­ HOB MHOrHX CTpaH, a HaMeCTHHK CTOJIHlJHOi-i npOBHHUHH KHTa51 J111 XYH-lJIKaH rro,napII.11 eMy Basy, BospaCT KOTOpOH HaCtIHTbIBaeT 2 TbIC. JIeT. Ero JIHlJHblH Mysel'i 6bW O,nHHM I1S caMblX y,nHI3HTeJIbHbIIX B EBpone. Kpyrrrr rrpeycrreJI B CBoeIvl ,neJIe, eMy rro,npa)KaJIH. OH 6blJI THnHtIHblM BOHHCT­ BeHHblM npe,nnpHHHMaTeJIeM, MaKCHMaJIbHO HCrrOJIbsYfOwHM rrpoMhljllJIeHHblH illITHOHaIK, WIlHOHalK rrpoTHB pa60tmx H BrrOJIHe yBepeHHo PYKOBO,n5lWHM CI30HMH saBo,naMH. O,nHaKo !lIbl YB!1.J.HM B rJIaBe, rrOCB5IweHHOH rrepBoH MHpOBOH BOHHe, lJTO «6POH5I 6esonacHocTH» Kpyrrna 6wJIa rrp06HTa <ppaH­ UySCKHM Wrr110HalKeM, H paCCKa)KeM, rrpH KaKHX 06CTOH­ TeJlbCTBax. A cefllJac nepel'i,neM 01' BOHHbl 3a CTaJIb K TaflHOH BoflHe sa KaylJyK. B AMepHKe KayllyK 6blJI HSBeCTeH B TelJeHHe Thl­ C5Ilre.ne1'HH. CJlOBO «KayllyK» -. HH,neHcKoe H B rrepeBo,ne os­ HalJaeT «nJIalJywee ,nepeBO». [1epBblH rraTeHT Ha KaylJyK 6bIJI rrOJIylJeH B Mae 1791 ro,na aHrJ1HlJaHHHOM rro HMeHH CaMfO­ 3JIb nHJI. O,nHaKo OCHOBHOH rraTeHT (Ha ByJIKaHHsaUHlo) 6bIJI no­ JIy'leH JIHWb B ,neKa6pe 1841 ro,na aMepHKaHueM 4a PJIbSOM fy,nbHpOM, KOTOpbIH cJIylJaflHo OTKpbIJI HBJINIHe ByJIKaHHSa­ UHH H c,neJIaJI Bce, tlTO Mor, tIT06bl coxpaHHTb CBoe OTKpbl­ THe B TafIHe. HeCMOTp51 Ha HaJIHlJHe rraTeHTa, OH HMeJI OC­ HOBaHHe orraCaTbC5I, HOO 06pa3Ubl BYJIK3HI1SHp0I3aHHOrO l<aylJyKa, KOTopble OH rrOCJ1(IJI B AHrJIHfO, 6blJIH rrepe,naHbl XHMHKy TOMacy XaHKyKy. nOCJIe,nHHH, omynm sarrax cepbl, HCXO,nHWHH 01' 06pasuoI3, cyMeJI BocnpOHSBeCTH TeXHOJIOrHiD H sarraTeHTOBaTb ee. O,nHaKO OH OCTaJICH B KaKOH-TO CTeneHH: ,n)KeHTJIbMeHOM H rrpl13HaJI, tlTO npHopHTeT rrpHHa,nJIeIKHT fy,nbHPY. 3Toro HeJIbSH CKasaTb 06 aMepl1KaHCKHx wrrHO­ Hax H rrHpaTax, KOTopble He pas rrOXHwaJIH MeTO,n 4apJIb3a fy,nbl1pa. B pesyJIbTaTe 6eCKOHelJHOH TH)K6bl fy,nbl1p ,n06HJICH npo,nJIeHHH cpOKa ,neHCTBI151 CBoero rraTeHTa ewe Ha ceMb JIeT HalJHHaH C HIOH5I 1858 ro,na, I<or,na ero CpOK ,nOJIIKeH 6blJl HCTelJb. fy,nbl1 P yMep 13 1860 ro,ny, OCTaBHB ,nOJIrOB Ha CyM­ My 995 TbIC. <ppaHKoB Toro I3peMeIIH. KaylJyKoBa51 rrpOMbllWJIeHIiOCTb rrpeBpaTHJIaCb B 30JIOTOe ,nHO ,nJIH wrrHOHOB, H, HecMoTpH Ha Bce Mepbl npe,nocTOpO)Ko HOCTH, 6blJIO rrOXHweHO OKOJIO ,neC5ITKa ceKpe1'HblX <pOpMyJl ByJIKaHH3aUHH, HarrOJIHHTeJIeii H 06pa60TKH KaylJyKa. Kay­ lJyKoBaH rrpOMblWJIeHHOCTb pa3I3HBaJIaCb TaK 6bICTpO, liTO OCT pO BCTa13aJI Bonpoc 06 HCTOlIHHKax Cblpb5l. I1MeHHo B :>1'0 BpeM5I aHrJIHHCKoMy aBaHTlOpHcTy H wnHoHy I'eHpH BHKX3MY y,naJIOCb HeJIeraJIbHO BbII3eSTH HS DpaSHJIHH B AHrJIHIO ceMeHa reBeH. BHKX3M BHalJaJIe cyMeJI ,n06paTbc5I ,nO rrJIaTO TarraIKoc­ paHoHa 5paSHJIHI1, KOTOpblH VI B HaWH ,nHI1 OCTaeTC5I OlJeHb MaJIOH3YlJeHHbIM, a B Te BpeMeHa 6blJI npaKTHlJeCKH cOBep­ weHHO HeHSBe,naHHbIM. C06paB TaM 60JIbWOe KOJIHlJeCTBO ceM5IH, BHKX3M Bep­ HyJIC5I Ha 6paSHJIbCKOe rr06epe)Kbe. Do ClJaCTJIHBOH CJIylJaH­ HOCTH B:>TO IKe BpeM5I oTTyna B03BpawaJIC5I nopoIKHHKOM r. AHrJIHIO HOBeHwHH aHrJIHHCKHH napoxo,n. BHKX.3MY y,naJIOCb rrorpY3HTb ceMeHa, He HaBJIeKa51 Ha ce6H no,nospeHHH 6pa­ SHJlbCKHX BJI3CTefI. DOCJIe,nHHM OH 06b5lCHI1JI, liTO rrepeBOSHT ceMeHa lJpeSBbllJaHHO npHXOTJII1BblX BH,nOB paCTeHI1H nJIH J1OI-J,nOHCKoro 60Ta HHlJeCKOrO ca,na. DJI a ro,na pH BMemaTeJI b­ CTBy aHrJIHHCKOro Koi-IcyJIa norpY3K3 6bliJIa npoHsBe,neHa 6ecnperrHTcTBeHHo. 7 TbIC. ceMHH BHalJaJIe 6blJIH rrocaIKeHbl B 60TaHHlJeCKOM ca,ny. 3 aTeM caIKeHUbl 6bI,JHI BblBeseHbl H a KKJII1MaTI1SHpona· Hbl Ha OCTpOBe UeHJIOH, a saTeM Ha 60pHeo H B MaJIaHe. 3TH nJIaH1'aUHH 51BIIJII1Cb HCTOlJHHKOM npOUBeTaHI1H 3THX CTpaH. DpOH,noxa BHKX3M rrOJIylJHJI ,nBOp5lHCKHM THTyJI, lJTO pe,nKO CJIYlJaJIOCq CO wrrHOHaMII. HeKOTopble aBaHTlOpbl TaKoro po,na H Hap5l,ny C HI1MH 6ec­ rrJIo,nHOCTb Mep oxpaHbl npOMblWJIeHHOCTH crroc06CTBOB3JIH cos,naHHIO OC06blX opraHoB 06eCnelJeHI15I 6esorracHocTH H cneUl1aJIHSHpOBaHHbll x areIiTCTB, B TOM lJHCJIe O)~HOrO I1S nH­ TJ1 «rJIaBI-IbIX» - aMepHKaIJCKOro arel-ITcnJa DI1lJI(epTona. 60 01
  • 30. AreHTCTEO nHHKepTOHa npHo6peJIo H3SeCTHOCTb 6JIaro­ ,lI.ap51 nOCB5ImeHHbIM ero ,lI.eHTeJIbHOCTH ,ll,ellleBblM pOMaHaM, nOHBHBIllHMCH 13 KOHL~e XIX seK3. Ero nO,lI.JIHIHIa51 HCTOpH5I Ky,lI.a 60JIee y,lI.HBHTeJIbHa. AJIelIa DHHKepToHa 33Bep60BClJI npe3H.n.eHT nHHKOJ!bH.n.O rpalK,lI.3HCIWH BOrmbl, nopY4HB eMy opraHH30BaTb pa3se,UblB8TeJIbHYIO CJIy1K6y. OH CTaJI PYKOBO~ ,lI.HTeJIeM pa3Be,lI.KH H KOl-ITP pa3Be.n.KH CeSep5lH. f10,lI. nceB,lI.O­ HHMOM «AJIeH» OH BonBOpH,,1C5I H3 1-H yJIHue B BaWHHrTOHe H nOJIOIKHJI HalJaJIO epoTorpa(!nlllecKoMY wnHoHalKy. OH OKa­ 3aJI TaKl1e yCJIym cesepHHaM, 4TO, 6e3 lJpe3MepHoro npeyse· JIHlJeHH5I, MOIKHO 6blJIO rOBopHTb, lJTO OHH BblHrpaJIH BOi:'IHY 6JIarOnapH eMY. Eme no Toro KaK 6bITb 3asep60BaHHblM nHHKO,TIbHOM, nHHKepToH 06paTHJI Ha ceoS! BHHMaHHe TeM, 4TO pa306JIalJaJI onaCHOCTb cenapaTHcTcKoro .n.BH)I{eHI1H, op­ raHH30saHHoro IOlKaHaMH -- CTOpoHHHKaMH coXpaHeH!151 pa6cTBa. OH nOJIy4HJI 3TH CBenCHHH BO BpeMH KpynHoii one­ paUHl1 no npOMbIIll.TIeHHOH KOHTppa3Be,ilKe, Kor,lI.a opy,lI.OBaJI B 4HKaro. nHHKepTOH 6blJI npnrJIaWeH K npe3H,lI.eHTy KpynHoH IKe­ JIe3HO,lI.0pOIKHOH KOMnaHHH, I<OTOPOMY C006UJ.HJI, 'ITO 10)l{aHe HaMepeBalOTC5I pHHyTbC5I Ha )l{eJIe3HbIe )J.opom, nYCTHTb KO ,lI.Hy napOMbl, B30pBaTb MOCTb~ H TaKHM 06pa30M H30JIHpO­ BaTb BaWHHfTOH OT ceBepHbIX WTaTOB. .3TO npOHCXO,lI.H.TIO B 5IHBape 1861 rO,lI.a, KaK pa3 HaKaHyHe BOHHbl. nHHKCOTOH npOBeJI paccJIe.n.oBal-II1e B I3aJITHMOpe H Bo­ 130M OpJIe'eiHe. Pe3YJIbTaTbI OK"'·3aJIHCb 13 BbICWe!1 CTeneIlH TpeBOIKHIiMH. MaJIo Toro, 4TO CYIueCTBOB3JI 3arOBOp, HO cy­ meCTBOBaJI TaK)I{e - y)l(e Tor.n.a! - nJ1aH y6HHcTBa ABpa­ aMa nHHKOJIbH8. Y6HilcTBO ero 'u0JI)!<H0 6bIJIO nOCJIy/KHTb CHrHaJIOM K YHH4TOI!(eHHIO MOCTOB (60J!bWHHCTBO H3 HHX 6blJIO ,lI.epeBHHHbIMH. H HX JIefl<o 6blJIO n01VKellb) , nOJLBI·Dl{­ Horo COCTaBa IKeJIe3HbIX .n.opor H napOMoB. TaK npOMbIWJIeH­ HbIH WnHOHa)l{ H KOIITppa3se.n.K8 n03BOJIHJIH paCKpWI"b 06­ WHPHblI~i [lOJIHTHt~eCKHH 3arOBOp H BoopY/KeHHbiH M5ITe)K. KOTopble nO.TIIKHbI 6bIJIH npHBecTH K y)l{acHoii rpa)K,il3HCKOi1 BOHHe Me)l{ny CeBepoM H 1OroM. 21 epeBpaJIH 1861 r. B ¢HJIa,lI.e,,1blpHH nl1HKOnbH 3acny­ waJI ,lI.OKJIa,lI. nHHKepToHa 11 y6e.n.HJIcH B cymecTBoBaHHH 3a­ rOBopa. B TO)l{e Bpe/vi51 TaKyI{) )l{e IiHepoprvtaUHIO Y,lI.aJIOCb coopaTb rJlaBe HblO-HOpKCKOH rocy,lI.apCTBeHHoH nOJIHUHH I(eHlIe,lI.H 11 YBe.n.Ol1HTb nHHKCJIbHa. HaMellaBwerOCH y6HHCTB<:1 Y,lI.3JlOCb H36e/l{3Tb, O,lI.HaKO rp5lHyJIa rpail{,lI.aHCK351 Boi:'lHa. K3I( Mbl y>Ke CK33aJiH, areHTCTBO nMHKepTOH3 OKa33.'10 60.'lblill1e yc.TIyrn np3BJ1TeJlbCTBY M 13nOCJle;"lCTBI1Yi rtpeBpaTH­ JIOCb B nO'lTM OepHUH3.TIbHYIO opraHH33UHKl, C4IITdBlllYlOCH Ira PC.n.I<OCTb cepbe3HOil. nOC.JIe rpa)l{lI.aHcKof! BOHHbl areHT­ CTBO YlKe lIe 3aHI1M3JlOCb BoeIIHOH pa::me.n.I<oH HJIH KOHTp­ pa3Bc.L;Ko!1, HO 6LI.JIO H OCT3CTCH I'IOmllOfl opr3HH3aUHeH, Bell.ymeH 60[1[;6y C npccTynHHlwMH, ,ll,HBejK8HTaMM H wnH­ OH3MH. OTMCTHM, lITO BO BpCM51 6yllTOB npOTHB BOHHCIWH nOBMH­ HOCTM B HbIo-YIopKe B H1O,Jle 1863 rO,lI.a l(eHI-Ie,lI.H 6blJI nOk BeprHyT JIHHlleBaHHIO rpynnof! pa31,51peHHblx HpJIaH.L;ues. Ero CnaCJIH, OCMOTp B 60.'1bHI1ue nOK33aJI, lJTO OH nO.JIy4HJI 21 HO)l{eBOe paHeHHe H 72 YlI.apa nJIeTbW. AMepHKaHcKaH TpanHUHH HaCHJlH5l HalJHHaeTCH He C y611HCTB3 npe3H.n.eHTa KeHHell.H H He C yOHikTB Mapnlfla nlOTepa l(HHra M Po­ 6cpTa l(CHI-IClUl. i.reHTCTBO IlHHKepTOl-Ia pa306.JIaiJHJIO B 1867 ro.n.y JDKe­ IIlnHOHa no MMeHH nHnep. 9TOT cy6'beKT, pO,ll,HBWHHC51 B HapH>Ke (UlTaT KewrYI{I{I'I), Ho06uie CtIHT8JICH KpynHei:'I­ WHM B Te BpeMeHa nO,lI.neJIbIrBaTeJIeM JLOKyMeI-lToB. nO.JIe ero ,n,eHTe.JIbHOCTH npOCTHpaJIOCb OT naHaMcI<oro npOJIHBa ,lI.0 CHe)l{HbIX nYCTbIHb KaHa,lI.bI. 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  • 31. raHrCTepCKHMH, TO MO>KHO CKa3aTb, 41'0 K TaKHM llie MeTO' ,ll.aM cerO,ll.H5I npH6eraIOT 4JIeHbI COI03a BO,ll.HTeJIeH rpy30BH­ KOB, B03rJIaBJI5IeMOrO ,UlliHMMH Xoepcj)a. Pa3rpOM :'JTOH op­ raHH3aUHH TaHHbIM areHTOM DHHKepTOHa MaKepapJIaH,ll.OM 5113.TI5IeTC5I TeMOH O,ll.HOrO H3 npHKJIIOt;e~IliH lllepJIoKa XO.1M­ ca, onHcaHHoro KOHaH 'uOlIJIOM. AMepliI<aHCKHH Kamna­ JIH3M npHWeJI K BbIBO,ll.y, lJTO pa6011HH KJI3CC MOlliHO 06y3­ lLaTb, JIHWb nO,ll.pblBa51 era H3HYTPH, H caM opraHH30BaJI CBOH Tai1Hble nOJIHueHCKHe opraHH3all,HH. nOJIaralOT, lJTO K KOHUY BeKa B 3THX 4aCTHblX nOJIHlI,eHCKHX opraHH3aUH5IX aMepHKaHCKoro KanHTaJIa HaClJHTblBaJIOCb He MeHee 150 TbIC. areHTOB! PHlJap,ll. BHJIbMep POBaH B CBoeH KHHre «33 CTO­ JIenl51 wnHOHallia» yTBeplli,ll.aeT, lJTO lJeJIOBelJeCTBO He 3HaJIO 60JIee OTb5lBJIeHHblX HerO,ll.HeB. l1TaK, 31'0 - Te~1HOe n5lTHO B n030JIOlJeHHOH JIereH.lJ,e 0 oIHIKepTOHe, TeM He MeHee areHTCTBO DHHKepTOHa, palmo KaK H Kpynna, MOlliHO ClJHTaTb OCHOBOnOJIO,KHI1KOM cOBpeMeHHOH npOMbllWJIeHHOH 6e30nacHocTH, C ero HMeHeM HaM npH,ll.eTC5I BCTpeqaTbC5I ew.e He pa3, Vt MORUlO nOJIaraTh, lJTO areHTCTBO DHHKepTOHa 6bIJIO nepBbIM He3aBHCHMbIM areHTCTBOM npOMblWJIeHHOH 6e30naCHOCTH, Pa3yMeeTC5I, 06ecne4elHle npOMblillJIeHHOH 6e30naCHOCTH He 6bIJIO ero e,ll.HHCTl3eHHbIM BH,ll.OM ,ll.e5lTeJIb­ HOCTH. AreHTCTBO BblJlaB.1HBa.7I0 6aH,ll.HTOB, OXpaH5IJIO ,ll.eHb­ rH, xpaH5Iw.HeC5I B 6aHK3X, BO Bpe~'I5l HX nepeB030K, OXOTH­ jl0Cb 3a KOl-ITpa6aH,ll.HCTaMH, HeqeCHlblMH KaCCHpaMH H BO­ 06w.e BceMH paCTpaT4HKaMH H nOXHTHTeJI5IMH lJYIKHX ,ll.eHer, 6y,ll.b TO rocy,ll.a pCTBeHHble CJIyIKaw.He HJIl1 lJaCTHble JIHua. AreHTcTBy DHHKepTOHa npHHa,ll.JIelliHT 3aCJIyra cepbes­ HOH nOCT~HOBKH np06JIeMbl npOMblWJIeHHOrO wnHoHa,Ka, H He CJIyqaHHO, tITO OHO OCTaeTC5I O,ll.HHM H3 n5lTH «rJIaBHbIX». 4 rJIABA C 1875 rO,ll;A If ,u;O IIEPBOll MHPOBOli BOflHbI ~ ~ I 1875 rO,ll.a 3HalJeHHe npOMblWJIeHHOrO -=a""" wnHOHalKa CTaHOBHTC5I 06w.enpH3HaH­ HbIM H HalJHHaeT pa3rOpaTbC5I conep­ HHqeCTBO Melli,ll.y npOMbIWJIeHHLIM H BoeHHbIM UJnHOHa'KeM. KKOHlI,y BeKa Ha apeHe 60Pb6~ n05lBJI5IeTC5I HOB~H ylJaCT- HHK - 5!noHH5I. C03HaBa51 CBO~ OTCTaJIOCTb B npOMbIUJJIeH­ HOM OTHOIlleHHH, OHa CTpeMHTC5I BceMH Cpe,ll.CTBaMI1 ,ll.OrHaTb nepe,ll.OB~e CTpaH~. HeKOTopoe BpeM5I eH y,ll.aBaJIOCb BW­ MaHHBaTb npOMblIllJIeHHble ceKpeTbII 06ell.l,aHl1eM pa3Mell.l,aTb 3aKa3bI, HO 31'0 np0,ll.OJIlliaJIOCb He,ll.OJIro. nepBblMH cnOXBa· THJIHCb BJIa,ll.eJIbUbl aHrJIHHCKHX, 11 B oc06eHHOCTH IllOTJIdlH,ll.­ CKHX, CY,ll.OCTpOI1TeJIbHbIX BepepeH. 5!noHUbl B351JII1 3a 06bIK­ HOBeHl1e n POCI1Tb y HHX pa3 peIlleHl1e Ha nOJIHbIH OCMOTp Cy,ll.OB BMeCTe C HX lJepTelKaMH. BHHMaTeJIbHO OCMOTpeB cy,ll.a H 113YlJI1B BC~ ,ll.OKYMeHTaUI1~, 3aMeTI1B npH 3TOM Bce He,ll.opa60TKH, 51nOHlI,bI HalJHHaJII1 CTPOI1Tb cy,ll.a caMH. Dp0l130IlleJI 11 HUI1,ll.eHT, nOJIYlJHBWI1H WHPOKY~ H3BeCT­ HOCTb. 5!noHUbI nonpOCI1JII1 pa3peIlleHHe 03HaKOMI1TbC5I C yCTpOHCTBOM O,ll.HOrO Hacoca, 06ew.a51 C,ll.eJIaTb 3aKa3 Ha 60JIbWOe KOJIHlJeCTBO TaKI1X HaCOCOB. 11M npe,ll.JIOlliHJIH ,ll.JI5I OCMOTpa onbITHbIH npOTOnIn, KOTOPbIIH HMeJI ,ll.eepeKT: ,ll.blpy B UHJIHH,ll.pe. 4T06bI 3a,ll.eJIaTb ,ll.blpy, C,ll.eJIaJIH B HeH BHHTO­ BY~ Hape3KY 11 BCTaBHJIH 60JIT C raHKaMH Ha 060HX KOH­ uax. TaKHM 06pa30M 6blJla ,ll.OCTHrHyTa nOJIHa51 BO,ll.OHenpo­ HHlI,aeMOCTb. 5!nOHlI,bI CKonHpOBaJIH Hacoc, H CKonHpOBaJIH 6yKBaJIbHO B TaKOM IKe BH,ll.e, TO eCTb BMeCTe C 60JITOM. 81'01' CJIylJaH CTaJI 113BeCTeH B eBponeHcKHx H aMepHKaH­ CKHX npOMbIIllJIeHHblX Kpyrax, H 5IIJOHUbl 3aCJIYIKeHHO npH­ 06peJIH penYTaUI1~ «nO,ll.,ll.eJIbw.HKOB». O,ll.HaKO 3TH «nO,ll.,ll.eJIbw.HKI1» 6bIJIH OlJeHb nOH5ITJIHBbI H pacnOJIaraJII1 3aMelJaTeJIbHbIM annapaTOM npOMbIIllJIeHHOrO WnHOHa)l(a. 5!noHUM HHTepeCOBaJIHCb npe>K,ll.e Bcero feMH H306peTeHH5IMH, KOTopble MO)l(HO 6blJIO HCnOJIb30BaTb B soHHe. OHH pa3pa60TaJIH npOIl3BO,ll.CTBO 6e3,ll.blMHOro nopo­ xa, caMble HOEeHwHe cnoc06bl JIHTb51 CTaJIH, TexHI1KY 3JIeK­ TpHlJeCKHX npO)l(eKTOpOB 60JIbWOH MOIlLHOCTI1, H3rOTOBJIe­ HH5I TOpne,ll.bl H paCKpbIJIH MHorl1e ,ll.pyrHe npOMblWJIeHHble ceKpeTbI. npOIllJIO HeMHoro JIeT nOCJIe 1905 rO,ll.a - H 6bIJIO 3aMelJeHO, lJTO npOMbIIllJIeHHOCTb 5!nOHI1H npe,ll.CTaB.l15IeT no MeHbilleH Mepe TaKylo llie onaCHOCTb, KaK ee apMH5I. OHa .lI.O6bIJIa, BecbMa' Bep05lTHO nyTeM npOMbIIllJIeHHOrO wnHOHaIKa, ceKpeT npOH3BO,ll.CTBa BbIoCOKOKalJeCTBeHHblX OnTHlJeCKHX JIHH3 nOcpe,ll.CTBOM IllJIHepOBKII HX OKHCb~ ue­ pH5I. 81'0 ,ll.aJIO B03MOIKHOCTb 5lnOHuaM BbI6poCHTb Ha PbIHOK epoToannapaTbI BblCOKoro KalJeCTBa no sHeKmlKypeHTHbIM lI,eHaM. OHH CTaJIH H3rOTOBJI5ITb BHCKH BnOJIHe CHOCHoro KalJeCTBa H no OlJeHb HH3KOH uep.e. 5!noIICKa51 npOMbIWJIeH­ HOCTb npOH3BO.ll.HJIa BeJIOCHne,ll.bI 60JIee BbICOKOro KalJeCTBa H rOpa3,ll.0 ,ll.eIlleBJIe eBponeHcKHx. HalJHHa51 C 1910 rOlLa 3-292 6564
  • 32. 3HaK «C,neJIaHO B 5lnoIll1H» 6bIJI CHMBOJIO.M TOBapa, OnIma­ Kosoro no l{<llJeCTsy C eBpOflCi1cI<HM ~IJIH 8MepHKaHCKHM, HO ropa3,n0 60JIee ,newesoro. 06pa3 51nOHCKoro lJO!<ynaTeJI5I HJIH CTy,neflTa CTaJI KJIaCCHlJeCKHM K3K n JII1TepaType Tex speMeH, TaI< H S peaJJbHOH iKH3HH. OHH 38nO.'1H51J1H npo­ MblWJIeHHble ropo,na Esponbl H ClilA. EsponeticKHe H aMepHKClHCKHe npOMblWJIeHHHKl1 SOiIH.fiH 0 nHpaTCTse. 5!noH­ UbI MOrJIH 6bl OTBeTHTb, lITO OHM He npOCHJIH npHOOw.aTb HX K esponeACKoA UHBHJIH38UHH H 4TO K 3TOMy HX BWHy­ ,nHJIH nyweLJHbIMH BbICTpeJIaMH, I<or,na aHrJIHHCKHH epJIOT 60M6ap,nHpOnaJI ropoJJ. KaroclH1Y. D03,nHee, Kor,na HnOHUbI HalJaJIH CTpOHTb 6poHeHocUbl, a 3aTeM CaMOJIeTbl, OHH nOKa­ 3aJIH, LJTO He 6blJIH npOCTbIMH nOJJ.pa)KaTeJI51MH. PaCUBeT HnOHCKoro npOMbIWJICHHOrO mnHOHa>Ka COBna­ JJ.aeT C nepHo,nOM npOM blUIJIeH HorO n peBOCXOJJ.CTsa AHrJI /1101. BnpOLJeM, HnOHUbl 6bIJIH He OJJ.HEOKH; aMepHKaHUbI. HanpH­ Mep, 061<pa,nbISaJIH aHrJIHHCKHe npOMWWJIeHHble npe,nnpH5I­ THH s TelJeHHe nOCJIe,nHen LJeTSepTH H ,na)Ke B cepe,nHHe XIX Bel<a. AHrJIH1I8He H3,naJIH 3aJWHbl, 3anpew.aswHe 3KC­ nopT napoBblx MaWHH, a TalOKe MaWHH H lIepTe)Keii, Ka­ caIDIUHXC5I )KeJIe3o,neJIaTeJIbHOH H TeI<cTH.nbHoH npoMbIUI­ JIeHHOCTH. ECTeCTneHHO, liTO Y)Ke B 1841 ro,ny HallaJIC5I KOHTpa6aH,nHbIH SbIB03 MaWHH, H Ha3I-1alJeHHbIH aHrJ1HficKHM napJlaMeHTOM I<oMHTeT, nposo,nH paCCJIe,noBaHHe, yCTaHo­ BHJI, liTO MaWHHbl, 3KcnopT I<GTOPbIX 3<lflpew.eH, CB06oJJ.HO BbDB03HTCSl H3 J1HBepnyJIH. JI.JI51 ::noro ,nOCTaTOlJHO 6hlJlO YBeJlHlJHTb H3,nep)KI<H no nepeS03Ke HX B CiliA Ha 7,5%. BCJIe,n 3a 3THM HalJaJlH ye3)KaTb H3 AHrJlHH peMeCJleHHH­ KH H KBaJIHepHUHpoBaHHble pa6ollHe. B CIliA, HanpHMep, HaClJHTblBaJIOCb M HO}KeCTBO 8 HrJI HiicKHX MalllHHHCTOB. J1 10­ 60nbITHO B CB513H C 3THM npOBeCTH napaJIJleJlb C HbIHeWHHM nOJIO)KeHHeIVI, I<0r,na n pOHCXO,nHT C'rpaTerHlIeCKa51 KOHTpa­ 6aH,na H «yTelJI<a YMOB» B CIliA. OrpaHHlJHMC5I, o,nHaKO, 3aMelJaHHeM, lJTO HCTOpH51 nOBTop51eTCH H lJTO «aMepHKaH­ CKHH Bb130B» cyw.eCTBOBaJl ew.e B npOWJIOM BeKe. C06CTseHHO aMepHKaHCKHM H306peTeHHeM HSJI5IJIaCb CTaH,napTH3aUHSl ,neTaJIeH, TClI< )Ke ]<ClK H npouecc opraHH3a' UHH npOMblw.neHHOCTH. BHaqa.le 3TH HOBweCTBa 6bIJlH npH­ MeHeHbI HMH C 60JIbWHM Hml MeHbUJHM ycnexoM B npOH3­ Ro,nCTBe 0PY>KH51, a 3areM, y)l<e C IlOJIHblM ycnexoM, 6J1aro­ ,nap51 l1caal<y 3HHrepy (1811-1875 rr.)'-··.B npoB3Bo,ncTBe WSCH II bIX Maw HH. PO)KJJ.aJlOCb a MepHI<3 HCI<Oe n pOM bIWJleH­ Hoe n pesocxo,nCTDO, H Ba /lOlO 3a ileTHTb -- 3TO 3a ~lelJaHHe OTHOCHTC5I KaI< K npOWJIOMy, TaI< H K H<lCT05Iw.eMY,- lJTO 66 OHO OCHosaHO He CTOJIbI<O Ha H,ne5lX, CI<OJlbI<O Ha MeTo,nax, AMepHI<aHUbf 'faCTO 1I0,npa}J<arOT, Hepe,nI<O fJOxHw.alOT H,neH, HO 33TeM OHB opram13yloT npOH3nOll.CTBO, a ,neJIaIOT OHH 3TO BeJlHI<OJIenHO. .uOJIroe BpeM5I OHH C no,n03peHHeM OTHOCHJIHCb I< HH)Ke­ HepaM C yHl1BepCHTeTCJ<HM 06pa30BaHHeM, H 3TO 6bIJIO cnpa­ Be,nJlHBO, H60 B TO BpeMH aMepHI<aHCJ<Ht, npOTOTHn HH)KeHe. pa Ha nOBepKy OI<a3bISaJlC5I 6eCCOBeCTHblM anaHTIopHCTOM, CClMOylll<oii, CTOJlb >Ke MaJIO ClfHTaSWHMC5I C oepHUHaJlbHOH HayKoH, r<aK H C 3ClKOHOM. Heo6xoll.HMO p3CCMaTpHsaTb pa3J1H llHble 6HTBbI 3a aJIIO­ MHHHi-i, YlJliTbll8aH HMeHHO 3T)' nCHxoJlorulfeCKYIO aTMocepe­ py. B He60JlbWHX KOJlH lleCTB8.X, lJHCTO XH 1HlJeCKHMl1 cno­ co6aMH, 6e3 HCnOJlb30B3HH5I 3.neKTpHlJeCTna, aJIIOMHHHll HalIaJlH npOH3BO.llHTb B nepnoA nOJIOl.lHHe CTOJleTHH. B 1854 ro,ny, nOCJIe OTKpblTHH CeHT-l(JIep .QeSHJIeM aJlIOMH­ HH51, OH HCnOJlb30BaJlCH JJ.JlH Bbl,neJlKH ,nparoueHlIocTeH H ,nJI5I CneUHaJIbHblX ueJIeH, HanpHMep H3rOTOBJIeHH51 nOKpbITH5I ,nJlH 3HaMeIlHToro naM51TfIHK3 BaIllHHfTOIlY s CiliA. B TO spe­ MH aJlIOMHHHH ClJHTaJICH nOJly,nparou,eHHbIM MeTClJlJIOM. K H,nee 3J1eKTpOJlHTHlIeCKoro cnoco6a npoH3so,ncTBa aJ1l0MHHHH, Henocpe,ncTBeHHo li3 COJleH, npHWJIH, He3aBHCH­ MO ,npyr OT ,npyra H oJJ.HospeMeHHo, rpaTUeJlb B repM3HHH, DOJlb 3py 130 ¢paHUHH, KOy3J!C H XOJlJI B CiliA. HalJaJIaCb 6eCKOHelfHa51 60pb6a 3a naTeHTbI· B 1892 ro,ny 6blJlO c,neJIaHO, H c,neJlaHO CJIyllaHHo, KpynHoe H306peTeHHe. DPOMbIWJleH. HblH WnIlOHa)K He OCTaJlC5I n CTopOHe H OT 3Toro H306peTeHHH. KaHa,neu BHJIbCOH nbITaJlCH pa3pa6oTaTb He3J1eI<TpOJlHTH­ lJeCKHH npouecc, 0.60HJJ.51 Bce naTCHTbI H HCnOJIb3Y51 KaJIbUHH nMeCTO HaTpH51. Oo,norpenaH H3seCTHHK Ii yrOJIb s 3JIeI<TpH· LJecI<OH nelJH, Oli OTKPbIJI Kap6H.ll KaJlbUHH, liTO HMeJlO or. pOMHoe 3HalJeHHe, nOCl<OJlbKY J<ap61i,n I<aJIbUHH nrH COell.H­ HeHHH C BO,nOH ,naeT aUCTHJIeIl, lJTO n03BOJIHJlO C03,naTb i<ap6H,nllylO JIaMny. ::lTO OTKpbITHC nOBJIeKJlO 3a C060H pa3­ BHTHe ueJloro pSl,na OTpaCJleH XHMHlJecl<OH npOMbIWJleHHocTH. B03MO)KHO, liTO HaH60iJee HpKHH IIpHMep I1aYlJHO-TeXIIHlfe. cl<oro OTKpbITH5I, c,neJlaHHOrO B pe3YJIbT8Te nonblTKH CO, BepWHTb KOHTpaepaRu,HIO (nOll.,neJII<y) Ha OCHose HenOJlHblX ,naHHbIX npOMblWJIeHHOH pa3se,nI<H. 5HTBa 3a aJIlOi1HlIHH n po,nOJI}I{ aJl aCb. DorOli51 3a CeI<peTOM aJll{)MHHHH nOCT3SHJl3 nepe,n npo­ MbllllJlelWblM IllnHOHa>KeM ,neHCTSHTeJlbllO TPYJJ.IlYl{) 3a,naLJy. ECJIH paHblUe Hy)KHO 6bIJlO I<OnHpOBaTb npOCTbIC MaWHHbl HJII{ BocnpOH3Bo,nHTb npOCTble epOPMYJlhI (no yTBep)l{,neHHe 3* 67
  • 33. He pacnpOCTpaH51eTCH Ha aJIXHMHI<OB), TO Tenepb Hy}l{HO 6bl­ JIO C06Hp3Tb H nepe.n.aBaTb BCIO cOBoKynHocTb CJIO>KHbIX Tex­ HOJIorH4eCKHX .n.aHHbIX, 41'0 6blJIO .n.OBOJJbHO Tpy.n.HblM .n.eJIOM. npouecc npOH3Bo.n.CTBa aJIIOMHHH5I 04eHb CJlO}I{eH. HYu}l{H~ 6blJIO BBO.n.HTb 13 3JleKTpOJIH3HYlO BaHHy I(PHOJII1T (.n.BOHHOHu XJIOpH.n. aJJIOMHHHH H HaTpHH), MaJIOH3BeCTHbIH, XOTH H HMelOlllHHCH 13 H306HJIHH, MHHepaJI. npHMeHeHHe 3TorO 3JIeK­ TpOJIHTa n03BOJIHeT nOJIY4HTb Hy)l(HylO TeMnepaTypy .n.JI5I no.n..n.ep>KaHHH BaHHbl 13 paCnJIaBJIeHHOM COCT05IHHH 6e3 npHTOI<a 3HeprHH H3BHe. 50JJbWe Toro, nJJOTHOCTb paCTBopa MeHhwe, 4eM nJIOTHOCTb aJIIOMHHHH, H n03TOMY paCnJIaBJIeH­ HblH aJJIOMHHHH oca}l{.n.aeTCH Ha ,lJ.He BaHHbI. 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HHarapcKHH KOMHTeT npe.n.JIO)l(HJI eMy 10 TbIC. .n.OJIJI. 3a CBeJleHH51, KOTopble eMy y.n.aJIOCb .n.06bITb. 3.n.HCOH C4eJI 3KcnepToB KOMHTeTa CJIa60yMHbIMH. nOcJIe 3Toro HHarapclmH KOMHTeT npe.n.JIo>lmJI npeMHIO 13 3 TbIC. .n.OJIJI. 3a pa3pa60TKy Bonpoca 0 nepe.n.a4e 3JIeKTp03HeprHH Ha paCCT05lHHe H ee CTOHMOCTH. Ha £HOT pa3 nOCMeHBaJIC5I He TOJIbKO 3.n.HCOH. O.n.HH Bbl.n.alOIUHfIcH aHrJIHl'.icKH(1 HH}I{e­ Hep CKa3aJI: «3TH npOCTaKH XOT5IT nOjlYIIHTb 3a 3 TbIC. .n.OJIJI. CBe.n.eHHH, IWTopble CT051T 100 TbIC.». npyroH aHrJIHHCKHH HH}I{eHep Bblpa3HJIC5I 60JIee XJIeCTKO: «HHarapcKa51 m.n.po­ 3JIeKTpOCTaHUHH 6y.n.eT CTPOHTbC5I Ha OCHOBe pa60T, BbmOJI­ HeHHblX 130 BceM MHpe, 3a KOTopble HX aBTopbl He nOJIy4HJIH 69
  • 34. HHKaKoro B03Harpa>llI.eHH5I». Tar( npoer<T HHarapCIOH rH,A­ pO?JleKTpOCTaHUIHI BnepBbJe Bbr5lBHJJ 3Ha4emre npOMbIWJJeH­ HOH pa3BelI.IH. B C4eTax K npOeI<TY ynoMHHaeTC5I 0 75 TbIC. lI.OJJJJ., BbInJJaLIeHHblX HHocTpaHHbJM HHileHepaM H 31(CnepTaM 3a TeXHH4eCIHe 3aKJIIOlleHH5I, H 0400 TbIC. lI.0JJJJ., BbInJJa4eH­ HblX aMepHKaHuaM 3a TeXHHLIeCIHe lrepTe)KH, MOlI.eJJH MaWHH H 060PYlI.OBaHHe. KaKafl 4aCTb 3TOH orpOl/HOH CYMMbI (lI.eJlo npOHCXOlI.HJJO lI.0 1900 1'.) 6bIJla BbInJJa4eHa 3a CBelI.eHH5I 0 TOM, 41'0 MbJ Tenepb Ha313aJJH 6bI npOMbIllIJleHHbll1 llInHOHa­ iKeM? 31'01'0 Mbl HHKOrlI.a He y3HaeM. 80 BCHIWM CJly4ae, JIIiK­ BHlI.~UH5I B 1899 rolI.Y I<OMnaHHH no cTpOHTeJJbCTBy HHarap­ CKOH rHlI.p03JJeKTpOCTaHUHH nOla3aJJa, LITO 31'0 CTpOHTeJlb­ CTBO 6bJJJO OlI.HOH H3 caMbIX peHTa6eJJbHbIX onepaUHi:j 3a BCIO npelI.11IeCTBYIOw.yIO HCTOpHlO I(ar!HTaJJH3Ma. KanHTaJJHCTbI BJJO>!(HJ1H B 31'0 npelI.npH5ITHe 3a 10 JleT 7 044 500 lI.OJJJJ. nOcJJe JJHKBHlI.aUHI·i OHH IIOJJY4HJJH 8 832 000 lI.OJ1JJ. 06JJHraUH5IMH, npHHOC5IW.HMH npoueHTbl nJJIOC 3 974 000 lI.0JJJI. al(UH51l1H H 289570 lI.0JJJJ. HaJJH4HblM~; lI.eHbraMH. nepeMeHHwH TOK 6e33BapHHHo nepelI.aBaJJC5I Ha paCCT05lHHe 30 KM. OH npHMeH5IJJC5I He TOJlbKO lI.JJ5I oCBew.e­ HHSI, HO ~ KaK HCT04HHI( 3HeprHH lI.JJ5I lI.BHraTeJJeii TpaMBa5l, lI.Jl5I WBeHHbIX MaWHH H JIIlcjJTOI3. HHI<TO !3 TO BpeM5I He 3HaJJo CBOHCTB nepeMeHHoro TOKa, OlI.H3KO HHTyHUH5I BecTHHray3a B351JJa Bepx HalI. npOHCI(3MH 3lI.HCOHa. OlI.HOBpeMeHHO C 60Pb60ti BOKpyr nepeMeHHoro H nOCTO­ 51HHoro TOKa npOHCXOJUIJJa 60pb6a BOI<pyr ra30Boro lI.l3Hra­ TeJJ5I H lI.BHraTeJJ5I BHyTpeHHero crOpaHH51. CBoe06pa3He 3TOii 60Pb6bI 3aKJJI04aeTC5I B 1'011'1, LJTO ee MOrJJO H He 6bl1'b. B 1862 rolI.Y cjJpaHUy3CI<HH HH)KeHep AJJbcjJmlc 50-lI.e-Powa HallIeJJ HlI.eaJJbHOe peweHHe, B KOTOpOM npHHUHn LJeTblpex­ TaKTHoro lI.DHraTeJJ5I COLJeTaJlC5I C npHHUHnOM lI.BHraTeJJ5I C caMOBOCnJJaMeHeHHeM 01' C)KaTHSl, 41'0 n03lI.Hee 6blJlO H30­ 6peTeHO .lI.H3eJleM. 50-lI.e-Powa ony6JJHIWSaJI CBOH pe3yJlb­ TaTbI, OlI.HaI<O... B PYKOI1I1CHOii 6powlOpe. BHlI.HMO, HHI(TO, I(pOMe aBTopa, He LJHTaJJ 3TOI~ 6pOWlOpbl. EMy He YlI.aJlOCb HaKonHTb lI.0CT3T04I-IO lI.eHer, lIT06bI CKOHCTPYHpOB3Tb lI.BH­ raTeJJb. Me)KlI.Y TeM ero npelI.BOcxHw.eIlH5I 6bIJiH 51CHbI H on­ pelI.eJJeHHbl. VI JJHWb B 1883 rolI.Y npOHbIpJIHBbIM COTPYlI.HH­ l(aM naTeHTHoro BelI.0MCTBa YlI.3J10Cb 06H3PY>KHTb ero 6po­ WIOPY H BOCnOJJb30BaTbC5I elO, LJT06bl aHHyJJHpOBaTb LJaCTb naTeHTOB OTTO * Ha LIeTbIpexTaKTHblj:'I lI.BHraTeJJb. HecMoTp51 • HeMeUI(Hrl KOHCTpyl(TOP, npaKTH'IeCKH IIcnOJlb30nanWHil npHBUlln BO-M-Powa. - [JPU,Il. pea. Ha 31'0, K KOHUY CTOJJeTH51 cyw.ecTBOBaJIO 200 TbIC. CTaUHO­ HapHbIx lI.BHraTeJJefj TaKora pOlI.a, HCnOJJb30BaBUlHXC5I lI.JJH npHBelI.eHH5I B lI.BlDKeHHe reHepaTopoB nepeMeHHoro TOKa H lI.HHaMOMaWHH H lI./l5I lI.PYrHX ueJJel1. 110 OHH He MOrJJH CJJy­ )KHTb MOTopaMH lI.JJ5I 110B030K, TaK )Ke KaK H ra30Bble lI.BHra­ TeJJH. Hy)I(HO 6bIJJO O)KHlI.aTb nOHBJJeHH5I aBTOM06HJJ5I. no­ CJJelI.HHI1 CBOHM n051BJleHHeM, Bep05lTHO, 06513aH H306peTeHH10 B I<OHue CTOJleTH5I HeMuaMH KapJJOM 5eHlleM H P06epTOM 50UleM 3JleKTpHLJeCKOrO 33>KHraHH5I. KaK pa3 B 31'0 BpeM5J n05JBHJJOCb H306peTemle ,!lHSeJJ5I. CMepTb .QH 3e.TJ 51 , B03MO>K­ 110, 6bIJJa HaCHJlhCTBeHHOH, 41'0 Mor/IO 61ITb opraHH30BaHO mnHOHaMH. ECJJH 31'0 Tal(, OB - nepBa51 )l(epTBa B !:lTOH cn,e­ UHcjJHLJeCKOH 06JJaCTH. )f(H3Hb .lI.H3eJI5I HaCTOJJbI<O OBe5lHa JJereHlI.aMH, lITO 60JJbWYIO LJaCTb 1'01'0, 'ITO Mbl CeHLJaC pac­ CI(a)KeM, Hy)KHO H3JJaraTb B cOC.TIaraTeJlbHOM HaKJlOHeHHH. 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Ero HlI.e51 SaKJJlOLJaJI3Cb B 3a)KHraHHH CMeCH mo60ro TOflJJHB3, B TOM l[HCJJe l1blJleBHlI.Horo TBeplI.0rO TOl1J1HBa, CO C)KaTbIl1 l10lI. 60nbllIHM lI.3BJJeHHeM B03lI.VXOM. BHaLJaJle OH lI.yM3J1 0 JI.3BneHHH nOp5JlI.Ka 250 aTM. nOCJJe BOCl1JJaMeHeHH5I TeMnepaTypa CHIUKaJJaCb 6bI lI.0 TeMnepaTy­ phI OKPY)K3IOw.el~I aTMoccjJep!>I. TeOpeTHLJeCI(H K03epcjmUHeHT nOJ'Ie3HOrO lI.eHCTBH5I TaKoro lJ.BHraTeJl51 lI.0ml(eH 6bI,TI lI.OCTH­ raTb 75%, TOrlI.a KaK KDlI. ra30BblX lI.BHraTeJJeH 1'01'0 BpeMe­ HH He npeBbIWaJJ 13%. KpoMe Toro, OH MOl' 6bl CiKHraTb 04eHb lI.eWeBOe Ton"'IHBO, H3npHMep yroJlbHyIO nbIJJb, BMeCTO 6eH3HHa. He Hy)J';HO 3a)J(HraHH5I, He Hy)J(HO xap6IOpaTopa. .lI.I~13eJJb nOJlaraJl, LJTO MO)J(HO 6YlI.eT lI.a)Ke ynpa3lI.HHTb CHCTe­ My OXJJa)J(lI.eHH51. 06HapY)KHJlHCb orpOMHble npaKTHLJeCKl1e TPYlI.HOCTH. npeOlI.0JJeBa51 HX, J],H3eJJb nOJIyLJaJJ naTeI-lThI. Y Hero HaKO­ '7 ,t n
  • 35. nHJlOCb 60JlbWoe KOJlHtleCTBO 3KCIlepHMeHTaJlbHblX .naHHbIX, KOTopble He pa3 nbITaJlHCb BblKpaCTb. DO-BH.nHMOMy, 3TH .9KCrrepHMeHTaJlbHble .naHHble H nOCJlY)KHJlH npHtlHHOH ero rH6eJlH. B 1897 ro.ny OH rrOCTpOHJI cBMI nepBblH .nBHraTeJlb. 3TOT .nBHraTeJlb 6blJl ew.e .naJleK OT ero H.neaJla: OH Tpe60BaJl C)KHraHH5I nDl<eJlOrO TorrJ1HBa, .naBJleHHSI B l.LHJllm.npe .no 30 aTM H B TO )Ke BpeMSI ero Krr.n COCTaBJlSIJI Bcero 26%. TeM He MeHee llH3eJlb CMor rrpo.naTb HeCKOJlbKO JlHI.I.eH3HH. DOCTeneHHO. QeHOH 60JlbWHX YCHJlHH H orpOMHblX .neHe)K" HblX 3aTpaT, OH ycoBepweHCTBOBaJl CBOII .nBHraTeJlb. CrrycTSI 15 JJeT,B 1913 ro.ny, .nH3eJlb-MOTOPbl HatlaJlH rrocTyrraTb B rrpo.na)Ky. llH3eJlb OTIlpaBHJlCSI Ha rrapoxo.ne B AHrJlHIO .nJlSI Be.neHH5I Ba)KHbIX rreperoBopoB, B3SIB C C060H rropT<peJlb, Tyro Ha6HTblIi CaMb111H ceKpeTHblMH .nOKyMeHTaMH, H 6ec­ CJle.n.HO HCtle3 C rraJly6bl rrpH 3ara.nOtlHblX 06CTOSITeJlbCnax. rOBOpHJlH H 0 HeCtlaCTHOM cJlytlae, H 0 calVIOy6HHcTBe. 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KOTopaH BO BpeMH BTOPOH MHpOBOH BOIlHbl rroKyrraJla y .nH­ 7Z peKQHH HaQHCTCKHX KOHQeHTpaQHOHHblX JlarepeH nOJlbCKHX )KeHw.HH, tlT06bl HCrrbITbIBaTb Ha HHX .neHCTBHe y.nywaIOw.HX OTpaBJlHIOw.HX Bew.eCTB, H KOTopaH 3aTeM )J(aJlOBaJlaCb fHM­ MJlepy, tlTO 40 MapoK 3a O.nHy )KeHl.J.I.HHY - 3TO CJlHlliKOM .noporo! B npoQecce pa60Tbl Ha.n 3TOH KHHrOH MHOH He 6blJlO HaH­ .neHO HH o.nHoro .nOKa3aTeJlbCTBa y6HHcTBa KaKOrO-JlH60 H30­ 6peTaTeJlH wnHOHaMH. HeJlb3H HalITH H MHoro .nOKa3a­ TeJlbCTB rJlyweHHH H306peTeHHH rro TOH rrpHtlHHe, tlTO OHO yw.eMJlHJlO tlbH-JlH60 HHTepeCbI. 3aTO .nOBOJlbHO tlaCTO - H K 3TOMy Hepe.nKO CTaJlH rrpH6eraTb y)Ke C KOHQa XIX BeKa­ KaKaSI-JlH60 KOMrraHHH rroKyrraeT H306peTeHHe, He rrpe.nCTaB­ JlHlOl.J.I.ee QeHHOCTH, tlT06bl «060HTH» rraTeHTbl .npyroH KOMrra­ HHH, C03.naTb TaKHM 06pa30M yrp03Y ee MOHOnOJlHH H npH cJlytlae .n.06HTbCSI rra.n.eHHH Kypca ee aKQHH. 3.nHCOH B CBOHX MeMyapax paCCKa3bIBaeT. KaK <pHHaHCHCT fYJlb.n rrpo­ CHJI ero 060HTH rraTeHTbl «BeCTepH IOHHOH KOMrraHH», KOTO­ paSi 3arraTeHTOBaJla Bce B03MO)KHble ¢OPMbl 3J1eKTpOMarHHT­ f1oro peJle. 3.nHCOH OTKpbIJl, tlTO BJla)KHbIH MeJl HMeeT K03<p<pHQHeHT TpeHHH, KOTOpblH 3HatlHTeJlbHO CHH)KaeTCH, Kor.n.a tlepe3 Hero rrponyCKaeTcSI 3J1eKTpHtleCKHH TOK. TaKHM 06pa30M, rro.nBH)KHaH .neTaJlb, .n.BH)KeHHe KOTOpOH 06bltlHO TOPM03HTCSI MeJlOM, CKOJlb3HT, Kor.n.a tlepe3 MeJl nporrycKaeT­ CSI 3J1eKTpHtleCKHH TOK. 3TO OTKpbITHe rr03BOJlHJlO fyJlb.ny 06'bSIBHTb, tlTO MOHOnOJlH.H «BeCTepH !OHHOH» rrpHWeJl KOHeQ, H ycrrewHo HrpaTb Ha nOHH)KeHHH Kypca ee aKQHH Ha HbIO­ HOpKCKOH 6Hp)Ke. 5!CHO, tlTO rYJlb.n y3HaJI, Ha KaKHe rraTeHTbl c.neJlaHbl 3a­ SIBKH KOMnaHHefI «BeCTepH IOHHOH», H, MO)KeT 6bITb, 6blJlO 6bl HeCKpOMHO CllpawHBaTb, KaKHM 06pa30M OH 3TO c.n.eJlaJl. 3TOT rrpHMep nOKa3bIBaeT, tlTO C KOHQa XIX BeKa npo­ MblWJleHHblH WnHOHa)K 6blJl HarrpaBJleH He TOJlbKO Ha Bbl­ Kpa.n.blBaHHe <pOpMyJl H MeTo.nOB, HO H Ha Bbl5IBJleHHe 3aSIBOK Ha rroJlytleHHe naTeHTOB, c.u.e.'laHHbIX KOMrraHHSIMH. KCTaTH CKa3aTb, BCSI )KH3Hb 3.nHCOHa 6blJla HenpepblBHOH 60Pb60ii B 3al.J.I.HTY CBOHX HHTepeCOB, H OH He pa3 rrpOTeCTOBaJl npo­ THB rrpH06peTeHHSI 3a 6eCQeHOK npOMblWJleHHblMH KOMrraHH­ SIMH H 6aHKaMH H306peTeHHH, KOTopble BnOCJle.n.CTBHH 6blJlH HCrrOJlb30BaHbl .nJlSI 6J10KHpOBaHl1H ero naTeHTOB HJlH .n.JlSI Be.neHHH KOHKypeHTHoH 60Pb6bl t H306peTeHHSIMH, KOTopble OH c.n.eJlaJl lteHOH 60JlbWHX YCHJlHH. 11 3)I.eCb Mbl yCMaTpHBa­ eM nOHBJleHHe HOBOH <pOPMbl pa3Be.nKH B rrpOMbIWJleHHOCTH: BWSIBJleHHe H306peTeHHH B caMoH HatlaJlbHOii HX cTa.nHH, BblSIBJleHHe H306peTaTellefI Ii Me.TJKHX Jla60paTopHH, TeprrSI­ 78
  • 36. opy)l{eHHe BoeHHoro ep.IJOT3 no.u.Bo.rr.HylO Jlo.u.Ky no! Ha3BaHHeM «XOJlJla H.u.». AMepHKaHChHH a.u.130xaT I1caaK PaHC, KOTOpOMy npHHa.u.Jle)l{aJlO 4aCTHoe H306peTaTeJlbCKOe 6tOpo, KynHJI Ila: TeHT XOJlJl a H.u.a , ¢HHaHCHpOB3J1 npoeKTHp003HHe no.u.Bo.u.HO H JlO.u.KH H y4pe.u.HJI KOMnaHHIO no CTpOHTeJ1bCTsy Tal<HX J10nOK. D04TH HeMe.u.J1eHHO 6bl.1J0 3aKJ1lO4eHO corJlaWeHHe Me){<.u.y 3TOH KOMnaHHeH H aHrJIHticKOH rpynnoii BHKI<epca, H H30­ 6peTeHHe, npe.u.Ha3Ha4aBweeCH .!I.JIH 60Pb6bI C AHrJlHeH, 6bIJ10 nOCTaBJ1eHO Ha cJlyIK6y aHrJ1H4aHaM. A C 1901 ro.u.a nOlJTH 130 BceM MHpe npHcTynH.rHI K CTpOH­ TeJ1bCTBY no.u.Bo.u.HbIX J10.u.01< TaKoro THna. D03.ll.Hee 6blJ1H Ha­ 3Ha4eHbi CJ1e.u.CTBe-HHbI.e KOMHCCHH. BecbMa BepoHTHo, lJTO 4epTe)KH 6blJ1H npo.u.aHbl fepMaBHH H 4TO no.u.BOlLHble J10lL.KH , 6Jlaro.u.a pH KOTOpbIM fepMaHHH e.u.Ba Be BbIHrpaJ1a ,BOHBy 1914-1918 ro.u.OB, 6blJ1H HpJ1aHJJ.cKoro npOHCXO)K.u.eH1HI. Ha yrp03Y HeMeUKHX no.u.BO.u.HbIX J10.u.OK 06paTHJ1 BHHMa­ HHe «OTeu» lllepJloKa XOJ1MCa -- C3p ApTyp KOBaH 'uOHJ1. 3a .u.Ba ro.u.a .u.o MHpOBOH BOHHbI 13 HOl3eJlJle IlO.u. 3ar0J10BKOM «OnacHocTb» OH nOBe.u.aJl 0 TOM, KaKylo onaCHOCTb npe.u.CTaB­ JlHlOT no.u.BO.ll.Hble J]OJJ.KH. O.u.HaKO Tor.u.a HHKTO eMy He no- BepHJI. ' 4epTe)KH, nOXHlll.eHHbie y aHrJlH4aH H aMepHKaHueB, npo­ .u.OJ])KaJlH u HpKyJ1HpOBaTb no Bce~'IY MHpy C 1902 no 1914 ro.u., H ueHa HX nOCTelleHHO na.u.aJla. 3THM BOCnOJlb300aJ1HCb HnOH­ UbI. BH.u.HMO, HHI<aKHe I'l'lepbl npe.u.oCTOpO)KHOCTH ,He npHHHMa­ J1HCb. 04eBH.u.HO, HHKTO HH Y BHKKepca, HH 13 «2)JleKTpHK 60T KOMnaHH» He CJ1bIWaJ1 06 H.!ieHx Kpynna OTHOCHTeJ1bHO 6e­ 30naCHOCTH B npOMbIWJ1eHHocTH. Ho 3aTO )KlOJ1b BepH HH4e­ 1'0 He ynYCHIJ1 H3 3TOH HCTOpHil H, coe.u.HHHB H.u.em ~1<apMaH­ HOH» nO.ll.BO.ll.HOH J10.u.KH C H.ll.eHMH paKeTbl H aTOMHOH 60M6bl, HanHcaJ] HOBbIH pOMaH «PaBHeHHe Ha 3HaM51». O.u.HH nOJ]ycyM3cwe.u.WHH H306peTaTeJ1b Y3HaJ1 B repoe 3TOH KHHrH ce651 H, HCXO.u.H H3 npHHUHna, 4TO Bep5lT TOJ1bKO 60raTblM, B036y.u.HJ1 .ll.e.no npOTHB >KlOJ1b BepHa, HCn0J1b30' naBwero TOJ1bKO T3Kl1e .u.3HHhIe, KOTOpbIMH B TO BpeMH pacno­ J1araJ1H Bce. B JI.aHlJOM CJ1Y4ae MbI HMeeM npeI<paCHbIH npH­ Mep B3aHMO.ll.e(ICTI3H5I .u.eHCTBHTeJ1bHOCTH H Hay4Hof! ¢aHTac­ THK~1. DocJ1e )KlOJ1b Beplla H .u.pyrHe ¢paHuY3cKHe aBTopbl HaY4Ho-¢aHTacTH4eCI<MX pOMaHoB, B lJaCTHOCTH DOJlb .ll.'HBya, - )l(H¢¢ap H P06H.u.a, no.u.XBaTHJ1H MaTepHaJ1bI 0 «KapMaHHoih> nO.ll.Bo.n.HOfl JlO.ll.Ke H 6J1eCT5Jlue HCnOJlb30Balll! HX: .u.'I1Bya -13 «Kopcape TpHIIJleKce», P06H.u.a - B «A.u.CKOH BoHHe». 4epTeIKH P06H.ll.bI, HJ1J1tOCTPHpYlOuJ,He ero pOMaH, COBepmeHHO 3aMe4aTeJ1bHbl H, nO)KaJ1yii, MOrJ1l1 6bl 6blTb lie­ n0J1b30BaHbl .n.J151 CTpmITe.1JbCTBa COl3peMeHHblX «KapMaHHbIx» no.u.130.u.HbIX J10.n.OK. ,UJ151 1911 ro.u.a OHH npocTo nopa3H­ TeJ1bHbl. J1lO60nbITHOe 5lBJ1eHHe: illnHOHhl KOHua XIX H Ha4aJla XX l3eKa, BH.u.HMO, He HHTepeCOBaJIIiCb aBHaUHeH. MOlKeT 6hITb, OHH nOJ1araJlH, 4TO OHa OTHOCHTC51 K 06J1aCTH H3Y4HOH ¢aHTaCTHKH. r. LlIK. Y3J1J1C 0 «BOHHe B 003.u.yxe» paCCKa3bl­ BaeT 0 TaHHCTBeHHOM HC4e3HOBeHHH H306peTaTeJ1eH B03lLy­ XOnJlaBaTeJlbHblX annapaTo8 T51ll,eJlee B03Jl.yxa, o.n.HaKO, BH­ .u.HMO, 13 .u.aHHOM CJlY4ae OH 110J1h30l3aJ1CH 60Jlbille epaHTa3HefI, 4eM CBOHMH npeBOCXO.ll.HbIMH HCTOlJHHKaMH HH¢opMaUHH. He3a.u.omo .u.o nepsoH MllpOBOH BoflHbl cjJpaHUy3cKa51 KOHTp­ pa3Be.n.Ka H3llaJ1a Ha CJ1e/I. areHTCToa npOMbIIllJ1eHHOrO IllnHO­ Ha)K~, KOTOpblM pyKOBO.u.HJ1 HeKHH OeTepceH. OTnpaBHOH 6a30H J1.e51TenbHOCTH areHTCTna BHa'IaJ1e c.rlyn<HJ1a HOpBerH5I, 3aTeiVI - 5eJ1brH5I, a n03.n.Hee - IllBei'luapH5I. OHO rOIHIJ10Cb 3a ceKpeTaMH aHrJlHRCKHX cYJl.osep¢eR H Bep60BaJ10 areH­ Ton, Tpoe H3 KOTOpblX 6blJII1 3a.u.ep)KaHbI. 3TO 6bIJ1H reHpHX fpocce H cynpyrH lllpe.u.ep. lllpe.ll.ep 6bIJ1 npHrOBopeH K TpeM ro.u.aM TlOPbMbI. 4TO KaCaeTC5I r-)KH illpe.u.ep, TO Cy.u.bH 3a­ 51BHJ1H, 4TO n peCJ1e.u.OBaTb no CY.ll.Y )I{eHlUHHY He6J1 a ropo.u.HO. 3TO 6blJ10 .ll.06poe CTapoe BpeMH. MO)I<eT 6bITb, 13 CJ1Y4ae BO­ eHHoro WnHOlla)Ka Cy.u.bH nocTynHJlB 6bl HHaLJe. 11 y)K COBceM MaJ10BepOHTHO, 4T06bl B C08peMeHHOM cy.n.eOHOM .u.eJ1e 0 npo­ MbIIllJ1eHHOM WnHOHa)Ke 6bIJI npOHBJ1eH TaKO(1 pb1uapCKHH .u.yx. DbIJ10 6bl HHTepeCHO npOBeCHI napaJ1J1eJ1b Me)K.u.y .u.e­ nOM areHTCToa DeTepceHCl 11 npHI<JII04eHHHMH WepJlOKa XOJl­ Mea, 13 4aCTHOCTH cpaBIlHTb ero c .u.eJlOM 0 nJ1anax 5ploca­ OapTHHrTOna *, HO 3TO 3aBe"10 6bl /lac CJlHWKOM .u.aJ1el<O. ECJ1H Mbl, nO-BH.u.HMOMy, He MO)KeM 06BHH5ITb TpeCTbl n YMbIIllJleHHOM YHH4TOll<eHHH HeH<eJ1aTeJ1bHbIX .u.J151 HHX H30­ 6peTeHHl!, TO B TO )I<e BpeMH Mb.l MOiKeM co06mHTb 4TO B napCKOH POCCHH CYIlI.eCTBOBaJiO no.u.4HHeHHoe oc06e' HMlle­ paTopa OT.u.eJ1emre 3.rIOBeruell oxpaHbI no Ha.u.30PY H YHH4TO­ IKeHHlO CJ1HWKOM onaCHblX H306peTeHH11. TaK, Kor.u.a npo¢ec­ copa <PHJlHnnOBa, KOTOpblH 11306peJ1 cnoc06 nepe.u.a4H Ha paCCT05lHHe no pa.u.Ho y.n.apHbIX BOJ1H B3pblBa, HaIllJ1H B 1903 ro.n.y MepTBbIM B era J1a60paTopHH, TO no OC060My yKa­ 3Y HMnepaTopa HHK0J1a51 II ero .n.oKyMeHTbI 6bIJ1H H31:>51TbI H YH~14TO)KenbI. a Jla60paTOpli51 pa3pyweHa. Bep05lTHo. HHKO­ J1aH II cnac lJeJ10Be'leCTBO, H60 no.u.06HbIe CpeJl.CTBa nepe.n.a ­ • eM. 113BecTHbJii paCCKa3 A. K.oHafl JJ.oHJla «4epre}l{H 5plOca-nap­ THllrTOHa». - n pUM. pea. 78 79
  • 37. nal nOcJIe 9Toro OH OmpaBHJIC51 B 3cceH, r.ne HaTOJIKHyJIC51 Ha KOp.nOH 6e30naCHOCTH, YCTaHOBJIeHHblH BOKpyr 3aBo.nOB KOJIOCCaJIbHOro KOHuepHa Kpynna. ECJIH 6bl JIlOcbeTo CXBa­ THJIH, OH 6blJI 6bl HeMe.nJIeHHO paCCTpeJI5IH. TeM He MeHee OH He .nporHyJI. JIlOcbeTo no.npY)l{HJIC5I B Kaepe C O.nHHM H3 nOJIH­ ueHCKHX, oxpaHHBWHX 3aBO;I.bl Kpynna. nOJIHueHCKHH 3a Kpy)l{KOH .n06poro HeMeUKoro nHBa paCCKa3aJI, liTO Kpynn nOJIyllaeT ra3 .nJIH npOH3Bo.nCTBa XHMHlIeCKHX CHapH.nOB. JIlOcbeTo 3aMeTHJI eMy: «Ho 91'0 C HayliHoH TOliKH 3peHHH HeB03MO)l{HO: 9TH nOJIble CHapH.nbl B30pBaJIHCb 6bl elUe .nO BbIJIeTa H3 nywKH». nOCJIe .llOJIroro cnopa KpynnoBcKHH nO­ JIHueHCKHH 3aKJIIOlIHJI napH Ha 2 TbIC. MapoK, CKa3aB, liTO CMO)l{eT nOKa3aTb JIlOcbeTo nOJIHrOH, r.ne HCnbITblBaIOT XHMH­ lIeCKHe CHapH.nbI. aim yCTpOHJIHCb B yKpOMHOM yrOJIKe nOJIH­ rOHa. nOHBHJIaCb BepeHHua BoeHHbIX aBTOM06HJIeH B conPO­ BO)l{.neHHH 3CKopTa. 113· o.nHoro aBTOM06HJI5I BbIWeJI... caM HMnepaTOp BHJIbreJIbM II. ECJIH 6bl JIlOcbeTo HM"eJI BHHTOB­ Ky C onTHlieCKHM npHueJIOM, OH CMor 6bl H3MeHHTb XO.n HCTO­ pHH, HO npH HeM He 6blJIO .na)l{e peBOJIbBepa, 0 lIeM OH cO)l{a­ JIeJI nOTOM BCIO )I{H3Hb. BoeHHblH opKeCTp HcnOJIHHJI «PeHH­ CKHH Mapw». HallaJIOCb HcnblTaHHe. 5blJIH npoH3Be.neHbl BblCTpeJIbl H3 MOpCKHX nyweK no CTa.ny 6apaHOB. 5apaHOB 06BOJIOKJIO 3eJIeHOe 06JIaKO -. H OHH ynaJIH 3aMepTBo. JIIO­ CbeTO BOCKJIHKHyJI: «31'0 BeJIHKOJIenHo! fepMaHHH BblHrpaeT BOHHy! 51 pa.n .naTb 9TH 2 TbIC. MapoK». OH .naJI .neHbrH H CnpOCHJI: «MO)l{HO, 51 B03bMY MaJIIOCeHbKHH KycolieK OCKOJI­ Ka cHapH.na Ha naMHTb 06 9TOM He3a6bIBaeMoM .nHe?». Kpyn­ nOBCKHH nOJIHueHCKHH OTBeTHJI: «51 He B03pa)l{alO, HO JIyllwe, eCJIH 51 caM noH.ny 3a OCKOJIKOM, Be.nb MeHH 3.neCb 3HaIOT». TaK H c.neJIaJIH. A lIepe3 TpH .nHH OCKOJIOK CHapH.na 6blJI B napH)I{e B pyKax o.nHoro H3 BbI.nalOlUHXCH XHMHKOB, KOTOpblH no.nBepr ero TlUaTeJIbHoMY aHaJIH3Y. Ero HMH 3aCJIY)l{HBaeT ynoMHHaHHH. 31'0 6blJI npoepeccop 3.nMOH 5eHJIb, cyMeBwHH pa3JIO)l{HTb yJIbTpaCeKpeTHblH HeMeUKHH ra3 - TpHXJIOpMe­ THJIOBblH 9<jmp xJIOpyrOJIbHOli KHCJIOTbl, HHlITO)l{HOe KOJIH­ lIeCTBO KOToporo co.nep)l{aJIOCL elUe B npHCJIaHHOM JIlOcbeTo OCKOJIKe CHapH.na. COI03HHKH, co cBoeH CTOpOHbI, O!KPbIJIH .npyrHe ra3bI. HallaJIacb. ra30BaH BoHHa. Kor.na nOCJIe BOHHbl JIlOcbeTo npo­ BeJI .neTaJIbHOe 06CJIe.noBaHHe, OH Y3HaJI, liTO O.nHH HeMeUKHti .ne3epTHp, y KOToporo HMeJICH npOTHBora3, nbITaJICH yae.no­ MHTb 06 onaCHOCTH ra30BbiX 8TaK COI03HHKOB. 13 anpeJIH OH .noweJI .no JIafireMapKa. 06 9TOM CTaJIO H3BeCTHO reHepaJIy <1>eppH, KOTOpblti KOMaH.nOBaJI 2-H ¢paHUY3CKOH neXOTHOH ~ .nHBH3HeH. <1>eppH HanpaBHJI .noHecem·le, HO eMy He nOBepHJIH. OH nOJIyllHJI BblrOBOp 3a TO, liTO Henocpe.nCTBeHHO npe.nynpe­ .nHJI aHrJIHlIaH, MHHyH wTa6 )Koeppa. nOCJIe ra30BOH aTaKH <I>eppH BTOpHliHO nOJIyllHJI BblrOBOp, a 3aTeM 6blJI yBOJIeH 3a TO, liTO OKa3aJICH npaB. npO.nOJI)I{HM paCCKa3 0 fa6epe. nOcJIe nOpa)l{eHHH Oil npo.noJI)I{aJI 3alUHlUaTb fepMaHHIO H HeMeUKylO HaYKY. fep­ MaHHH «B03Harpa.nHJIa» ero: B 1933 ro.ny era HallaJIH npecJIe­ .nOBaTb KaK eBpeH. OH oTnpaBHJICH B AHrJIHIO, r.ne HeMe.nJIeH­ HO HallaJI pa60TaTb B KeM6pH.n)l{e B JIa60paTopHH Y. )lJK. nona. fa6ep .nonyCTHJI OnJIOWHOCTb, BblCKa3aB BCJIyX CBOH MblCJIH 0 fHTJIepe. nOcJIe 3Toro repMaHcKoe npaBHTeJIbCTBO B036y.nHJIo npeCJIe.noBaHHe npOTHB cnaCHTCJIH fepMaHHH no 06BHHeHHIO B BepOJIOMHblX lIyBcTBax. 31'0 6blJIO y.napoM .nJIH fa6epa. YMep Oli B 1934 ro.ny 01' cep.neliHoro npHCTyna Kor­ .na Haxo.nHJICH Ha OT.nblxe B IlIBeiiuapHH. BclO CBOIO ~H3Hb oH.pa60TaJI .nJIH CBoeH cTpaHbl, HJIH, no KpaHHeH Mepe, .nJI5I TOH CTpaHbl, KOTOpylO ClIHTaJI cBoeH. B lIaCTHOCTH, OH nbITaJI­ CH .n06blT~ 30JIOTO, co.nepJKalUeeC5I B HHlITOJKHOM KOJIHlIeCTBe B MOpCKOH Bo.ne, lIT06bl nOKpbITb BoeHHble .nOJIrH fepMaHHH. fHTJIep ycneJI nOKa3aTb eMY, liTO CO CTapOH fepMaHHeH no­ KOHlieHO H liTO Ha cMeHy eH npHWJIO HeliTO .npyroe. A 06CJIe.noBaHHe JIlOcbeTo OTHOCHTeJIbHO y.nywalOlUHX 01'­ pa~JIHlOlUHX BelUeCTB OCTaeTCH 06pa3UOM ycnewHoM ceKpeT­ HOH MHCCHH. B TO BpeMH Kor.na ra30BaH BOHHa 6blJIa B nOJI­ HOM pa3rape, B03.nYWHa51 Boi1Ha BH.nOH3MeHHJIaCb H npeBpa­ lUaJIaCb, C O.nHOH CTOpOHbl, B cepHIO noe.nHHKOB Me)l{.ny Ta~HMH repOHMH B03.nyxa, KaK fHHeMep H PHXTro¢eH, C .npy­ rOH - B cepHIO 60M6ap.nHpOBOK rpaJKJl.aHCKOro HaCeJIeHHH. 3TH 60M6ap.nHpOBKH BHallaJIe npOH3Bo.nHJIHCb repMaHCKHMH .nHpH)I{a6JIHMH )I{eCTKOM CHCTeMbl- uenneJIHlIa~lH. Pa3Be.nbl­ BaTeJIbHble opraHbl COI03HHKOB HeMe.nJIeHHO 3aHHJIHCb nOHC­ KOM ceKpeTOB npOH3Bo.nCTBa 9THX JIeTaTeJIbHblX annapaTOB. OHH MOrJIH 6bl pa306p~TbC5I BO MHorHX ceKpeTax, npOllHTall HaytIHo-¢aHTaCTHlieCKHH pOMaH f. Y9JIJICa «BOMHa B B03.ny­ xe», HO HM He npHWJIO B rOJIOBy CJl.eJIaTb 91'0. CJIyllaH .naJI B pyKH COlO3HHKOB 06JIOMKH c6HToro Ha.n AHrJIHeH uenneJIH­ Ha, KOTOpblH lIaCTHliHO 6blJI nOCTpoeH H3 HOBoro CnJIaBa: .nlOpaJIIOMHHHH. TOTliac B fepMaHHIO 3aCJIaJIH UInHOHOB .nJI5I BbIHCHeHHH TeXHOJIOrHH npOH3BOnCTBa HOBoro cnJIaBa. 13 OKTH6pH 1912 r. rpa¢ UennemlH cOBepWHJI npo.nOJI­ JKHTeJIbHbl? HCnbITaTeJIbHblM nOJIeT. nOJIeT npoxo.nHJI lIa.n fepMaHHeH, HO BCKope nOCJIe 9Toro HallaJIH BH.neTh uenneJIH­ 4· 83
  • 38. libI Ha,n AHrJlHeH. BbIJla JlI1 9TO KOJlJleKTHBHa5I raJlJlIQUHHa­ UH5I HJlH nepBoe n05lBJleHHe Toro, 'ITO Tenepb Ha3bIBaIQT «Heon03HaHHbIMH JleTalOillHMH npe,nMeTaMH», Tpy,nHO CKa­ 3aTb. O,nHaKO B 1913 ro,ny H ,no Ha'laJIa BOHHbI B 1914 ro,ny Ha,n AHrJlHeH BH,neJlH uenneJlHHbI-npH3paKH, H, HeCOMHeHHO, OHH He 6bIJlH repMaHCKoro npOHCXO)K,neHH5I. 3TO npHBJleKJlO K ce6e BHHMaHHe, H aHrJlHIkKHe pa3Be,nbIBaTeJlbHbIe opraHbI CTaJlH np05lBJl5ITb Bce 60JlbWHH HHTepec K 3aBo,naM <I>pH.n­ pHxcxa<peHa H MaHreHMa-PeHHay, r.n.e CTPOHJlH uenneJlHHb!. OCHOBHbIM ceKpeTOM npOH3Bo,ncTBa 6bIJI ,nlQpaJlIQMHHHH, o,nHaKO HMeJlH 60JlbWOe 3Ha'leHHe H ,npyrHe TeXHH'IeCKHe ceKpeTbI, B '1aCTHOCTH HCnOJlb30BaHHbIe KJleH H repMeTH­ 3aUH5I. 21 H05l6p51 1914 ~ aHrJlHHCKa51 aBHaUH5I no,nBeprJla 60M­ 6ap,nHpoBKe <I>pH,npHxcxa<peH. rIo HaWHM MaCWTa6aM­ 60M6ap.nHpoBKa cOBepweHHo He3Ha'lHTeJlbHa5l: H3 BeJlb<popa BbIJleTeJlH 3 6HnJlaHa C '1eTbIpbM5I 10-KHJlorpaMMoBbIMH 60M­ 6aMH B Ka)K,nOM. Bce )Ke pa3pyweHH5I 6bIJlH 3Ha'lHTeJlbHbI, HO O,nHH CaMOJleT 6bIJI C6HT. Bo BpeM51 nepeJleTa 6bIJla Hapy­ weHa wBeHuapCKa51 rpaHHua, a npOTeCTbI LUBeHuapHH 6bIJlH HaCTOJlbKO pe3KHMH, 'ITO HaJleTbI npeKpaTHJlHCb. 15 ,neKa6p51 1914 r. HOBbIH uenneJlHH-n pH3paK n05lBHJlC5I Ha.n AHrJlHeH. J1 9TOT He 6bIjI repMaHCKHM, o.nHaKO, nOCKO.TIbKY Ha CJle,nYIO­ illHH ,AeHb repMaHCKHH <pJlOT nO,ABepr 60M6ap.nHpOBKe TpH aHrJlHHCKHX nopTa - XapTJlnyJl, YHTOH H CKap60po, B AHr­ JlHH peWHJlH, 'ITO 9TO 6bIJla pa3Be.nKa. Ha P0)K.n.eCTBO TOrO)Ke ro,na aHrJlHHCKHe rH.npocaMOJleTbI no,nBeprJlH 60M6ap.nHpOB­ Ke 6a3bI uenneJlHHOB. HacT05lWHe uenneJlHHbI BnepBbIe 60M6ap,AHpOBaJlH AHr­ JlHIQ B HO'lb Ha 20 5IHBap51 1915 r. fepMaHCKa51 ne'laTb noro­ BapHBaJla 0 nOJlHOM YHH'ITO)KeHHH AHrJlHH nOCpe,ACTBOM B03­ .nYWHbIX 60M6ap,AHpOBOK. HeCKOJlbKO 60M6 6bIJlO c6poweHo H Ha KaJle. 3aTeM HacTynHJla O'lepe,Ab J1oH.noHa H rIapH)Ka. CTaJlH rOBopHTb 0 )KeJlaTeJlbHOCTH npOH3BO,ACTBa uennenH­ HOB, HO He 6bIJI H3BeCTeH npouecc nJlaBKH ,AlQpaJlIQMHHH5I, a 6e3 9Toro HH'Iero HeJlb351 6bIJlO ClleJlaTb. He HMe51 B03MO)KHOCTH BocnpOH3BeCTH uenneJlHH, nblTa­ JlHCb H306pecTH HOBoe ceKpeTHoe opy>KHe, KOTOpblM MO)KHO 6blJlO 6bl YHH'ITO)KaTb uenneJlHHbI. B '1aCTHOCTH ynpaBJl5Ie­ Mble no pa,nHo TOpne,Abl H Jly'lH cMepTH. Bce 9TO He .naJlo OW.yTHMbIX pe3yJlbTaTOB, a 60M6ap,nH­ pOBKH npo,nOJl)KaJlHcb. OHH He BhI3bIBaJlH 60JlbWHX pa3pywe­ HHH. CaMblH 60JlbWOH ywep6, KOTOpbIH OHH HaHeCJlH, - 9TO YHH'ITO)Kemle orpOMHbIX 3anaCOB BHCKH B J1eHTe! 84 AHrJlH'IaHe He npH,naBaJlH 9THM 60M6ap,nHpOBKaM oco­ 601'0 3Ha'leHH5I. HeMUbI )Ke, Ha060poT, B35IJlH 3a 06hIKHoBe­ HHe HaCTOJlbKO pa3,nyBaTb CHO.nKH, 'ITO Ha'laJlH caMH cepbe3­ HO BepHTb B B03MO)KHOCTb YHH'ITO)KeHH5I AHrJlHH C nOMOWblQ uenneJlHHOB. B 1916 ro,ny aHrJlH'IaHe B nOHCKax ceKpenIOro 0PY)KH5I npOTHB UenneJlHHOB HaWJ!H .nBa BH.na Opy)KH5I, KOTopble HC­ nbITaJlH o,nUOBpeMeHHO. BaKHHreM H306peJl <pOC<pOPHYIQ 3a· )KHraTeJlbHYIO nyJlIo, a MaHOp BPOK - pa3pbIBHyIQ nYJIlo. CTpeJl5l51 o.nHOBpeMeHHO 06eHMH nYJIHMH, MO)KHO 6bIJIO pa3­ pbIBHbIMH nYJI51MH np06HBaTb )KeCTKYIO 060JIO'lKy uenn;JIH­ Ha a 3a)KHraTeJIbHbIMH - BOcnJIaMeH5ITb BbIXO,nHBillHH H3 np~6HTOH 060JIO'lKH BO.nOPO,n. 3TO 6bIJlO KaTaCTpO<pOH .nJI5I uenneJIHHOB, H HeMllb) CO'lJIH 3TH H306peTeHH5I «,nb5lBOJIbCKH­ MH». 3a nepBbIH C6HTblH TaKHM 06pa30M UenneJIHH aHrJIH'Ia­ HHH P06HHCOH nOJIy'lHJl KpeCT BHKTopHH. llinHOHa)K BOKpyr 6a3 l~enneJIHHOB YCHJlHJlC5I ,no TaKOH CTeneHH, 'ITO B aBrycTe 1916 ro.na KOMau.nHp 9cKa.npHJIbH uenneJIHHOB MaHop lliTpaccep 3anpeTHJI KOMaH.nHpaM uen­ neJlHHOB 06Cy)K.naTb CBOH onepaTHBHbIe nJIaHbI C '1JIeHaMH 3KHna)Ka HJlH o<pHuepaMH Ha3eMHoH apMHH, KOTopble oxpa­ H5IJlH 6a3bl. HecMoTp51 Ha 9TH MepbI npe.nOCTOpO)KHOCTH, aHrJIH'IaHe npO,AOJI)KaJlH nOJIy'laTb CBe.neHH5I 0 BblJleTaX uen­ neJIHHOB. XOTeJlOCb 6bI 3HllTb - KaKHM 06pa30M? O.nHaKO cnYCT5I H 50 JIeT 1l0CJle 3THX C06blTHH I1HTeJlJlH.n)KeHC cepBHC Bce eille xpaHHT CBOH ceKpeTLI. Ho TOT <paKT, 'ITO J10H,nOHy He y.naJIOCb .n06bITb TeXHH'IeCKHe ,AaHHbIe 0 !!enneJlHllaX, BH­ .nHMO, YKa3blBaeT Ha TO, 'ITO npOMblWJleHHblH WnHOHa)K aHr­ JIH'IaH 6bIJI 51BHO MeHee COBepweHeH, '1eM HX BoeHHbIH lllnH­ OHa)K. Bo BC5IKOM cJly'lae, HeMUbI YBeJlH'IHJIH '1HCJlO HaJleTOB, B oc06eHHOCTH Ha J10H.nOH. 2 CeHT5I6p51 1916 r. J10H.nOH 60M­ 6ap,nHpOBaJlH o.nHoBpeMeHHo 12 uenneJlHHOB. 3TO 6bIJI ca­ MbIH 60JIblllOll HaJIeT 3a Bce BpeM5I BOHHbI. TPH UenneJlHHa y.naJlocb C6HTb. AHrJlH5I Ha'lHHaJia 6paTb peBaHlll. B OTBeT Ha 9TO HeMUbI Ha'laJlH CTpOHTb l~enneJIHHbI, nO,AHHMaBlllHeC5I Ha 60JlblllyIQ BbICOTy. Ha nepBblH nJlaH BbI.nBHHYJlHCb np06­ JleMbI, aHaJlOrH'IHbIe TeM, KOTopbIe Bbl,nBHraeT Tenepb OCBoe­ HHe KOCMoca: KOHcTpyHpoBaHHe pecnHpaTopoB, HCKyccTBeH­ Ha51 aTMoc<pepa B pe3epByapax C)KH)KeHHOrO B03.nyxa, a T8K­ )Ke np06JIeMbI a9poHaBHraUHH, KOTopble OCJIO)KH5IJIHCb BCJIe,ACTBHe HecoBepweHcTBa ynpaBJIeHH5I no pa,nHQ B TO BpeMSI. BOJlbllle Toro, aHrJIH'IaHe 6bICTpO yCTaHOBHJIH '1aCTO­ TbI, HCnOJIb30BaBillHecSi HeMuaMIl .nJI5I ynpaBJIeHIHI no pa.nHO 81S
  • 39. uenneJllmaMH, H OJIarO.uapH 9TOMy CMOrJIH nnOCJIe.uCTBHH OJIOKl1pOBaTb I1X. 3TOT HOBWH cnocoo Be.ueHI1H BOHHW 03HaMeHOBaJICH B 1917 ro.uy OOJIbIllI1M ycnexoM HaYllHbIx OT.ueJIOB HHTeJIJII1)J,­ >KeHC CepBI1C: 11M y.uaBaJIOCb onpe.ueJIHTb MeCTOnOJIO)l{eHHe nenneJIHHOB no HX pa.ul1onepe.uallaM, OJIaro.uapH '-IeMy uenne­ JIHHbI no.uBepraJII1Cb aTaKaM m.upocaMOJIeTOB. 3TH rl1.upo­ CaMOJIeTbI, CneUHaJIbHO ooopy.uOBaHHbIe .uJIH OOPbObI C uen­ neJII1HaMI1, B Te'-leHl1e OOJlblJJeH '-IaCTI1 1917 ro.ua OCTaBaJIHCb ceKpeTHbIM opy>Kl1eM. H Bce >Ke B 1917 ro.uy ceKpeT uenne­ JIHHOB paCKpbIJIH. 24 MaH 1917 r. uenneJIHH «J1-49», yueJIeB­ UIHH nOCJIe aTaKH, npH3eMJIHJICH B BYPoOH-JIe-B9H H ObIJI SaXBa'-leH COIOSHHKaMH. Co BceH TmaTeJIbHOCTblO ero OCMOT­ peJIH JIy'-lIlll1e HH)I{eHepbI: ObIJII1 c.ueJIaHbI no.upooHbIe '-IepTe­ )KH H pos.uaHbI BceM COIOSHHKaM. BnOCJIe.ucTBHI1 aMepHKaHUbI nOCTpOHJIH .uHpll)l{aOJIb )l{eCTKOH CHCTeMbI «IlleHaH.uoa», cl<onHpoBaB ero C «J1-49» H I1CnOJIb30BaB MHome HS ero Tex­ HI1'-1eCKHX ceKpeToB. 3TO ObIJIa 9noxa, Kor.ua TeXHHKa ObIJIa OTHOCHTeJIbHO npocToH H .uOCTaTOtIHO 6blJIO HMeTb no.u pyKOH cOBoKynHocTb TeXHH'-IeCKHX .uaHHbIX, '-IT06bl nocTpoHTb .uHpl1­ )I{aOJIb. KCTaTH, OTMeTHM. liTO B «JJ-49» OblJI HaH.ueH ooeBOH npHKas repMaHcKoMy no.uBo.uHOMy <jJJIOTy: «J1-49» '-IaCTO BCTpe'-laJICH C no.uBo.uHbIMH JIo.uKaMH B OKeaHe. nepeXBaT noro ooeBoro npHKasa H saKo.ul1pOBallHbIX .uOKyMeHToB, KO­ Topble y.uaJIOCb .uelIIH<jJpOBaTb, .uaJl B03MO)l{HOCTb npHCTrnHTb K MaccoBoMy YHHlITO)l{eHHIO repMaHCKHX n0.uBo.uHbIX JIO.uOK. TaK nOBopOTHblH nYHI<T B B03.uYIllHOH BOHHe HBI1JICH nOBO­ POTHblM nyHKToM H B no.uBo.uHOH BoHHe. AHrJIHHCKHe H aMepHKaHCKHe paSBe.ublBaTeJIbHble opraHbl BeCbMa Be)l{JII1BO npH3HaJIH. liTO CBoeH noOe.uoH OHH B or­ pOMHOH Mepe 005ISaHbI <jJpaHUy3cKHM )l{aH.uapMaM, KOTopble He .uaJIH BOSMO)l{HOCTH 9KHna)l{y .uHpH)I{aOJI5I «J1-49» yHI1'-1­ TO)l{HTb ero. LlpyroH uenneJII1H -- «J1-5h 6bIJI nepeXBa'-leH '-IaCTH'-IHO: ero rOH.uOJIa sauenl1JIaCb sa .uepeBo H OCTaJIaCb Ha SeMJIe, Tor.ua KaK caM .uHpH)I{aOJIb ObIJI yHeceH neTpOM 11 norHO B Cpe.uI1SeMHOM Mope, K CO)l{aJIeHHlO, C OOJIblIleH lIaCTblO CBO­ ero 9Kl1na)l{a. KaTacTpo<jJbl CTaJII1 Y'-lalllaTbCH. nomo KO­ MaH.uHp HeMeUKHX BoeHHbIX .ul1pH)I{aoJIeif ..- neTep lllTpac­ cep. nOCJIe.uHHH KpynHa5I aTaKa uenneJIHHOB OKOH'-IHJIaCb I1X oecnOp5I.uollHbIM OerCTBOM. repMaHI1H nOTepneJIa nOpa)l{eHHe. nOCJIe BOHHbl OOJIb­ moe lIl1CJIO sanaCHblX lIaCTeH H .ua)l{e ueJIWX MOTOpOB .uHpH­ )l{aOJIeH n?onaJIO B oomeM xaoce H nos.uHee HX CTaJIH npo.ua- BaTb B lllBeUHI1, r.ue B03HHK HeOObIKHOBeHHbli'I 'lepliol Ii pol­ HOK, OOOPOTbI KOToporo COCTaBJIHJIH MHJIJII10Hbi MapOK. He­ KOTopoe lIHCJIO .ul1pH)I{aOJIei'I ObIJIO BKJIIOQeHO B B03.uYlIlHbJe <jJJIOTbI COI03HHKOB, B QaCTHOCTH <jJpaHUySCKHH «LlHKCM10.u» H aHrJIHHCKHH «P-IlI» - no ObIBIllHe uenneJIHHbl. O.uHaKO He Bce ceKpeTbI uenneJIHHOB ObIJIH pasra.uaHbI. B 1921 ro.uy aMepHKaHUbI OOpaTHJIHCb sa nOMOIUblO K HeM: uaM .uJIH CTpOHTeJIbCTBa uenneJIHHa THna «J1-70», KOTOpbIH OblJI HCnOJIbSOBaH aMepHKaHcKHM BoeHHo-MopCKHM <jJJIOTOM no.u Ha3BaHHeM «J1 oc-AHn)l{eJIec». A oceHbIO 1924 ro.ua co­ 103HHKH CHOBa pa3peUIHJIH HeMuaM CTpOHTb UenneJIHHbI, no­ CKOJIbKY caMH He B COCTOHHHII ObIJIH c.ueJIaTb :lTO. LlHpH)I{aOJIb He HaCTOJIbKO yCTapeJI, KaK OOb/lIHO .uYMaIOT. AMepHKaHCKHH BoeHHO-MOpCKOH <jJJIOT HMeeT BeCbMa ,yCOBep­ lIIeHCTBOBaHHb/e .uHpH)I{aOJII1, H onHH H3 HHX - «311f-2»­ npo.uep)l{aJICR B B03.uyxe B TelleHHe 11 .uHej.L 3KHna)l{ ero COCTaBJI5IeT 24 '-IeJIOBeKa. )lHpH)I{aOJIb ObIJI OCHameH panno­ JIOKaUHOHHblMH yCTaHoBKaMH, aero OOOJIOllKa ObIJIa HanOJI­ HeHa reJIHeM. LlpyrHe .uHpH)I{aOJIH HcnOJIb3YlOTCR .uJIH OXOTbJ 3a no.uBo.uHbIMI1 JIOnKaMH H B03.uYlIlHoro HaOJIIO.ueHHH. B Ha­ CTORmee BpeMH npe.unOJIaraeTCR cTpOHTeJIbCTBO nl1pH.llia6­ JIeH oes rasa, HS cBepxnp04Horo MeTaJIJIa, B KOTOpblX 6blJI ObI cos.uaH BaKyyM. LlHpH>J<aOJIH TaKoro THna C aTOMH!JJM nBHraTeJIeM MOrJIH OW CJIY)l{HTb nJIaT<jJopMOH .uJIR sanycKa JIyHHbIX paKeT. repMaHHH nOTepHJIa ceKpeT uenneJIHHOB, HO, MO)l{eT ObITb Kor.ua-HHoy.ub OHa BOCnOJIHHT 31'01' npOoeJI, cos­ .uaB MomHY~ npOMbIlIIJIeHHOCTb aTOMHbIX .uHpH}!<aOJIeH. 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  • 40. COBepweHHO He.n.00UeHHB3J1HCb B03MOlliHOCTH pa.n.HO, H TOJlhKO 3HMOH 1918 ro.n.a COlO3HHKH CGpOCHJlH Ha napawlOTax Ha oKKynHpOBaHHylO TeppHTopHIO pa.n.Honepe.n.aT4HKH C yKa­ 3aHHeM cnocoGa nOJlh30BaHH5I HMH. 3TO 6hlJlH pa.n.Honepe­ .n.aT4HKH «MapKoHH» C 4 aKKyMyJl5lTOpaMH, CYXHMH 3J1eMeH­ TaMH B 400 8, CKJla.n.HOH aHTeHHOH .n.JIHHOH 30 At, HeoGxO;l11­ MOH ,U,Jl5I MaJl04yscTBHTeJlhHhlX npHeMHHKOs Tex BpeMeH, H .n.aJlhHOCTblO npHeMa npHMepHo B 60 KM. OGpaWaTbC5I C 3TH­ MH nepe.n.aT4HKaMH GhIJlO .TJerKO K HHM GbIJlH npHJlOllieHbl HHCTpyKUHH ,U,Jl5I coGHpaHH5I BoeHHblX p33Be.n.blBaTeJlbHblX .n.aHHbIX H 3awHCpPoBbIBaHH5I nepe.n.a4. OHH MOrJlH Gbl GblTb CKoHcTpyHpoBaHbl HaMHoro paHee, eCJlH Gbl HeCKOJlhKO paHb­ we GbIJlO nOH5ITO 3Ha4eHHe 3J1eKTpOHHKH. B TO me BpeM5I COlO3HHKH OCHOBaTeJlhHO pa3paGoTaJlH TexHHKy, KOTOpa51 OKa3aJla GOJIbWYIO YCJlyry KaK 130eHHoMy, TaK H npOMbIWJI~HOMY WIIHOHa>KY, HO B ocoGeHHocTH no­ CJle,U,HeMY: TexHHKy KpamH co B3.TJOMOM H BCKpbIBaHHH ccA­ <pOB. KpynHbIH CneUHaJIHCT B 3TOH 06J1aCTH HOCHJI CTpaHHoe I1M5I: BaTHCT TpaBaH. OH GbIJI H3BeCTeH TaKme no.n. KJlH4KOH «KOPOJIh aJIHGH». Bce GblJIH yGem.n.eHbI, 4TO HMeHHO OH BCKpblJl B 1911 ro.n.y ceCI<p KOMnaHHH «MeCCa>KepH MapHTHM», o.n.HaKO TpasalO y.n.aJIOCb .n.OKa33Tb CBoe aJIH6H. BaTHcT Tpa­ BaH paGoTaJI Ha COlO3HHKOB B iliseHuapHH OH 3aHHMaJIC5I TaKme oGy4eHHeM cBoeMy peMecJly. OH Hero Y4eHHKH npo­ .n.OJlmaJIH pa60TaTb H noc.TJe BOHHbI, H B TeXHHKe KpamH co B3JIOMOM HMH GhlJIH .n.OCTHrHyTbl HCKJII04HTeJIbHble ycneXH. IKepTBaMH 3THX ycnexoB GblJlH rJIaBHhlM oGpa30M repMaH­ CKHe H aBCTpHHCKHe npOMblWJleHHHKH TaKHM nyTeM GOJIb­ woe 4HCJIO repMaHCKHX TeXHOJIOrH4eCKHX npoueCCOB CTaJIO 1I0CT05lHHeM AHrJIHH, <PpaHUHH, I1Ta.1JHH H CiliA. PaGoTa wnHOHOS GblJla 06J1er4eHCl WHpOKHMH KOHTaKTa­ MH MemJl,y npOMbIWJIeHHHKaMH BOIOIOWHX CTpaH. B03MyweH­ HblH AHaToJIb <PpaHc nHCaJl: «MbI .n.yMaeM, 4TO OHH yMHpa­ lOT 3a CSOI{) pOJl,BHy, OHH YMl1palOT 3a "POMbIWJleHHHKOB». HanpHMep, <ppaHUY3CKHe npOMbIWJ1eHHHKH OKOJlbHhlMH ny­ T5IMH nOCTaSJHIJlH HeMuaM HHKeJlb H3 Hosoii KaJle.n.oHHH. B CBOIO 04epe.n.b, HeMeUKHe npOMblWJleHHHKH nOCTaBJl5IJlH ¢paHUY3cKOH BoeHHOH npOMbIWJleHHOCTH 06opYlIoBaHHe H XHMHKaTbl lIJlH B3pblB4aTblx BeweCTB H HCKyccTBeHHblx y.n.06­ peHHH. CJIO>KHbIH oGMeH ocyweCTBJIHJlC5I 4epe3 nocpe.n.cTBo fOJIJlaH.n.HH, iliBeuHH H I1cnaHHH, H 3TOT oGMeH WHpOKO HC­ nOJlb30BaJlH wnHOHbl OGOHx JlarepeH. KpoMe Toro, 130 SpeM5I nepenpaBbI 4epe3 rpaHHUbl wnHOHOB H 1I.eHer nepenpaSJl5IJlH KOHTpa6aH.n.HbIM flyTeM H CTpaTerH4eCKHe MaTepHaJIhI. Bnpo­ lJeM, HeMUbl, HapywaH Bce npHHUHnbl HeHTpaJlHTeTa, 3aJlep­ >KaJlH HeKOTopbIX wnHOHOB Ha rOJlJlaH,J,CKOH TeppHTopHH. O.n.HH H3 3THX illnHOHOB-KoHTpaGaH.n.HCTOI3 - npo.n.aRIlOB CTpaTerH4eCKHX MaTepHaJIOB, ¢P3HUY3 Kpe3eH, 6bIJI CX13a4eH S fOJlJlaH.n.HH H co.n.ep>KaJlC5I B Te4eHHe Tpex JIeT B repMaH­ CKOH T10pbMe OlJeHb cypOlwro pemHMa. nOCJIe oCBoGom.n.eHHH OH nbITaJlCH OTOMCTHTb 3a ceG5I ceHcaUHOHHbIM oGpa30M­ OTpaBHTb KaH3epa, KOfll,a nOCJIe.n.HHH GemaJl B rOJIJI a H.n.HIO. nOBa p 3HaMCHHToro 6erJleua Bbl.n.aJI Kpe3eHa nOJlHUHH H TaKHM oGpa30M cnac KaH3epa. rOJlJlaH1I.llbI, nOCT3BJleHHbie B 4pe3Bbl4aHHo 3aTpy.n.HHTeJlbHoe nOJIOmeHHe, BbICJIaJIH Kpe3e­ Ha B 5eJIbrHlO. HeH3secTHo, 4TO CTaJIOCb C HHM BnOCJIe.n.CTBHH H npo.n.oJImaJl JlH OH MCTHTb. BCKOpe nOCJle ero 3a.n.epmaHH5I, B 1915 ro)J,y. HeMUbI yc­ TaHOBHJIH 3J1eKTpH4ecKHH Gapbep BJl,OJIb rpaHHUbI Me>KJlY BeJlbrHeH H rOJIJIaH.n.HeH. 5bICTpO yGe.n.BBw11Cb, 4TO nOCT05lH· Hoe nponycKaHHe TaKa 13 3arpa>K.n.eHHH TaKa!"' Jl,JlHHbl 06xo­ .n.HTCSl 04eHb .n.oporo, OHB HalJaJIH BKJlI04aTb TOK BpeMSl OT BpeMeHH. 04eBH.n.Ho, HeTpyJl,Ho GbIJlO pa3paGoTaTb yCTpOH­ CTSO, aHaJIOrH4HOe 6ycCOJIH, oGHapymHBaloIuee MarHHTHoe flo.~e TOKa, eCJIH OH nocTollHHblH, HJlH, HanpHMep, OTKJIOHeHHe CTpeJlKH nOKa3aJIO Gbl HaJlH4He nepeMeHHoro TOKa. 3Toro, o.n.HaKO, He GblJIO c.n.eJI aHO, H MHorHe illnHOHbl H nJleHHble, nblTaBillHeC5I HaYJl,a4Y npOHTH Ilcpe3 Gapbep, 6blJIB yGBTbl TOKOM. B KOHue KOHUOll 6bIJla H3rOTOBJIeHa pe3HHOBaSI o.n.e>K­ .n.a, npe1l.0XpaH5IIOwa51 aT nOpa>KeHHH 3JIeKTpH4eCKHM TOKOM. O.n.emJl,a GblJIa 4epHoro UBeTa. H n03TOMY HOCHBUIHe ee npaK' THlJeCKH GblJlH HeBH.n.HMbJ C HacTyllJIeHHeM TeMHOTbl. 5bIJIO JIHWb 01l.HO HeYJl,06cTBO: HeCKOJlbKO KOMnJleKTOS TalWH o.n.em­ Jl,bI 6bIJIO ll.06·bITO repMaHCI<oH nOJ1HU.Hel'i H BnOCJle1l.CTBHI1· I3cex, KTO B TaKOH o.n.em.n.e OKa3bIBaJICH no COCeJlCTBY C 3a­ rpa>K.n.eHHeM HJlH y Koro BO BpeMH oGbIcKa Haxo.n.HJIH CXo.n.­ HylO onem.n.y, 1I04TH uallepHHKa paCCTpeJlHl3aJlH. B 1I.aJlbHeH­ weM COlO3HHKH BbIHY>K.n.eHbl GhIJlH npHGerHyTb K npOMbllll­ JIeHHoMy WnHOHa>Ky. 4TOObl SbI5ICHHTb, B KaKOM MOMeHT TOK BbIKJllOlJaJICH. B Hawe BpeMSI, HeCOMHeHHO. B I10.n.OGHOM CJlY­ llae npHMeHHJlH Ghl .n.eTeKTOpbI. napaJlJIeJlbHO C npOMbIillJleHHblM illflHOHameM npaBH- TeJlbCTB 130 SpeM5I nepSOH MHpOBOH BOMHbI WHpOKoe pacnpo­ c-rpaHeUHe nOJIy4HJI npOMbllllJIeHHblM llInHOHam KpynHbIx KOMnaHHH, npOH3Bo.n.HWHX opymHe. no npaB.n.e r0130pSl, KpynHbIe TOprOI3UhI nywKaMH, TaKHe KaK MaKCHM HJIH 3axa­ pOB, Bcer.n.a HMeJIH 3aMellaTeJlbHO pa3BHTYlO ceKpeTHylO cJly}K6y. MaKCl:IM, HanpliMep, I1o,U,sepr aHaJlH3Y Ge3,U,bIMHhIM 811 89
  • 41. nopox, KOTOpbIA npe.uJlO>KHJI eMy O.uHH HeMeUKHH H300peTa­ TeJlb Ii <POpMyJly KOTOpOrO XOTeJlH npO.uaTb eMy 3a 35 TbIC. <p. CT. AHaJlH3 OOpa3ua Oe3,nbIMHOrO nopoxa n03BOJlHJI OT­ KpbITb CeKpeT ero npOl'!3Bo,nCTBa. H HeMeUKHH H300peTaTeJlb --------.,!1'lTITff.7I(;S{ npHlIHTaBllierOC5I eMy B03Harpa>K,neHH5I. OocJle ,nOro cJlYlla51 H300peTaTeJlH B03nep>KHBaJlHCb HMeTb ,neJlo C MaKCHMOM, KOTOpbIH. He KOJleOJl5lCb, BbIKpa,nbIBaJl HX ceK­ peTbI. MaKCHMOM ObIJI H300peTeH nyJleMeT HOBoro THna, KOTO. PbIH OH npo,naJl MHOrHM CTpaHaM. BOJlblliHe HenpHHTHOCTH eMy npHlIHH5IJI 3HaMeHHTbIH conepHHK - nYlliellHblH KOpOJlb Ba3HJlb 3axapOB. TaK. Kor.ua MaKCHM ,nJlH ,neMOHCTpaUHH HTaJlb5lHuaM 13 CneUHH CBOerO CKopOCTpeJlbHOrO nyJleMeTa npHObIJI Ha nOJlHrOH C repuorOM reHy93cKHM H UeJlOH CBHTOH HTaJlb5lHCKHX CneUHaJlHCTOB H reHepaJlOB, ,nBa apTHJlJlepHCTa, KOTopbIe ,nOJl>KHbl ObIJlH npOBeCTH ,neMOHCTpaUHlO. BaJlHJlHCb Ha 3eMJle MepTBeUKH nbHHble. YIx CnOHJlH HaKaHYHe 13 KaoaKe areHTbI 3axapOBa. BOJlee cepbe3HblH CaOOTa>K HMeJl MeCTO 13 BeHe: He TOJlbKO ObIJlH YCbInJleHbI CTpeJlKH, HO H ObIJI no­ Bpe>K.ueH nyJleMeT. TeM He MeHee MaKCHM nOJlYllHJI 3aKa3 Ha 150 nyJleMeToB. LITO KacaeTCH 3axapOBa, TO 9TO ObIJI ocoooro CKJla,na pOMaHTHK. OH PYKOBO,nHJI o,nHOBpeMeHHO KpynHbIM opy>KeHHbIM npe,nnpHHTHeM H orpOMHOH opraHH3aUHeH npo­ MbIlliJleHHOrO llinHOHa>Ka H CaOOTa>Ka. KOTopaH, COrJlaCHO JlYlllllHM Tpa,nHUHHM ,neTeKTHBHbIX pOMaHOB, Ha3bIBaJlaCb «CeTb 22». He pa3 rOBOpHJ10Cb, tlTO «CeTb 22» paOOTaJla 130 BpeM5I nepBoH MHpOBOH BOHHbl Ha ooa OJlOKa. 3TO npaB­ ,nono,noOHo. KOHellHO, Ba3HJlb 3axapOB He H3 Tex JIIo,neH, KOTopbIe MOrJlH HCnbITblBaTb yrpbl3eHHH COBeCTH, H «CeTb 22» I3blKpa,nblBaJla H llepenpo,naBaJla MHOrOllHCJleH­ Hble BoeHHbIe ceKpeTbl, 13 TOM lIHCJle H <ppaHuy3cKHe. 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Bo BpeM5I nepBoH MHpOBOH BOHHbl pa3BeD.blBaTeJlbHble .uaHHble «CeTH 22», BH.uHMO, OOYCJlOBHJlH B03MO}l(HOCTb H KOHcTpyHpoBaHH5I repMaHcKHx no,nBo.uHbIX JlOD.OK, H Be,neHHSI OOPbObl C HHMH. HeMUbI, KaK BH,nHO, .uOBOJlbHO ObICTPO pa3­ .uOObIJlH lIepTe>KH H30opeTeHHoro 130 ¢paHuHH iliHJlOBCKHM H JIaH>KeBeHOM yCTpOHCTBa, HcnoJlb3YlOmero yJlbTpa3I3yK ,nJlH oOHapy>KeHHH no,nBo.uHbIX JlO.uOK, o.uHaKO He npH,naJlH HM .uOCTaTOliHO cepbe3Horo 3HalleHHH. KaK MbI yBH,nHM ,naJlee, TOJlbKO 130 BpeMH BTOPOH MHpOBOA BOHHbl OblJlH HaH.ueHbl cpe,nCTBa OOPbObI npOTHB nOJI.Bo.uHbIX JlO,nOK. npOTOTHnOM HeMeUKHX no.uBo.uHbIX JlO.uOK, BepOHTHO, nOCJlY>KHJla rJlaB­ HbIM oopa30M no,nBo,nHaH Jlo,nKa «Hop,neH<peJlb,n», H300pe­ TeHHaH 13 KOHue XIX BeKa. 3axapoB HallaJl npo,naBaTb 3TH no,nBo,nHble JlO,nKH o,nHOBpeMeHHO rpeKaM H TypKaM, nocJle lIero lIepTe>KH nOnaJlH 13 repMaHHIo. LITOObI y6e.uHTb MHp 13 ueHHOCTH 3TOH JlO.uKH, 3axapOB Jl.06HJlCH (HeH3BeCTHO, Ka­ KHM oopa30M) Toro, liTO pyccKoe nOCOJlbCTBO 13 JIoH.uOHe 3aSlBHJlO npOTeCT KOMnaHHH «Hop,neH<pCJlb,n» npOTHB CTpOH­ TeJlbCTBa 3THX no.uBo.uHbIX JlO,nOK, ClIHTaBlllHXCH onaCHblMH .uJlH POCCHH. Bo BpeMH BOHHbI HeMeUKHe no,nBOJl.Hble JlOJI.KH, KaK H3Be­ CTHO, HaHeCJlH orpOMHblH ymepo COI03HHKaM. O.uHaKO MeHee H3BeCTHO TO, liTO 3TOT ymepo ObIJI CHJlbHO npeyBeJlHlIeH, HOO OOObliloe lIHCJlO Cy,nOB OblJlO YHHlITO>KeHO He nOJI.Bo.uHbIMH Jlo,nKaMH, a oOM6aMH HeMeUKHX .u.HBepcaHTOB. B03MO>KHO, liTO HMeHHO TaKaH OOMoa ll'Jpo,nHJla O,nHy H3 OOJlblliHX 3ara,nOK MOpH: 3ara.uKy HClIe3HOBeHHH aMepHKaH­ CKOro cy,nHa «UHKJlOn». «UHKJlOn» llleJl 13 CiliA C rpy30M MapraHueBoH py,nbl H3 Bpa3HJlHH (3Ta pYJI.a Heooxo.uHMa .uJlH npOH3Bo,nCTBa opoHeBblx nJlHT H CneUHaJlbHblX CTaJleH). 3TO OblJlO THXoxo,nHoe YCT0I111HBoe rpY30I30e Cy,nHO, OCHa­ meHHoe caMbIM COBepllieHHbIM B TO BpeMH pa,nHonepe,naTlIH­ KOM. nOCJle.uHHH pa3 ero I3H.ueJlH OJlH3 BaraMCKHX OCTpOBOB 4 MapTa 1918 r. HeMubl 3HaJlH, KaKoe 3HalleHHe HMeeT Map­ raHeu .uJlH aMepHKaHcKoA BoeHHoH npOMbIlliJleHHOCTH, H, BnOJIHe nOHHTHO, XOTeJlH nOMemaTb ero nOCTaBKaM. B PHo-.ue-)KaHeHpo aMepHKaHCKHH KOHCyJl nOJlYllHJI Ta· HHCTBeHHOe npe.uynpe>K,neHHe, B KOTOpOM COOOmaJlOCb, liTO «UHKJlOn» He CMO>KeT .uOCTHlIb oeperOB CiliA. HHlaKHX 00­ JlOMKOB cy.uHa He HalllJlH, HHKaKHX CHrHaJlOB oe,nCTBHH He OblJlO npHHHTO. B cJlYllae Hana.ueHHH HeMeUl<oH no,nBo,nHOH JlO,nKH "'JlH Kanepa «UHKJlOn», HecOMHeHHO, IiMeJl Obi BpeMH 9190
  • 42. nepe.ll.aTh KaKylO-JIH60 BeCTh. n03TOMY, BepOSlTHO,· OH 6bIJI YHHlITO)KeH 60M60H, O.ll.HaKO npaB.lI.bl Mbl He 3HaeM. 3aMeTHM, tITO HeMUbl BCer.ll.a 6bIJIH npeKpaCHO OCBe.ll.OM­ neHbI 0 Bcex Mepax, npHHHMaeMbIX COI03HHKaMH npOTHB nO.ll.B0.IDlbIX JIO.ll.OK, H B tIaCTHOCTH 0 Kopa6JI5Ix-JIOBylilKax. ".---------,:<;opb6a C nO.ll.BO.ll.HbIMH JIO.ll.KaMH, KaK H 60pb6a C uenneJIH- HaMH, B KOHetIHOM HTore nOKa3aJIa BamHoe 3HatIeHHe HaytI­ HbIX HCCJIe.ll.OBaHHH. B 1916 ro.ll.Y aMepHKaHUbI ytIpe.ll.HJIH HaUHOHaJIbHbIH co­ BeT HaytIHbIX HCCJIe.ll.OBaHHH; <ppaHUY3bI (B 1915 r.) H aHfJIH­ tIaHe (B 1917 r.) TaK>Ke C03.l1.aJIH KOMHTeTbl no BoeHHo-npH­ KJIa.ll.HbIM HaytIHbIM HCCJIe.ll.OBaHH5IM. HMeSi MHO>KeCTBO OTpHuaTeJIbHbIX MOMeHTOB - ueHTpa­ JIH30BaHHble ytIpe>K.lI.eHH5I BCKope CTaJIH H.lI.eaJIbHbIMH MHllle­ H5IMH .lI.JISI HaytIHO-npOMbIlllJIeHHOrO WnHOHa>Ka, - 3Ta ueH­ TpaJIH3aUH5I HaYJ.lHO-HCCJIe.ll.OBaTeJIbCKHX pa60T HMeJIa H I}O­ JIO>KHTeJIbHbIe CTOpOHbl. B tIaCTHOCTH, ueHTpaJIH30BaHHbIe 61Opo HaytIH~X HCCJIe.ll.OBaHHH cnoc06CTBOBaJIH B~51CHeHHIO 3HatIeHH5I CB5I3H. AHrJII1HCKHH npOMbIlllJIeHHbIH lllnHOHam «3a­ ceK» 60JIblllHHCTBO HeMeUKHX IIO.ll.BO.ll.HbIX Ka6eJIeH, H aHrJIH­ llaHe HatIaJIH yHHtITO>KaTb I1X B CesepHOM Mope y>Ke B 1914 ro.ll.Y. B 1915 ro.ll.Y fepMaHHSI 6bIJIa BbIHY>K.lI.eHa nOJIb30BaTbCSI nOtI'tH HCKJIlOtIHTeJIbHO pa.ll.HO, H aHrJIHtIaHe .lI.OBOJIbHO 6bICT­ po HaytIHJIHCb paclllH<ppoBblBaTb 60JIblllHHCTBO repMaHCKHX CHCTeM. 3To n03BOJIHJIO HM O.ll.ep>KaTb 60JIblilOe 4HCJIO nOJIH­ THtIeCKHX n06e.ll., s tIaCTHOCTH nO.ll.aBHTb HpJIaH.lI.CKOe BOCCTa­ HHe, opraHH30BaHHoe PO)I.>KepoM Ke3MeHToM, H .lI.06HTbC5l BCTynJIeHH5I B BOHHy CIllA. B CB5I3H C 3THM HeM UbI Bce 60JIb­ llle H 60JIblile CTaJIH .lI.OHCKHBaTbC5I cnoc060B npOH3BoncTBa CHMnaTHtIeCKHX lJepHHJI, He nOnnalO/llHXC5l np05lBJIeHHIO. no­ rOH5I 3a 3THMH lJepHHJIClMH npeBpanlJIaCb B TO BpeM5l B onHy H3 bCHOBHbIX ueJIeH npOMbllllJIeHHOfO H HaYlJHOfO lllnHOHa>Ka. CY/lleCTBYIOT lJepHHJIa, npal<TH4eCKH He nO.ll..lI.alO/llHeC5l np051BJIeHHIO, O.ll.HaKO 06Hapy>KeHHe nY3blpbKa CHMnaTH4e­ CKHX 4epHHJI y lllnHOHCl 06peKaeT ero Ha cMepTHylO Ka3Hb. n03TOMY He06xo.ll.HMO, 4T06bl lJepHHJla He TOJIbKO TPY.ll.HO 6bIJIO np05lBHTb, HO H JlerKO KaMY<P,'1HpOBaTb. 3Tofo ynaJlocb 1l06HTbC5I nOCpe)l.CTBOM H3fOTOBJIeHH51 HelIeUKHX CHMnaTHtIe~ CKHX qepHHJI cepHH «F», KOTopble BbJ.lI.aBaJIHCb 3a CO.ll.ep>Ka· wee cepe6po npeBOCXO.ll.HOe CpenCTBO OT 60ponaBoK. Ho ceK­ peT 3THX tIepHHJI 6blJI paC!<pbIT, 4TO n03BOJIHJIO, B 4aCTHOCTH, JIHKBHnHpOBaTb B CIllA KpynHylo rpynny nHBepcaHToB BO rJIaBe C BHuKe H 5lHKe. B KOHue KOHUOB cneIUlamicTbl COI03­ 92 HHKOB pa3pa60TaJIH cnoc06 06Hapy>KeHHSI CHMnaTH4eCKHX 4epHHJI 6e30THOCHTeJIbHO K HX xHMH4ecKoMY COCTaBY. 3TOT MeTO.ll. OCHOBaH Ha TOM, tITO BC51KOe nHCbMO, HanHcaHHoe ne­ pOM, OCTaBJI51eT CJIe.ll., H 3TOT 06bI4HO HeBH.lI.HMbIH CJIe.ll. CTa­ HOBHTCH BH.lI.HMblM, eCJIH 6yMary nO.ll.ReprHyTb B03.l1.eHCTBHIO napOB MO.ll.a. HeMUbI, B CBOlO Oqepe.ll.b, OTKpbIJIH 3TOT cnoc06 H, nbITa5lCb HeMTpaJIH30BaTb ero, H306peJIH lllapHKoBylO pytIKY· TeM BpeMeHeM npHMeHeHHe MeTO.ll.a C .HcnOJIb30BaHHeM napoB MO.ll.a 03HaMeHOBaJIOCb HeO>KH.lI.aHHbIM ycnexoM KOHTp­ pa3Be.ll.KH CiliA, KOTOpbIM OHa 06513aHa cKynocTH ee rrpOTHB­ HHKOB. HCTOpH5I Ka>KeTC5I HaCTOJIbKO He06bltIHOH, tITO 51 clm­ TalO He06xonHMbIM yKa3aTb, 'ITO OHa rrOlJepnHyTa H3 Ha.ll.e>K­ HOro HCT04HHKa, H 51 Mory rropY4HTbC5I 3a ee .lI.OCTOBepHOcTb. Bo BpeM5l 06blCKa, rrpOH3BeneHHoro y HeMeUKHX areHTOB, aMepHKaHCKa5l KOHTppa3Be.ll.Ka 06Hapy>KHJIa ceKpeTHble 3a­ .lI.aHH5I, HarrHcaHHble CHMrraTHtIeCKHMH lfepHHJIaMH B >KypHa­ .rrax. nonpoc IlOKa3aJI, tITO y>Ke HeHy>KHble >KypHaJIbI HeMUbI rrpO.ll.aBaJIH 6yKHHHcTaM, BMeCTO Toro lJT06bl C>lmraTb HX. 3Ta 3KOHOMHH OKa3aJIaCb .lI.JI5I HHX pOKOBOR. AMepHKaHCKHe TaHHble areHTbl pHHyJIHCb B JIaBKH 6yKHHHCTOB, cKynHJIH TbICSItIH >KypHaJIOB, nonBeprJIH HX 06pa60TKe napaMH HO.ll.a H BOCCTaHOBHJIH 6yKBaJIbHO Bce 3anaHHH, .lI.aBaBlllHeC5I B TetIeHHe p5l.ll.a JIeT, 'ITO n03BOJIHJIO HM BrrOCJIe.ll.CTBHH yHHtITO­ >KHTb Bce HeMeUKHe lllnI10HCKO-.lI.HBepCHOHHble opraHH3aUHH. He pa3 y>Ke cJIytIaJIOCb, 4TO opraHH3auHH npOBaJIHBaJIHCb H3-3a cKape.ll.HOCTH HeKOTopbIX areHTOB, HO 3TO, HaCKOJIbKO MHe H3BeCTHO, enHHcTBeHHblH CJIytIaH, KOr.ll.a rpoliloBaH 3KO­ HOMH5I nOBJIeKJIa 3a C060H rrpOBaJI orpoMHoH ceTH opraHH3a­ UHH. MO>KeT 6blTb, 3TO npOH30111JIO rro TOM npOCTOH rrpH4HHe, 4TO HeMubI 6blJIH yBepeHbl B CBOHX CHMnaTHlleCKHX 4epHH­ JIax, He.ll.OOUeHHBa5I B TO >Ke BpeM5I rrpOMbllllJIeHHblH lllnHO­ Ha>K B fepMaHHH H HaytIHO-HCCJIe.ll.OBaTeJIbCKHe pa60TbI co­ 103HHKOB. ECTb TOJIbKO O,UHa TeHeBa51 CTopOHa B 3TOM ,UeJIe ­ aMepHKaHCKHM opraHaM He Y.ll.aJIOCb .lI.OKa3aTb BHHOBHOCTb HeMueB B 3HaMeHHTOM 133pblBe rHraHTCi<oro CKJIa.ll.a 60errpH­ naCOB BJI3K TOM B HblO-,Q>KepCH. Ha30BeM HM5l aMepHKaHcKoro .lI.eTeKTHBa, KOTOpblH co­ BeplllHJI 3TY H3YMHTeJIbHYlO onepaUHIo C >KypHaJIaMH: MaHop AMOC nH3JIH, BbIIIOJIH5IBlllHH KOH<pH.lI.eHUHaJIbHble 3a.uaHH5l npH lllTa6e reHepaJIa neplllHHra. TeM >Ke aMepHKaHcKHM opraHaM Y.ll.aJIOCb B 1915 ro.uy, KOf.ua fepMaHH5I H CIllA e/lle He HaXO)I.HJIHCh B COCT05IHHH BOHHbl; nOXHTHTb rropT<peJib KpymIOro HeMeUKoro areHTa B 93
  • 43. HblO-P!opKe .nOKTOpa reHpHXa Allb6epTa. B nopTlpeJle reH­ pHXa AJlb6epTa HaXo.nHJlOCb Ba)l{Heihuee .nOCbe npOMblllIJleH­ Horo llInHOHa)l{a, Kor.na-JlH60 COCTaBJleHHOe B MHpHoe Bpe­ M5I. B HeM HallIJlH: - npoeKT MOHOnOJlH3aUHH Bcero aMepHKaHCKoro npOH3­ Bo.nCTBa lliH.nKoro XJlopa, HcnOJlb3yeMoro B repMaHliH .nJlH npOH3Bo.nCTBa y.nYllIalOlll,HX OTpaBJIHIOlll,HX Belll,eCTB; - npoeKT TaiiHoii nOKylll<H 3aBO,QOB 60enpHnaCOB, KOTO­ pbJe npHHHMaJiH 6bl BnOCJIe.nCTBHH 3aKa3bl .nJlH COlO3HHKOB, HO He nOCTaBJlHJlH 6bl HM CBOIO npo.nyKUHIO; - npoeKT npe.nOTBpalll,eHHH B03MO)l{HOCTH pa60TbI H3Be­ CTHOii aBHaUHOHHoii KaMnaHHH «PaiiT» Ha COI03HHKOB; - npoeKT TpeCTHpOBaHH5I Bcero npOH3Bo.nCTBa XJlOnKa Ha lore ClllA H pe3epBHpoBaHHH ero .nJlH repMaHHH Ha npe.n­ MeT npOH3Bo.nCTBa 6e3.nblMHoro nopoxa. DblJlH H .npyrHe y.nHBHTeJlbHO Tlll,aTeJlbHO no.nrOTOBJleH­ Hble .nOCbe B 3TOM nopnpeJle. CTpaHHaH Belll,b: .nOKTOp AJlb6epT, BH.nHMO, He no.n03pe­ BaJl, 'ITO ero nopTepeJib 6blJl nOXHlll,eH aMepHKaHCKHMH KOHTppa3Be.nqHKaMH. OH nOMeCTHJI 06'bHBJleHHe B «HblO­ YlOpK TeJlerpaMM», B KOTOpOM co06lll,aJlOCb 06 YTepe nopT­ epeJiH. TOMy, KTO .nOCTaBHT nopTepeJib BJla.neJlbUY, 06elll,aJlOCb B03Harpa)l{.neHHe B 20 .nOJlJl. - MH3epHaH cYMMa. MO)l{eT 6blTb, o.nHaKO, OH He XOTeJl 06paTHTb Ha ce6H BHHMaHHe npe.nJlO)l{eHHeM CJlHllIKOM KpynHoro B03Harpa)l{.neHHH, a MO­ )l{eT 6blTb, nO,Q06HO areHTaM, 0 KOTOpblX Mbl TOJlbKO 'ITO rOBOpHJlH, CqHTaJl, 'ITO Ba)l{HO yMeTb 3KOHOMHTb H na MaJlOM. OCMOTp ero nopTepeJiH nOKa3aJl MaCllITa6hl H 3epepeKTHB­ HOCTh repMaHCKoro npOMhlllIJleHHOrO llInHOHa)l{a B ClllA. 3 a BceMH 3aBo.naMH, KOTophle MOl'JlH npe.nCTaBJlHTh XOTh KaKOii-JlH60 HHTepec .nJlH repMaHHH, BeJiaCh MeTo.nHqeCKaH CJle)l{Ka. n03TOMY Kor.na 3TH 3aBo.nhl CTaJiH O.nHH 3a .npy­ rHM B3pbIBaThCH, B03HHKJlO no.n03peHHe, lITO HeMUhl nepellIJiH OT 3Tana npOMhlllIJleHHOrO llIllHOHa)l{a K cJle.nYlOlUeMY 3Ta­ ny - .nHBepCHHM. B caMOM .neJle, B ClllA CYlll,eCTBOBaJia orpOMHaH .nHBepCHOHHaH ceTh, opraHH30BaHHaH TaiiHhlM areHTOM epOH PHHTeJleHOM, npH6hlBllIHM B HhlO-HoPK B anpe­ Jle 1917 ro.na C llIBeiiuapcKHM nacnopToM Ha HMH 3MHJlH rellIe. 3Ta ceTh HCnOJlh30BaJia 60MObl lllJlee - HeMeUKoe H306peTeHHe, npHBo.nHMoe B .neHcTBHe He qaCOBblM MexaHH3­ MOM, KOTOphlH MO)l{eT pa3J1a.n.HThCH, a cepHOl1 KHCJlOTOH, pa3'be.nalOlll,eH Me.nHhlH .nHCK (aBTOp nOH KHHrH H3rOTODJlHJI TWCHqaMH 3TH CHap5l.nw BO BpeMH BTOPOH MHpOBOH BOHH~ 94 H MO)l{eT 3aCBH.neTeJlbCTBOBaTb, 'ITO OHH .neilcTBylOT npeBO­ CXo.nHO) • DOM6aMH lllJlee 6b1J1o pa3pYllIeHo MHoro 3aBo.nOB H yHH'I­ TO)l{eHO HeCKOJlhKO .neCHTKOB aHrJlHHCKHX H aMepHKaHcKHx cy.nOB H cy.noB HeHTpaJlhHhlX CTpaH. PHHTeJleH 6blJl apeCTO­ BaH Ha 60pTy cy.nHa, Ha KOTOpOM OH nJlhlJl B rOJlJl a H.nH10. BHaqaJle OH yTBep)l{.naJl, 'ITO HBJlHeTCH llIBeiiuapueM, o.nHaKO, Kor.na O.nHH H3 .nonpallIHBalOlll,HX ero 06paTHJlCH K HeMy no­ HeMeUKH, 06BHHHeMhlii B3HJl no.n K03hlpeK. 3TO BoeHHoe npH­ BeTCTBHe Bhl.naJlO ero C rOJloBoii. OH .noJiro CH.neJl B aMepH­ KaHCKHX TlOphMax, H60 aHrJlHqaHe Bhl.naJiH ero aMepHKaH­ uaM. 3aTeM eMy 6hlJlO pa3pellIeHO )l{HTh B AHrJlHH. Bo BpeMH BTOPOH MHpOBOii BoiiHW OH BWCTynaJi npOTHB rHTJlepa H OKa3aJl yCJlyrH COl03HHKaM. B 1949 ro.ny ero HallIJiH MepT­ BhlM B JlOH.nOHCKOM MeTpo. CBe.neHHH 0 .nHBepCHHX, co.nep)l{a­ lll,HeCH B ero KHHre BocnoMHHaHHii «HeBH.nHMhlii Bpar», 6hlJlH HCnOJlb30BaHhl HapH.ny C .npyrHMH HCTO'IHHKaMH aBTopOM Ha­ CTOHlll,eii pa60Tbl npH COCTaBJleHHH «nOC06HH .nJlH H.neaJlhHO­ 1'0 .nHBepcaHTa», KOTopoe 6blJlO llIHpOKO HCnOJlb30BaHO COI03­ HHKaMH BO BpeMH BOHHbl H nepeBe.neHo Ha 30 H3hlKOB. Ho 3TO, KaK rOBopHTCH, HCTOpHH, KOTopaH, MO)l{eT 6bITh, 6y.neT npe.nMeToM .npyroH KHHrH. 6 rJIABA EBPOIIA B IIEPHO,ll; MEm,ll;Y ,ll;BYMH MHPOBbIMH BORHAMH '_1 npOTHBOnOJlO)l{HOCTh TOMy,. 'ITO np~: ~ H30llIJlO BO BpeMH nepBOH MHpOBOH BoiiHbl 1914-1918 ro.nOB, repMaHHH He npHllIJlOCb nOCTpa.naTb OT nOTepH CBOHX npOMhlllIJleHHhlX ceKpeTOB BO BpeMH H nocJle BToPOH MHpOBOH BOHHhI. YCJlOBHH nepeMHpHH He 06H3blBaJiH repMaHHIO Bhl.naTb 3TH ceKpeTbl, HO TeM He MeHee HeMlJ,hl OTBeqaJlH COI03HH'Ie­ CKHM oepHuepaM, B03rJlaBJlHBllIHM KOHTPOJlhHble KOMHCCHH, Ha Bce HHTepeCOBaBllIHe nOCJle.nHHX BOnpOCbI. 3TH KOMHCCHH 06Hapy)l{HJlH OqeHb HHTepeCHble epaKThI. TaK, HaKOHeu 6hlJlO 06'b5lCHeHO KJleHMO «KP-96j04», 06Hapy)l{eHHoe Ha HeKOTO­ pblX CHapH.nax. 3TO KJleHMO CTaBHJlOCh Ha CHapH,Qax, KOTO­ pble H3rOTOBJlHJlHCb no JlHUt:H3HH Kpynna B AHrJlHH KOMna­ 95
  • 44. HHeH «BHKKepC». nOCJIe,UH5I5I, KaK rOBOpHJIH B TO BpeM5I, 3a­ nJIaTHJIa Kpynny nOCJIe nepeMHpH5I orpoMHylO CyMMy 3a JIHueH3HIO. TaKHM 06pa30M, Kpynn nOJIy4HJI ,UeHbfH 3a KpOBb CBOHX COOTeqeCTBeHHHKOB - HeMeUKHX COJI,UaT, y6HTblX H30­ 6peTeHHblMH HM CHap5l,UaMI1. Bnp04eM, BCe, B TOM 4HCJIe 11 HeMUbl, HaWJIH no BnOJIHe eCTeCTseHHbIM. KCTaTH, KaK BbI5lCHH.TJOCb n03,UHee, 6POH5I aHrJIHHCKHX 6pOHeHocueB TaK)I{e H3rOTOBJI5IJIaCb no JIHueH3HH Kpynna. Ee Ka4eCTBa OKa3aJIHCb npeBOCXO,UHbIMH, 11 OHH npeKpaCHO Bbl,Uep)l{HBaJIH y,Uapbl HeMeUKHX CHap5l,UOB. B BepCaJIbCKOM ,UorOBope Kpynn 6blJI Ha3BaH BOeHHblM npecTynHHKOM, HO npOTHB Hero He 6blJIO B036y)l{,UeHO npeCJIe'uOBaHH5I. KpynHblH ToprOBeu nywKaMH, KOTOpblH 8 1919 ro,Uy HMeJI npaBo npoH3Bo,UHTb Bcero 'IeTblpe nYWKH B ro,U, ,Ua H TO ,UJI5I BHyTpeHHero ynoTpe6JIeHI151 (HenOH5ITHO, 'ITO 03HalJaeT ,UJI5I «BHyTpeHHero ynoTpe6JIeHH5I»,- Bep05lTHO, ,UJI5I CTpeJIb6bl KapTelJblO no 6yHToBUlHKaM. Tpe6ylOluHM xJIe6a), nbITaJIC5I nepeCTpOI1TbC5I 11 npl1CnOC0611Tb ,UJI5I npHMeHeHH5I B MHpHbIX YCJIOBH5IX H306peTeHH5I, KOTophle 6blJIH c,neJIaHbI BO BpeM5I BOHHbI H KOTOpbIX 3HeprHlJHO ,UOHCKHSaJIHCb wnHOHbI ,UPYfHX CTpaH. K 411CJIy 3THX 11306peTeI-IHH OTHOCI1TC5I CTaJIb «2A». OHa 6bIJIa H3rOTOBJIeHa ,UJI5I nyweK, KOTopble YCTaHaBJII1BaJII1Cb lIa naJIy63x nO,UBo,UHbIX JIO,UOK. CosepweHHO He p)l{aBelOw.a51 CT3JIb «2A» OKa3aJIaCb npl1rO,UHOH ,UJI5I H3rOTOBJIeHH5I xl1pyp­ rl1'leCKHX I1HcTpyMeHToB 11 HO)l{eBbIX TosapOB. B 51Hsape 1923 ro,Ua Kpynn nepeMeCTHJI B cBepxceKpeT­ HblH TaHHHK Bce CBOH ,UOCbe, OTHOC5Iill,HeC5I K TeXHOJIOfHlJe­ CKI1M npoueccaM H HCCJIe,UOBaTeJlbCKI1M pa60TaM . .lleJIo B TOM, 'ITO HeMeUKa51 pa3Be,UKa npe,Uynpe,UHJIa Kpynna, 'ITO eppaHUy3bl c06Hpa1OTC5I oKKynHpoBaTb Pyp. .lleHCTBHTeJIbHO, eppaHUy3bl npl16blJIH 11 51HBap51 1923 r. Ha SHJIJIy XIOreJIb, HO ,UOChe K 3TOMy BpeMeHH y)l{e 6blJIH ne­ peSe3eHbi. 31 MapTa B pe3YJIbTaTe npOBOKaHHH eppaHuy3cKHe BOH­ CKa OTKpblJIH orOHb no pa60l lHM Kpynna. 13 lJeJIOBeK 6blJIH y6HTbl, 40 - paHeHbi. nOXOpOHbI npH CBeTe <jJaKeJIOS H no,U neHHe naTpHoTH4ecKHx neceH 51BHJIHCb npo06pa30M 6Y,UYUlHX fHTJIepOBCKHX C60pHUl. <I:>paHUy3bl apeCTOBaJIH fycTaJ3a Kpynna. BoeHHbIH Tpv.6yHaJI npHrOBOpHJI ero K 15 ro,UaM TlOpbMbl H K wTpa<jJy B 100 MJIH. ¢paHKoB. OH 6blJI 3aKJlJO­ 4eH B ,UIOcCeJIb,Uop<jJCKYIO TIOPbMY; H3 OKHa KaMepbl, B KOTO­ POM OH Haxo,UHJICH, oTKpbIBaJIC5I npeKpacHbll1 BH!! Ha npHHa,U­ JIe)l{aBWHe eMy 3aBo,Ubi. 96 KpynHeHwHe <jJpaHUy3cKHe KanHTaJIHCTbl H npOMblUIJIeH­ HHKH, HcnaHCKHH KOpOJIb H ,Ua)l{e nana PHMCKHH HeMe,UJIeH­ HO BblcTynHJIH B 3aUlHTY Kpynna. LJepe3 weCTb MeC5IueB OH BblWeJI Ha CB060,Uy. BnOCJIe,UCTBHH B CTaTbe, n05lBHBWeik51 BO BHyTpeHHeM )l{ypHaJIe KOMnaHHH I MapTa 1942 r. no,U 3arOJIOBKOM «<I:>lOpepbl 3aBO,UOB, pa604ue opy)l{eHHoH npo­ MbIWJIeHHOCTH», OH paccKa3bIBaJI 0 TOM, KaK, BbIH,U5I H3 TlOpbMbI, Ha4aJI BTaHHe no,UrOTaBJIHBaTb nepeBoopy)KeHHe. npHBO)l{y Bbl)l,epiKKy H3 3TOH CTaTbH: «CJIe,UCTBeHHble KOMHC­ CHH COlO3HHKOB ¢opMeHHblM 06pa30M OCTaJIHCb B ,UypaKax. Mbl npo,UOJI)I{aJIH npOH3BO,UHTb opy)l{He, ,UeJIa51 BH,U, 'ITO npo­ H3BO,UHM 3aMKH, MOJI04Hble <jJJI5IfH, KaCCbl H MycopHble 51UlH­ KH. Kor,Ua Haw BeJIHKHH cj)lOpep npHWeJI K BJIaCTH, 51 HMeJI B03MO)l{HOCTb 3aBepHTb ero B TOM, 'ITO 3aSO,Ubl Kpynna, KO­ TopbIe rOTOBbl nOCTaBJI5ITb opy)l{He HaweH Hen06e,UHMOH ap­ MHH, nOCJIe nepHo,Ua no,UrOTOBKH B Te'leHHe MHHHMaJIbHOrO cpOKa HaXO,U5ITC5I BnOJIHe B y,UOBJIeTBOpHTeJIbHOM COCT05lHHH. XaHJIb fHTJIep!». 3TOT TeKCT nOKa3bIBaeT, 'ITO HatIHHa51 C 1923 ro,Ua H ,UO npHxo,Ua fHTJIepa K BJIaCTH npOMblWJIeHHblH wnHOH3iK COI03­ HHI<OB HaXO,UHJICH Ha caMOM HH3KOM ypOBHe. MO)l{HO JIH Ha,Ue5lTbC5I, 'ITO 3TO nOCJIyX{J1T ypOKOM Tenepb, Kor,Ua Kpynn CHOBa npOUBeTaeT (XOT5I ero 3aBO,Ubl HaUHOHaJIH3HpOBaHbl) H Kor,Ua OCHOBaH3 KOMnaHH5I C KanHTaJIOM 500 MJIH. MapOK ,UJI5I 3KcnopTa 0PY)l{H5I? KOHelJHO, HeT. Bo BC5IKOM CJIylJae, Tenepb H3BeCTHO, 'ITO Kpynn npe,UnpHH5IJI peKoHcTpyKUHIO Ha aMepl1Ka HCKHe ,UeHbrH (120 MJIH. ,UOJIJI. B 1925-1926 rr.). 113BecTHo TaK>Ke, 'ITO 60JIbWa51 tlaCTb ceKpeTHblx ,UOKyMeH­ TOB ,UO npHxo,Ua <jJpaHUY30B 6blJIa CBoeBpeMeHHo nepenpaB­ JIeHa B lllBeUHIO B aKUHoHepHylO KOMnaHHIO «50<jJopc», B KOTOpOH fycTaB Kpynn KynHJI aKUHH Ha 19 MJIH. MapoK. KOMnaHHeH «50epopc» H 6bIJIH pa3pa60TaHbI H306peTeHH5I, KOTopble He MOrJIH 6b[Th 3aBepweHbI BO BpeM5I nepBOH MHpO­ BOH BOHHbi. .lleJIO OXpaHb[ npOMb[WJIeHHb[X ceKpeTOB 6blJIO nOCTaBJIeHO TaK XopOWO, 'ITO CKaH,UaJI pa3pa3HJIC5I JIHWb B 1935 ro,Uy. lllse,UcKoe npaBHTeJIbCTBO HeMe,UJIeHHO 'u06HJIOCb JIHKBH,UaUHH aJIb5lHCa «50¢opc - Kpynn». .llpyrHe HCCJIe,UOBaTeJIbCKHe H KOHCTpyKTopcKHe pa60Tbi BeJIHCb B f OJIJI a H,UHH, r,Ue eme B 1922 ro,Uy Kpynn ylJpe,UHJI <jJHKTHBHylO KOMnaHHIO. 3Ta KOMnaHH5I 3aHHMaJIaCb rJIaBHblM 06pa30M cTpOHTeJIbCTBOM 3KcnepHMeHTaJIbHblX nO,UBO,UHbIX JIO,UOK, KOTOpb[e ,UOJI)I{Hb[ 6bIJlH n05lBHTbC5I BO BpeM5I BTOPOH MHpOBOH BOHHbl. CnycT5I lJeTb[pe ro,Ua onepaUH5I 6b[JIa pac­ KpblTa <jJpaHuy3cKHMH CneUHaJIbHbIMH CJIy)l{6aMH, H B 97
  • 45. 1926 ro,ny <I>paHl.I,HH aaHBHJIa npOTeCT rOJIJIaH,nCKoMy npa­ BHTeJIbCTBy. 3TO He ,naJIO HHKaKHX peayJIbTaTOB. repMaHHH «B03Harpa,nHJIa» rOJIJIaH,nHIO 3a ee nOMOlll.b, pa3pywa5J BO BpeMH BTOPOH MHpOBOH BOHHbl ee ropo,na H BblCblJlaH ee Ha­ CeJIeHHe. Kpynn cyMeJI pa3pa60TaTb MHO>KeCTBO TeXHH4eCKHX yco­ BepweHCTBOBaHHH, pe3YJIbTaTOM KOTOpbIX HBHJIOCb npOH3­ BO,nCTBO BOCbMH HOBblX THnOB nyweK H CTpOHTeJIbCTBO MHO­ rOtIHCJIeHHbIX no,nBo,nHbIX JIO,nOK. rHTJIep Mor BOCnOJIb30BaTb­ CH 3THM elll.e B 1933 ro,ny. COBepweHcTBoBaHHe caMHX nyweK npoH3Bo,nHJIOCb B OepJIHHe Ha epHKTHBHOM CTaHKOCTpOHTeJIb­ HOM aaBo,ne «Kox yH,n KHHUJIe-3HTBHKJIyHr». 3TOT 3aBO,n, BH,nHMO, HHKor,na. He Bbl3bIBaJI no,n03peHHH y wnHOHOB COI03­ HHKOB, KOTopble He 6bIJIH Ha BbICOTe. 4TO KacaeTCH Kpynna. TO OH nOHHJI 3HatIeHHe npOMbIWJIeHHOrO WnHOHa>Ka H ,nJIH :OHoro elll.e B 1920 ro,ny OCHOBaJI 61Opo B 3cceHe. 3TO 61Opo 3aHHMaJIOCb TaK>Ke KaMyepJIH>KeM. OHO cyMeJIO nOXHTHTb y qJpaHUy30B rpoca H MaKca nywKy, KOTopaH CTpeJIHJIa no DapH>Ky B 1918 ro,ny. 3aKaMyepJIHpOBaHHaH B rHraHTCKoH 3a­ BO,nCKOH Tpy6e. ECJIH 6bl HaM npHWJIa B rOJIOBy 3JIeMeHTa p­ HaH MblCJIb cpaBHHTb epOTOCHHMKH 3aBo,na Kpynna B 1918 H 1943 ro,nax, Mbl 06Hapy>KHJIH 6bl 3TY Tpy6y. KOTopaH HHKor­ ,na He ,nbIMHJIa. a eCJIH 6bl ee OCMOTpeJIH, HaWJIH 6bl B HeH rHraHTCKHe nywKH! O,nHaKO eppaHUY3CKOH KOHTppa3Be,nKe B PeHHCKOH 06JIaCTH, BH,nHMO, He npHWJIa B rOJIOBy na MbICJIb, XOTH OHa ,neHCTBOBaJIa ,nOCTaTOtIHO 3HeprHtIHO. Co CBoeH CTOpOHbl, KOHTppa3Be,nKa Kpynna pa3pa60TaJIa 6eCtIeJIOBetIHylO TexHHKy 06JIy4eHHH nOCeTHTeJIeH, KOHetIHO 6e3 HX Be,nOMa, 60JIbWOl1 ,n030H HKC-JIytIeH. HKC-JIytIH 3aCBe­ tIHBaJIH epOTOnJIeHKy. BbI3bIBa5J B TO >Ke BpeMH cepbe3HbIe epH3HtIeCKHe paCCTpOHCTBa, HO 3TO 6bIJIO COBepweHHO 6e3pa3­ JIHtIHO rycTaBy Kpynny. B aBrycTe 1933 ro,na Ha 3aBo,nax Kpynna 6bIJIO 06'bHBJIe­ HO 06Sl3aTeJIbHbIM rHTJIepOBCKoe oepHUHaJIbHOe npHBeTcTBHe. B SlHBape 1933 ro,na C ero 3aBo,nOB 6bIJIH H3rHaHbI eBpeH. C 1933 no ceHTH6pb 1939 ro,na 700 CJIy>Kalll.Hx Kpynna 6bIJIH OmpaBJIeHbI B KOHueHTpaUHoHHbIH JIarepb, a B 1945 ro,ny B no,nBaJIe 61Opo rycTaBa Kpynna B 3cceHe COlO3HHKH 06Hapy­ >KHJIH KaMepy nbITOK ,norHTJIepOBCKHX BpeMeH. KaK BH,nHO, cJIy>K6a npOMbIWJIeHIWfl oe30nacHocTH Kpynna npHMeHHJIa Bce cpe,nCTBa, B TOM tIHCJIe «llIapepepepHeMyHr» (3HeprHtIHbIH ,nonpoc). oe30naCHOCTb 3Ta 6bIJIa H,neaJIbHoii. MbI He XOTHM 3THM CKa3aTb, tITO HaCHJlHe H nbITKH He06xo,nHMbI ,nJIH 6e3­ onaCHOCTH. a npoCTO 6e30nar.HOCTIl Hy>KHO npH,naBaTb 60JIee 93 cepbe3Hoe 3HatIeHHe B npOMbIIlIJIeHHOCTH. tIeM B apMHH. BnpOtIeM, BCTaeT O,nHH Bonpoc: KTO 06eCnetIHBaJI 3TY 6e3­ onaCHOCTb C 1935 ro,na? nOBOJIbHO HHTepecHbIMH HBJIHIOTCH Ka,npbI KHHOC'beMKH c06paHHH, Ha KOTOpbIX npHcyTcTBOBaJI rHTJIep H ,npyrHe Ha­ UHCTCKHe rJI&BapH. 3TH epHJIbMbI CYlll.eCTBYIOT H nOHbIHe, H o,nHa tIaCTHaH aHrJIHHCKaSl TeJleBH3HOHHaH KOMnaHHH Bocnpo­ H3BeJIa HX B 1965 ro,ny B BeJIHKOJIenHOM ,noKyMeHTaJIbHOM epHJIbMe DHTepa 03TTH «<I>HpMa Kpynna». O,nHH H3 Ka,npoB :onoro epHJIbMa oc06eHHo npHMetIaTeJIeH. MbI BH,nHM rHTJIepa H rycTaBa Kpynna pH,nOM BO BpeMH cnycKa Ha BO,ny B 1938 ro,ny KpeHcepa «DpHHU EBreHHih> Ha cy,nOcTpOHTeJIb­ HbIX Bepep5JX Kpynna B KHJIe. 3TOT KpeHcep KaK BoeHHbIH TpoepeH 6bIJI HCnOJIb30BaH aMepHKaHuaMH Bcero tIepe3 10 JIeT nOCJIe ero cnycKa Ha BO,ny B KatIeCTBe MHweHH BO BpeMH aTOMHoro 3KcncpHMeHTa B OHKHHH. repMaHHH nOKa3aJIa HaM, tITO cyMaCIlIe,nIlIHH eplOpep BMe­ CTe C 3HeprHtIHbIMH TeXHOKpaTaMH 06pa3ylOT BeJIHKOJIenHylO aMaJIbraMy. re66eJIbC B CBoeM «.IT.HcBHHKe» rOBopHT, tITO OH BCTpe­ tIaJICH C rycTaBoM KpynnoM H HaWeJI ero npe>K,neBpeMeHHo cocTapHBwHMCH, cOBepweHHo BnaBWHM B ,neTcTBo. .IT.pyrHe HeMeUKHe ceKpeTbl OXpaH5JJIHCb xy>Ke, tIeM ceK­ peTbI Kpynna, H B tIaCTHOCTH ceKpeT y,nymalOllI.Hx OTpaBJIHIO­ mHX Belll.eCTB. B noil 06JIaCTH 6bIJIH ,nocTHrHyTbI orpoMHbIe ycnexH B nepHo,n Me>K,ny 1915 ro,nOM H KOHUOM nepBoH MHpO­ BOH BOHHbI. CaMbIe onaCHbIe ra3bI 6bIJIH H306peTeHbI B 1918 ro,ny, HO, K CtIaCTblO, nepeMHpHe nOMeWaJIO HX npHMe­ HeHHIO. C Tex nop, BH,nHMO, He 6bIJIO ,nOCTHrHyTo KpynHbIx ycnexoB, pa3Be tITO B 06JIaCTH y,neweBJIeHHH npOH3Bo,nCTBa 60eBbIX OTpaBJIHlOllI.HX BemeCTB. HeCMOTp51 Ha TO tITO BoeH­ HbIe nJIaTHT ,noporo 3a 60eBbIe OTpaBJIHlOllI.He BemeCTBa, HX npOH3Bo,nCTBO peHTa6eJIbHO ,nJIH 3aBo,ntIHKa, eCJIH OHH npOH3­ BO,n5!TC5I O,nHOB peMeHHO C HCKOTOpbIMH I1JIaCTHtIeCKHMH Beme­ CTBaMH. O,nHaKO 3TO ,naeT B03MO>KHOCTb KOHCTaTHpOBaTb npOH3Bo,nCTBO ra30B H .ua>Ke yCTaHaBJIHBaTb no KOJIHtIeCTBy nJIaCTHtIeCKHX BemeCTB, nocTynalOmHX Ha pblHOK, KOJIHtIeCT­ BO npOH3Bo,nHMbIX 60eBbIX OTpaBJI5JIOmHX BemeCTB. * .D03TOMY eppaHUY3CKoe BTopoe 6IOPO tIepe3 nocpe.uCTBO npOMblWJIeHHHKOB H XHMHKOB, KOTopbIe ero OCBe,nOMJIHJIH, B nepHO,n Me>K,ny ,nByMSl MHPOBbIMH BOHHaMH Bcer,na 6bIJIO • ApMeAcKoe pa3Be.nblBaTeJlbHOe ynpaBJleHHe. - flpUM. pea. 99
  • 46. B Kypce repMaHCKOrO npOH3BOJl.CTBa 60eBbIX OTpaBJI5IlOmHX BemeCTB. 3TO - npHMep npOMbIlllJIeHHOrO lllnHOHama, He. COnp5lmeHHOro C TPYJl.HOCT5IMH H OCHOBaHHoro JIHlllb Ha JIO­ rHttecKHX YM03aKJIlOlJeHH5IX. B 1936 roJl.Y BTopoe 61Opo 3aBep60BaJIO HCKJIlOlmTeJIbHO 3HalOmero BeHrepCKoro XHMHKa, COBeplllanlllero nOe3J1.KH n fepMaHHIO. B OJl.HY H3 CBOHX nOe3J1.0K B MaHreHM OH pa3J1.0­ 6bIJI epOPMYJIbI KOM6HHHpoBaHHoro npOH3BOJl.CTBa YJl.YlllalO­ mHX BemeCTB H nJIaCTHlJeCKHX BemeCTB. B napHme eMY 3anJIaTHJIH 5 TbIC. eppaHKoB. OH ClJeJI, lJTO 3Toro MaJIO, H CHO­ Ba noexaJI B fepMaHHIO, rJl.e npOJl.aJI CJIeJl.YlOmylO HHepopMa­ UHIO: «<I>paHUy3bI pacnOJIaralOT BalllHMH epopMyJIaMH». 3a 3TO OH nOJIylJHJI rOpa3J1.0 60JIee KpynHylO CYMMY. 3TO - npH­ Mep Jl.BOHHoro areHTa npOMbIlllJIeHHOrO lllnHOHama, npHlJeM pa306J1alJHBlllerO caMoro ce6H. lJTO CJlYlJaeTCH He lJaCTO. MaclllTa6bI npOMbIlllJIeHHOrO lllnHOHama BbIHYJl.HJ!H B ne­ pHOJl. MemJl.Y Jl.ByMH MHPOBbIMH BOHHaMH HeKoTopble eppaH­ UY3cKHe KOMnaHHH npHHHTb 3HeprHlJHble, a HHOrJl.a CMexo­ TBopHble MepbI npeJl.OCTOpOmHocTH Jl.JI5I oxpaHbI CBOHX npo­ MbIlllJIeHHbIX ceKpeToB. 4acTO Ha3bIBalOT KpynHYIO KOMnaHHIO no npOH3BOJl.CTBY lllHH, B KOTOpOH B03HHKJla HeJle­ na51 MbICJIb H3MeHHTb rpaJl.yHpoBKy Ha lllKaJIaX Bcex TepMo­ MeTpoB. B Jl.aHHOM cJIYlJae 6wJIa np05lBJIeHa lJpe3MepHa5l, XOT5I no cymecTBy Jl.OBOJIbHO nOH5ITHa5l, npeJl.OCTOpOmHocTb. TecHble CB5I3H MemJl.Y eppaHuy3cKOH H HeMeUKOH npoMbIlll­ JIeHHOCTblO npeBpamaJIH nH MepbI npeJl.OCTOpOmHocTH B He­ JIenOCTb. Bo BpeM5I BOHHbI 3TH CB5I3H nepepOCJIH B COTPYJl.HJoI­ lJeCTBO. nOJl.BOJl.H HTorH, MomHO yTBepmJl.aTb, lJTO 060 BceM, lJTO Jl.eJIaJIOCb B 1918-1939 rOJl.ax BO eppal-IUY3cKOH npOMbIlll­ JIeHHOCTH, HeMeJl.JIeHHO co06maJIOCb B fepMaHHIO. B nepfioJl. MemJl.Y Jl.ByM5I MHPOBbIMH BOHHaMH <l>paHUHH lllHpOKO cHa6­ maJIa repMaHcKylo BoeHHylO npOMbIlllJIeHHOCTb He TOJIbKO MaTepHaJIaMH, HO H npOMbIlllJleHHOH I-lHepopMaUHeH. BCKope nOCJIe nopameHH5I 1940 rOJl.a Ha eppaHUy3cKHe 3aBO.ll.bI 51BH­ JIHCb npeJl.CTaBHTeJIH repMaHcKHx KOMHCCHH no nepeMHpmo, KOTopble 6bIJIH BeJIHKOJIenHO HHepOpMHpoBaHbI 060 BceM, lJTO Jl.eJIaJIOCb Ha 3anOJl.ax. Bo MHorHX CJIylJ351X HCTOlJHHKOM HH­ cpopMaUHH OKa3bIBaJIHCb caMH eppaHUY3cKHe npeJl.npHHHMa­ Teim. 3TO - KpaHHe JlI060nbITHaH H BamHa51 epopMa npo­ MbIlllJIeHHOrO lllnHOHama. HO OHa nO,'1HOCTblO BbIX0Jl.HT 3a paMKH HallleH TeMbI. npeJl.BHJl.51 TeCHoe COTpYJl.HHlIeCTBO, eppaHUY3CKHe npo- i>lbllUJIeHHHKH Jl.aBaJIH TOlJHble OTBeTbI Ha lJpe3BbIlJaHHO noJJ.­ p06Hhle BonpOCHHKH. nocJle 3Toro OTpaCJleBble npOMbllllJleH- Hbre opraHH3aUHH B fepMaHHH 0606maJIH OTBeTbI, aaTeM nepeJl.aBaJIH HX rpa)KJl.aHCKHM H BoeHHbIM opraHaM, KOTopble MorJlH HcnOJlb30naTb 3TH Jl.aHHble. KaK MbI YBHJl.HM Jl.aJIee, TaKHM 06pa30M C03J1.aBaJIHCb JIylJlllHe yCJIOBH5I Jl.JI5I opraHH­ 3aUHH npOMbIlllJIeHHOrO rpa6ema <l>paHUHH H BceA EBponhI C 1940 rOJl.a BnJlOTb Jl.0 oCB060mJl.eHH5I. B TO BpeM5I fepMaHH5I lllHpOKO HCnOJIb30BaJIa TaKme pe­ nyTaUHIO CBoero naTeHTHoro 61OpO, KOTopoe Jl.eHCTBHTeJIbHO BbIJl.aBaJIO Jl.JI5I 03HaKOMJIeHH5I HaH60Jlee Jl.eTaJIbHO pa3pa60­ TaHHbie naTeHTbI, HO OHO npeJl.OCTaBJI5IJIO TaKme B pacnop5l­ >KeHHe HeMeUKHX rpamJl.aHCKHX H BoeHHWX JIHU nOJl.p06HeH­ lllylO HHepopMauHIO 060 ncex 3a5lBKaX Ha nOJlytteHHe naTeHTa, nocTynaBlllHx H3-3a rpaHHUbI. BC5I repMaHCKa51 npOMbIlllJIeH­ HOCTb HCnOJIb30BaJIaCb KaK orpOMHa51 pa3BeJl.WBaTeJIbHa51 ceTb. BbIJl.epmKa 113 KHHrH AJIeHa fepeHa «CepbIH reHepam> n03BOJl5leT COCTaBHTb npeJl.cTaBJleHHe 06 3TOM: Ha EJlHcefl­ CKHX nOJl5lX Jl.OBOeHHoro 5epJIHHa, KaKOBbIMH 6bIJla YHTep­ lI.eH-JIHHJl.eH, ElOpo NW 7 BbIJl.aBaJlO ce651 3a 6epJlHHCKHH epHJIHaJl orpoMHoro KOHuepHa XHMHlJeCKOH npOMbIlllJleHHOCTH «l1f <l>ap6eHHHJl.ycTpH». H Jl.elkTBHTeJlbHO, 3TO 6bIJI epHJIHaJI, 1-10 epHJlHaJl OlJeHb cBoe06pa3HbIH. npemJl.e Bcero, Jl.HpeKTO­ pOM 6blJI lJeJlOBeK C 60JIblllHM BeCOM - Jl.OKTOp MaKc I1J1r­ Hep, nJleM5IHHHK npe3HJl.eHTa aJl.MHHHCTpaTHBHoro COBeTa «l1f <l>ap6eH». KpoMe TOro, K pyKOBOJl.CTBy npHHaJl.JIemaJIH: fepMaH IlIMHTu, 6paT OJl.HOro H3J1.HpeKTOpOB HblO-HopKCKoro epHJlHaJla «Hf <l>ap6eH» - «KeMHKJI HHKopnopeiheJl.», Py­ Jl.OJIbep HJlrHep, npomHBaBlllHH B CIlIA C 1923 rOJl.a H HaTy­ paJIH30BaBlllHHC5I B 1930 roJl.Y, Jl.OKTOp nOJIHTHlJeCKHX HayK, lIJ1eH 14 aJl.MHHHCTpaTHBHblX COBeTOB B ceMH cTpaHax, H T. 11.. DOlJeMY MaKc HJlrHep XOTeJI C 1926 rOJl.a JlHlJHO PYKOB0J1.HTb 6epJIHHCKHM 6lOpo? nOlJeMY OH Jl.OJlmeH 6blJl B03rJIaBJl5ITb ero Jl.0 1945 rOJl.a? nOToMy lJTO ElOpo NW 7 6blJlO OlJeHb cBoeo6pa3HbIM epHJlHaJlOM. OJl.HH H3 cJly>KamHx 61Opo 3a5l­ BHJI: «Hallla pa60Ta 3aKJIIOlJaJIaCb B nOJl.rOTOBKe... BC5IKOrO p0Jl.a Jl.OKyMeHToB, Jl.OCbe, Jl.OKJlaJl.OB, KapT H lllHepPOB no 3a­ Ka3Y BepxoBHoro KOMaHJl.OBaHH5I BepMaxTa; B Jl.OnOJlHeHHH HX C nOMOmblO Jl.OCbe Halllero 6/opo H Jl.OCbe BepxoBHoro KOMaH­ Jl.OBaHH5I; B nOJl.rOTOBKe Jl.OKJlaJl.OB H KapT, KacalOIUHXCH npo­ MbIIllJleHHOCTH H CeJlbCKOrO x035IikTBa HHocTpaHHblx rocy­ Jl.apcTB». TOlJHO TaK me B 06BHHHTeJIbHOM aKTe BoeHHoro TpH6y­ HaJla B HlopH6epre, COCTaBJleHHOM Jl.Jl5I npouecca, npoHcxo­ Jl.HBlllerO 29-30 HIOJI5I 1948 r., MomHO npOlJeCTb 0 lllnHOHa­ me, KOTOpblM 3aHHMaJIC5I «I1f <l>ap6eH» BO BceM MHpe, cJle­ 100 101
  • 47. ,nYlOlUHe CTpOKH: «Ha OCHOBe ,nOKJIa,nOB, nOJIYlJaeMblX OT rJIaBHblX PYKOBo,nHTeJIei'J 3aBo.nOB «Hf <l>ap6eH» 3a rpaHH­ uei'J, H Ha OCHOBe TmaTeJlbHblX HCCJle.nOBaHHH, KOTOpblMH 3a· HHMaJlHCb ero CneUHaJlHCTbl B fepMaHHH, «Hf <l>ap6eH» ,naBaJIa BepMaxTy H .npyrHM opraHaM HaUHCTCKoro npaBH­ TeJlbCTBa HH<popMaUHIO 0 3arpaHHue nOJlHTHlJeCKOrO, 3KOHO­ MHlJeCKOrO H BoeHHoro xapaKTepa. 3aKaMy<pJlHpOBaHHble npe.nnpHHTHH «Hf <l>ap6eH» HBHJlHCb H.neaJlbHblM cpe.nCTBOM WnHOHa)Ka; BblCOKHe npaBHTeJlbCTBeHHble .neHTeJlH H rocy­ .napCTBeHHble CJlY)KamHe, OrnpaBJlHHCb 3a rpaHHUy, lJaCTO npOCHJlH «Hf <l>ap6eH» HanpaBHTb HX .nJlH OTBo.na rJla3 B O.nHH H3 ero 3arpaHHlJHblX <pHJlHaJlOB, C TeM lJT06bl OHH Mor­ JlH MaCKHpOBaTb CBOIO .neHTeJlbHOCTb. 4epe3 nocpe.nCTBO CBOHX rJlaBHblX areHTOB 3a rpaHHuelf... «Hf <l>ap6eH» lJaCTO nOJlYlJaJl .nOHeceHHH, co.nep)KamHe HH<popMaUHlO no 3KOHO­ MHlJeCKHM, nOJlHTHlJeCKHM H BoeHHblM BonpocaM. Ero 3arpa­ HHlJHble areHTbl B 60JlbWHHCTBe CJlYlJaeB BXO.nHJlH B a6Bep H opraHH3aUHH HaUHcTcKoi'J napTHH. KpoMe TOro, .n.OHeceHHH nOJlYlJaJlHCb, aHaJlH3HpOBaJlHCb, 0606maJlHCb H HanpaBJlH­ JlHCb B a.n.MHHHcTpaTHBHbIH COBeT H pa3J1HlJHble 3aHHTepe­ COBaHHble opraHbl TpeTbero peHxa lJepe3 nocpe.n.CTBO 6ep­ JlHHCKOro SIOPO NW 7. 3TO 61Opo no.n.rOTaBJlHBaJlO TaK)Ke CneUHaJlbHble .nOKJla.n.bl H KapTbl». TIo.n.06Hoe COlJeTaHHe npOMblWJleHHOrO WnHOHa)Ka C BO­ eHHblM B03MO)KHO JlHWb npH TOTaJlHTapHOM pe)KHMe. HecoMHeHHo, lJTO rHTJlepOBCKaH fepM<lHHH 3aHHMaJla .nOMHHHpylomee nOJlO)KeHHe B npOMblLUJleHHOM WnHOHa)Ke B EBpone B nepHO.n Me)K.ny .nByMH MHPOBblMH BoHHaMH. )lpyrHe CTpaHbl, BH.nHMO, 3aHHMaJlHCb npOMblWJleHHblM WnHOHa)KeM MeHbwe. MO)KeT 6blTb, HMeHHO 3Ta cJla60cTb npOMblWJleHHOrO H 3KOHOMHlJeCKOrO WnHOHa)Ka B EBpone 11 06ycJloBHJla KpynHble <pHHaHCOBble CKaH.naJlbl, KaK, HanpH­ Mep, H3BeCTHblH cJlyqaH C HBapOM KpeiirepOM, KOTOpblH OKOHlJHJlCH rH6eJlblO - y6HHCTBOM HJlH caMoy6HikTBOM?­ WBe.n.CKoro CHH'le'lHOrO KOpOJlH. .lI.eJlo 3aKJlIO'laJlOCb B <pa6­ pHKaUHH <paJlbWHBbIX aKUHii KpynHblx npOMblWJleHHblX KOM­ naHHH H 6aHKoB. 3TH aKUHH BHOCHJlHCb B 6aHKH B Ka'leCTBe rapaHTHHHoro BKJla.na. Bce 3TH 3J1oynoTpe6J1eHHH 6blJlH pac­ I<pblTbI. Xa paKTepHO, lJTO HH B O.n.HOH H3 MHorO::IHC~eHHbIX KHHr 0 Kpeiirepe He .neJlaeTC5I nOnhITKH (no KpaHHell Mepe, HaCKOJlbKO MHe H3BeCTHO) CBH3aTb 3TO .n.eJlo c .n.eJlOM JleMya­ Ha. JleMyaH 6bIJI PYKOBo.nHTeJleM OT.n.eJla no.nJlO)KHbIX .n.OKy­ MeHTOB <ppaHUY3CKoro BToporo 6IOPO B nepHo.n 1930~ 1935 ro.n.OB. OH B cBoeKopblcTHblX ueJlHX npo.n.aBaJl no.nJlO}I(­ J02 Hble ,nOKyMeHTbl JlIO.nHM H3 IIpecTynHoro MHpa HJlH HHOCTp3H­ uaM 6e3 onpe.n.eJleHHblX 3aHHTHlf. Ero B KOHue KOHUOB nOH­ MaJlH c nOJIH'lHbIM. TI03BOJlHTeJlbHO cnpocHTb, nocKoJlbKY .naTbl nOlJTH COBna­ .naIOT: H~ JleMyaH JlH <pa6pHKoBaJl <paJlbWHBble aKUHH .nJl51 KpeHrepa? K HaylJHO-npOMblwJleHHoH HH<popMaUHH npOHBJlHJlH TaK MaJlO HHTepeca, lJTO, KOrJI.a eme .n.o HalJa.TIa BTOpOH MHpOBOH BOHHbl B03HHKJlO npe.n.nOJIO)l(eHHe, lJTO HeMUbl C03JI.aJlH pa­ .1lHOJlOKaUHOHHYIO yCTaHoBKy, aHrJlHHCI<He ceKpeTHhle CJlY)K­ 6bl OKa3aJlHCb He B COCTOHHHH HaCITH areHTa, 06J1a.n.alOmero He06xoJI.HMbIMH n03HaHHHMH B 3J1eKTpOHllKe, H H306peTaTeJllO aHrJlHHCKOH CHCTeMbl pa.n.HOJlOKaUHOHHbIX yCTaHOBO[( P06ep­ Ty YOTcoHy-YaTTY npHWJlOCb caMOMy 3aHHTbCH C60pOM HH­ <popMauHH B fepMaHHH. 3TO Ta[()Ke OJI.Ha H3 Tex HCTOpHl1, KOTopble JI.O npoBepKH Ka)KyTcH cOBepweHHo HenpaBjJ.ono.n06HbIMH. ECJlH 6bl Po­ 6epTa YOTcoHa-YaTTa apeCTOBaJlO reCTano H OH 6blJl 6bl BblHy>K.neH noJI. nbITKOH .naBaTb nOKa3aHHH, TO He TOJlbKO 3a.nep>KaJlOCb 6bl C03.naHHe aHrJlHHCKOH pa.nHOJlOKaUHOHHoH ceTH, HO HeMUbl CMorJlH 6bl C03.naTb CBOIO cHcTeMy paHbwe aHrJlHlJaH H 6HTBa 3a AHrJ1HIO, MO>KeT 6bITb, npHHHJIa 6bl HHOH 060pOT. B 3TO BpeMH HeMUbl npOHBJlHJlH OC06blH HHTepec K MeTO­ ]laM 3aKaJlKH CTaJlH, HcnoJlb3yeMoii B CTpOHTeJlbCTBe aHrJlHH­ CKHX TaHKOB. HeKHH aHrJlHlJaHHH ApTyp fOp.nOH Oy3HC, npHexaB B fepMaHHIO, YCT<lHOBHJI CBH3b C HeMeUKHMH ce­ KpeTHblMH opraHaMH B faM6ypre, KOTOpblM npe.n.JlO>KHJI CBOH yCJlyrH B m{)60M .neJle, HanpaBJleHHOM npOTHB AHrJlHH. BHa­ lJaJle ero COlJJlH cyMacwe.nWHM. Tor.na OY3HC 3anpOCHJI 3a yCJlyrH 2 TbIC. <p. CT. B ro.n. TIocJle 3TOro K HeMy OTHeCJlHCb cepbe3HO H 3aBep60BaJlH B KalJeCTBe TaHHoro areHTa. EMy y.naJlOCb pa3.n06b1Tb <POpMyJly CnJlaBa. HcnoJlb3yeMoro npH CTpOHTeJlbCTBe TaHKOB. OH OCTaBaJlCH wnHOHOM .nO HalJaJla BOHHbI. HeMUbl cHa6.nHJlH ero pajlHOnepe.naTlJHKOM .nJlH no.n­ .nep>KaHHH C HHMH CBH3H, o.nHaKO OY3HC 6blJl COBepweHHO Hecnoc06eH HaYlJHTbCH a36yKe Mop3e. BCKope OY3Hca «3a­ CeKJlH», 11 eMy npHIlIJlOCb CKPbITbCH. B .neKa6pe 1940 ro.na OH npOCHJI HeMueB .naTb eMy 500 <p. CT., lJT06bl OH Mor Bbmy­ TaTbCH H3 6e.n.bI. )leHbrH HeMe.n.JleHHO .naJlO eMy HnOHCKoe nOCOJlhCTBO B JloH.nOHe, Bcer.na rOTOBoe nOMOlJb HeMuaM. BecHoH 1941 ro.na nocJle 6e3ycnelllHblx nonblTOK Bbl6paTbcH H3 AHrJlHH OH 6bIJI apecToBaH H np06blJl B TlOpbMe 3HalJH­ TeJlbHOe BpeMSlj Tenepb 0Y3f1C >KHBeT a HpJlaH.n.HH. BepOHT­ 103
  • 48. flO, 91'0 enHHCTBeHHbIH wnHOH, KOTOpblH ewe He HanHCaJI CBO­ HX MeMyapOB. Bo <I>paHlJ,HH repMaHcKHH WnHOHa>K 6bIJI HaCTOJIbKO aK­ THBeH, a 60pb6a C HHM 6blJIa HaCTOJIbKO c.na6a, 'ITO npaKTH­ 4eCKH OH He BCTpe4aJI HHKaKoro npOTHBonei'tcTBHH. [UnHO­ Ha>K n04TH He C4HTaJICH npecTynJIeHHeM. fJIaBHble HeMelJ,KHe opraHH3alJ,HH BoeHHoro WnHOHa>Ka, n B 4aCTHOCTH opraHH3alJ,HH nyapbe-06eJl3, KOTOphIH pa­ 60TaJI B ra3eTe «TaH», TaK>Ke 3aHHMaJIHCb, Ilj)H4eM B lllHPO­ KHX MaCllITa6ax, npOMbIWJIeHHblM WnHOHa>KeM. OpraHH3a­ lJ,HH nyapbe-06eHa, KaK H MHorHe 48CTHbIe JIHua, nOJIY4HJla H3BeCTHOCTb 6JIarOnapH «KaHap aHweHe». 3Ta opraHH3allll~ 6bIJIa paCKpblTa, HO naJIbI-IeHwee paCCJIenOBaHHe 3aCTonopH­ JIOCb, TaK KaK yMep onHH H3 ee 4JIeHOB, KOToporo onepHpo­ BaJI BoeHHblH XHpypr. «KaHap aHWCHe» B TO BpeMH nHCaJla: «BoeHHaH nOJlHlJ,HH MenJIHTeJIbHa H CIIHCXOnHTeJIbHa, HO BoeHHaH xHpyprHH 6ecnowanHa». Bnp04eM, ¢paHlJ,Y3CKoe npaBHTeJIbCTBO He npOHBMWO HHTepeca He TOJIbKO K CKpOMHblM np06JIeMaM npOMbIWJIeH­ HOro WnHOHaJKa, HO paBHonyWHo OTIIOCHJIOCb H K HayKe. I(orna aBTOp HaCTOHwefl pa60TbI npenJIO>KHJI D KOHue 1939 rona nOJIIO PeHHo opraHH30BaTb npoH3RoncTBo Hnep­ HbIX B3pblB4aTblx BeweCTB, H3BeCTHbifl nOJlHTH4eCKHH neH­ TeJIb, KOTOpblH BnOCJIenCTBHH npHBeJI <I>paHlJ,HIO K BeJIH4ail­ weMy Bee HCTOpHH nOpa>KeHHIO, OTBeTHJI: «MHJIeHWHH npyr, Bbl, CTaJIO 6blTb, XOTHTe 60M6apnHpOBaTb JIHHHIO 3Hr¢pH,ila aJIb¢a-4aCTHlJ,a MH?» BOT n04eMY BO <I>paHlJ,HH He 6blJIO aToMHOH KOHTppa3­ BeJl.KH. OnHaKO y)l{e rOTOBHJIHCb aHrJII1HCKHe aTOMHble KOIITppa3Ben4HKH, POJIb KOTOpbIX, OnHaKO, He CJIenyeT npe­ YBeJIH4HBaTb. 06 3TOM Mbl ewe paCCKa>KeM. AnoKa BepHeMcH K C06bITHHM BO <I>paHUHH. BepOHTHO, cynHo «>KoP>K-<I>HJIJIHna p» 6bIJIO nOnO>K>KeHO B 1932 rony B AneHe repMaHcKHMH .ll.HBepCaHTaMH. llHBepcHH 6bIJIH cOBepweHbI TaK>Ke Ha 60pTy cynoB «l1JIb-ne-<I>paHc» H «HopMaHnHH». Ype3BbI4aHHo MHOr04HCJIeHHhI 6bIJIH CJIy'laH J1.HRepCHH Ha aBHalJ,HOHHbIX 3aBonax, B pe3YJIbTaTe KOTOpblX nopoA BWXOnHJIa H3 CTpOH 4eTDepTaH 4aCTb npoH3BonHMoH npOnYKlJ,HH. _ ECJIH npOMblWJIeHHblH WnHOHa)l{ BO <I>paHlJ,HH He KapaJI­ CH, TO Bce )I{e JIHlJ" 3aHHMaBwHXCH ,ilHl3epCHHMH B npOMbIW­ JIeHIlOCTH, BepOSITHO, npHBJIeKaJIH 6bI K yrOJIOBHOH OTueTCT­ I3CHHOCTH, B CJIy4ae eCJIH 6bI HX ynaJIOCb CXBaTHTb. llHBepcaHTbI neHCTBOBaJIH, pacnOJIaraH OtteHb T04HOH 104 npOMblWJIeHHOH HH¢OpMa!~HeH, KOTOpylO He MlJ,bI, BepOSITHO, nOJIy4aJIH KaK nyTeM npOMblWJIeHHOrO wnHOHa)l{a, TaK '" nOCpenCTBOM 06MeHa HH¢OpMalJ,HeH, KOTOpblM 3aHHMaJIHCb KOMnaHHH. HalJ,HOHaJIH3alJ,HSI aBHalJ,HOHHOH npOMbIWJIeHHOC­ Tn noc~e BTOPOH MHpOBOH BOHHW OT'IaCTH 6wJIa peaKlJ,HeH Ha 31'01' 06MeH. He06xonHMO npH3H8Tb, 'ITO HeMlJ,bI naJIH '1epTe)l{H nJISI CTpOHTeJIbCTBa BO <I>paHlJ,HH OnbITHOrO 3aBOna CHHTeTH4ec­ Koro 6eH3HHa no HeMelJ,KoMy MeTony (npaBna, ycoBepweH­ CTDOBaHHoMy ¢paHlJ,Y3aMH). 3aBon BbIpa60TaJI B 1939 rony 20 ThIC. T 6eH3HHa. 3TH 4epTe)l{H 6blJIH naHbl Ha OCHOBaHHH BnOJIlle 3aKOHHblX npOMbIWJIeHHblX COrJIaWeHHH, OnHaKO OHH n03BOJIHJIH HeMlJ,aM nOCJIe nOpa>KeHHSI <I>paHlJ,HH B 1940 rony aHHeKcHpoBaTb ¢paHu.Y3cKYIO xHMH'IecKylo npOMbIWJIeH­ HOCTb. npe)l{,ile '1eM nepeHTH K npyrHM BonpocaM, yKa)l{eM, 'ITO 3a 04eHb He60JIbwylO CyMMy (200 TbIC. ¢paHKoB) <I>paHlJ,HSI MOrJIa 6bl B 1936 rony BOCnOJIb30BaTbCSI' yCJIyraMH 3HaMeHH­ Toro BepHepa ¢OH 5payHa, KOTOpbIH XOTeJI nOKHHyTb fep­ MaHHlO H CTpOHTb CBOH paKeTbl BO <I>paHlJ,HH. Pa3yMeeTqI, 13 Bblna'le 3T0H CYMMbI 6blJIO OTKa3aHO, TaK KaK ¢paHlJ,Y3­ CKHe BJIaCTH He npHnaBaJIH cepbe3Horo 3Ha'leHHH HH TaHKaM, HH paKeTaM, HH aTOMHbIM 60M6aM. Bnp04eM, OHH He 6bIJIIi OnHHOKH. HeCKOJIbKO n03nHee OTelJ, aMepHKaHCKHX paKeT fo.n..n.ap, C03HaBaH npH6JIH>KeHHe BOHHbl, npenJIO)l{HJI yCJIy­ rH CBoeH CTpaHe. BoellHbIe eMy OTBeTHJIH: «He3a4eM 3pSl Te­ pHTb BpeMH, 6ynywylO BOHHy BblHrpaeT TpaHweHHblH MH­ HOMeT». TeM DpeMeHeM pyccKHe, 3aWHIlleHHhle 01' BCSlKOro BOeH­ HOro H npOMblWJIeHHOrO WnHOHa)l{a, cnOKOHHO CTpOHJIH paKeTbl, KOTopble nOJI)I{HbI 6bIJIH pa36HTb HeMelJ,KHe TaHKO­ Bwe nH13H3HH BO BpeMSI BOHHW H nOKopHTb KOCMOC. neJIO B TOM, 'ITO ewe no BOHHbI B 06J1aCTH paKeT pyccKHe onepe­ nHJIH HeMlJ,eB H BeCb MHp. OHH onepe)l{aJIH Bcex H BO BpeMSI BOHHbl: «<I>AY-2:1> 6blJIH nOpOrOCH)SlWHMH HrpywKaMH, H npOH3BOnHJIOCb H{( CJIHWKOM MaJIO, 4T06bl OHH MOrJIH HMeTb BoeHHoe 3Ha4eHHe. COBeTCKHe )I{e npOTHBOTaHKOBwe paKeTbl HMeJIH rOpa3JI.0 60JIee cepbe3Hoe 3Ha'leHHe, B oc06eHHOCTH paI<eTbl, KOTopble 3anycKaJIHCb C CaMOJIeTOB. 31'0 OHH yHHllTO)l{HJIH HeMelJ,KHe TaHKoBbIe .ll.HBH3HH. HeMlJ,bl Ha3blBaJIH wTypMoBHKH-paKeTo­ HOClJ,bI «4epHoH cMepTblo». 5JIarOnapH 3THM paKeTaM CTaJIH B03MO>KHbl CTaJII1HrpanCKaH n06ena H B3S1THe 5epJIHHa. ECJIH 6bI B CCCP Mor cywecTl30BaTb BoeHHbIH '" npOMblW­ J05
  • 49. JIeHHhlH lllnHOHa)l{ B nOJIh3Y fepMaHHH, paKeThl He 6hIJIH 601 CTOJIh nOJIHOH HeQ)I{HJJ.aHHOCThlO. COBeTcKaH KOHTppa3BeJJ.Ka cyMeJIa 06ecnellHTh nOJIHylO TaHHy JJ.O, 130 BpeMH H nOCJIe BTOPOH MHpOBOH BOHHhI. 11 JIHlllh B 1968 roJJ.Y nOHBHJIaCh nepBaH KHHra 0 COBeTCKHX paKeTax 1932 rOJJ.a C epOTOCHHM­ KaMH Tex BpeMeH. 11 13 HalllH JJ.HH HepeJJ.Ko nHlllyT, liTO CO­ BeTCKHe YlleHhle npeJJ.BHJJ.eJIH, liTO BOHHy BhIHrpalOT pa3JIHlI­ Hble yCTaHoBKH JJ.JIH 3anycKa paKeT H paKeThl, 3anYCKaeMhie C CaMOJIeTOB. 3TO npeJJ.BHJJ.eHHe C6hlJIOCh. CHOBa B03BpamaHCh K npOMhllllJIeHHoMy lllnHOHa)l{y 130 <IlpaHUHH, OlleBHJJ.HO, n03BOJIHTeJIhHO CnpOCHTh: He clla6>Ka­ JIH JIH fepMaHHIO npOMhllllJIeHHOH HH<popMaUHeH H JJ.a)l{e He nepeJJ.aBaJIH JIH eH H306peTeHHH orpOMHoro BoeHHoro 3Halle­ HHH, npeJJ.nOllHTaH, lIT06hl OHH 6hlJIH BHeJJ.peHhl y fHTJIepa, a He 13 CTpaHe HapOJJ.Horo <ppOHTa, pa3JIHlIHhie <ppaHUY3CKHe npOMhllllJIeHHHKH, KOTophle TaK ycnelllHO COTpYJJ.HHlIaJIH C BparOM? KorJJ.a-HH6YJJ.h, BepOHTHO, Mbl Y3HaeM BCIO npaBJJ.Y 13 3TOH 06JIaCTH, HO 3TO 6YJJ.eT HeJIerKO, H60 HeMUhl «1303­ HarpaJJ.HJIH» <jJpaHUy3cKHX npOMhllllJIeHHHKOB, OKa3hlBaBlllHX HM HCKJIlOlIHTeJIhHhle yCJIyrH, TeM, liTO BhlChlJIaJIH HX, npHKa­ 3hIBaH nOCKopee HCTpe6JIHTh B JIarepSlX, liTO H JJ.eJIaJIOCb. TeM He MeHee OCTaeTCH 3HallHTeJIhHOe KOJIHlIeCTBO JJ.OKyMeH­ TOB, KOTophle paHO HJIH n03JJ.HO 6YJJ.yT ony6JIHKOBaHhI. He06xoJJ.HMO, BnpOlJeM, npH3HaTh, liTO 13 npOMhllllJIeHHOM OT­ HOllleHHH <IlP~HUHH H fepMaHHH JJ.onOJIHHIOT JJ.pyr JJ.pyra H liTO nOCJIe BOHHhl, nOCKOJIhKY COTpYJJ.HHlIeCTBO npOJJ.OJI>KaeT­ CH B JJ.pyroM HanpaBJIeHHH, MHorHe KaK BoeHHhle, TaK H rpa>KJJ.aHCKHe H306peTeHHH 6hIJIH YCOBepllleHCT130BaHhl cj:>paHKo-repMaHCKHMH rpynnaMH. ABTop nOJIaraeT, liTO, eCJIH 6hl <ppaHUY3CKaH npOMbllll­ JIeHHOCTh npOHBHJIa HHHUHaTHBy H naTpHOTH3M aMepHKaH­ CKOH npOMhllllJIeHHOCTH, <IlpaHUHH MOrJIa 6hl pacnOJIaraTh aTOMHhlM opy>KHeM y)l{e 13 1940 roJJ.Y, H60 ero npOH3BOJJ.CTBO ropa3JJ.0 npome, lIeM 06hlllHO JJ.YMaIOT. AMepHKaHUhl nOlllJIH caMhlMH JJ.JIHHHhIMH nYTHMH H H3pacxoJJ.oBaJIH 13 ThIC5IlIY pa3 60JIbllle JJ.eHer. Ho eCTb KpaTlIaHlllHe nYTH, n03BOJIHIOmHe npoH3BoJJ.HTh aToMHylO 60M6y C TaKoH >Ke JIerKOCThlO H no TaKOH )I(e ueHe, no KaKoH CTpOHTCH CaMOJIeT'HcTpe6H­ TeJIh. 80 BCHKOM cJIyllae, HeCOMHeHHO, liTO HeMUhl 3HaJIH 60JIh­ llle 0 TOM, liTO npOHCXOJJ.HJIO Ila 3aBOJJ.ax PeHO (eCJIH orpaHH­ lIHThCH JIHlllb OJJ.HHM npHMepOM), lIeM caMa llHpeKUHH 3aBO­ JJ.013. OHH CMOrJIH nOJIYllHTh TaHKH PeHO, KOTOphlX <ppaHUY3­ CKaH apMHH He HMeJIa. BnpOlleM, Hy>KHO AyMaTh, liTO H 106 aHrJIHlIaHe HMeJIH CBOHX areHTOB Ha 3aBOJJ.ax PeHO, H60 nepBhlMH nOJJ.BeprJIHCh 60M6apJJ.HpOBKe HMeHHO 3TH 3aBO­ JJ.hl, npHlieM nOliTH nOJIHOCThlO 6hlJIH YHHlITO>KeHhl BoeHHhle MaTepHaJIhl, npeJJ.Ha3HallaBlllHeCH JJ.JIH HeMueB. He3aJJ.OJIrO JJ.O 60M6apJJ.Hp013KH, KOTopaH 6hlJIa npOH3Be­ JI.eHa 13 1941 roJJ.y, HeMUhl B naMHTb 06 aHrJIHiicKoM ropoJJ.e KOBeHTpH, cTepToM HMH C JIHua 3eMJIH, H306peJIH y>KaCHOe npHJIaraTeJIhHOe «KoBeHTpH3HpoBaHHhlH» JJ.JIH 0603HalleHHH nOJIHOrO pa3pYllleHHH ropoJJ.a. nOcJIe 60M6apJJ.HpoBKH 3a­ 130JI,OB PeHo 13 napH)I{e nOHBHJIHCb JIHCTOBKH C H(lJJ.nHCbIO: «5HHHHKyp 6hlJI KOBeHTpH3HpoBaH». AHrJIHHcKaH cTpaxoBaH KOMnaHHH, KOTopaH 3acTpaxoBa­ JIa 3aBOJJ.hl PeHo, OTKa3aJIaCh BbInJIaTHTb cTpaxoBylO npe­ MHIO. 3TO 3aCTaBHJIO MapWaJIa neT3Ha CPOliHO H3JJ.aTb JJ.eKpeT, 3anpema13wHH aHrJIHHCKHM cTpaxoBhlM KOMnaHH­ HM pa3BHBaTb CBOIO JJ.eHTeJIbHOCTb BO <IlpaHUHH. nOcJIe 6erJIoro 0630pa npOMblWJIeHHOro WnHOHa>Ka B E13pone 13 nepHoJJ. Me>KJJ.y JJ.ByMH MHPOBblMH 130HHaMH no­ CMOTpHM Tenepb, liTO npOHCXOJl.HJIO 13 TOT )I{e nepHOJJ. 13 CiliA. 7 rJIABA ellA B nEPHO,IJ; MEm,IJ;Y ,IJ;BYMH MHPOBbIMH BOI1HAMH _eJ CJIH 13 EBpone 13 nepHOJl. Me>KJJ.y JJ.13Y­ MH MHPOBblMH BOHHaMH npOMbIWJIeH- HblH WnHOHa>K TeCHO nepenJIeTaJICH C BoeHHblM WnHOHa)l{eM H nOJIHTHlieCKHMH nOJJ.pbIBHhlMH JJ.eH­ CTBHHMH, 13 CiliA 13 TelleHHe Toro )I{e nepHoJJ.a WHpOKO pa3­ BH13aJICH npOMhlWJIeHHblH wnHOHa)l{ B Y3KOM CMblCJIe 3Toro CJIOBa Me)l{.ll.Y KOMnaHHHMH H nOliTH Jl.OCTHr HblHeWHero ypOBHH, eCJIH He ClIHTaTh COBpeMeHHhlX TeXHHlIeCKHX cpeJJ.CTB WnHOHa)l{a. B CiliA KpynHhle <PHPMbl 3aHHMaJIHCb HCKJIlOlIHTeJIbHO aKTHBHO B3aHMHbiM npOMblWJIeHHblM WnHOHa>KeM. He06xo­ JJ.HMO, OJl.HaKO, YKa3aTh - lIT06bl K 3TOMy 60JIbWe He 1303­ BpamaTbCH - Ha HeKOTopoe lIHCJIO CJIyllaeB, KorJJ.a wnHOHa­ )I{eM 3aHHMaJIOCb npaBHTeJIbCTBO, npHlieM 06beKTOM wnHO­ Ha)l{a 6blJIH npOMbIWJIeHHOCTb H 6aHKH. 107
  • 50. B 1938 ro~y aMepHKaHcKoe Ha~orOBoe ynpaB~eHHe H3­ ~a~o BHyTpeHHee pacnop5DKeHHe, 3anperuaBlllee ero co­ TpY~HHKaM no~c~YlllHBaTb Te~e<poHHble pa3roBopbl. He­ CMOTpH Ha 3anperueHHe, Te~e<poHHble pa3roBopbl no~c~y­ WHBa~HCb. nO~C~YlllHBaloTcH OHH H Tenepb. KpoMe Toro, KOMHCCHH, Y'lpe)l{~eHHaH npaBHTe~bcTBoM B 1934 ro~y ~~H npoBe~eHHH 06c~e~oBaHHH BO BceH aMepHKaHcKoH BoeHHOH npoMbllll~eHHocTH, BH~HMO, TO)l{e 3aHHMa~aCb npOMbllll~eH­ HblM lllnHOHa)l{eM. 3a pa60ToH ,lTOH KOMHCCHH npHCTa~bHO c~e~H~a KpaHHe HeHTpa~HcTcKH HacTpoeHHaH 06ruecTBeH­ HOCTb, KOTopaH Herua~Ho KPHTHKoBa~a ToprOBueB nylll­ KaMH. YnoMHHYTble ToproBUbl nylllKaMH, B CBOIO O'lepe~b, '06­ BHHH~H npaBHTe~bcTBeHHYIO KOMHCCHIO B HcnO~b30BaHHH raHrCTepOB ~~H nOXHrueHHH 'IaCTHbIX nHceM H nepe~a'lH 3a rpaHHUy aMepHKaHcKoH npoMbllIl~eHHoH HH<popMaUHH. C OC060H CH~OH KOMHCCHH 06pYlllH~acb Ha CTpoHTe~efI nO~BO~HbIX ~O.uOK H3 «AMepHK3H 3~eKTpHK 60yT KOMnaHH» H HX aHr~HiicKHX KOMnaHbOHOB - BHKKepcoB. nHCbMa, 3a· ra~OtIHblM 06pa30M nonaBUlHe B npaBHTe~bcTBeHHYIO KOMHC­ CHIO, rOBopH~H 0 TOM, tITO 06e KOMnaHHH, CBH3aHIlbie CHCTe­ MoA ytIaCTHH, lllHpOKO npH6era~H K nO~Kyny COTpy.uHHKOB aMepHKaHCKoro H aHr~HHcKoro rocy.uapCTBeHHoro annapa­ Ta. HeKHH rep6epT A~~eH, ToproBeu nylllKaMH, npHHa.u~e­ )l{aBlllHH K rpynne LI.pHrca, nOKa3a~, tITO H3-3a TeMHblX Ma­ HeBpOB BHKKepCOB B 1929 ro~y 6bl~ pacToprHyT KpynHblH KOHTpaKT C TypuHeH. A~~eH 3aHBH~ C HerO~OBaHHeM: <BHK­ KepcaM .u03Bo~eHbl BCHKHe npHeMbl; B HX paCnOpH)KeHHH opraHH3aUHH lllnHOHa)l{a - nepcOHa~ ue~oro nOCO~bCTBa, If OHH npH6eralOT K yc~yraM 66~bUloro tIHC~a )l{eHruHH ~erKO­ ro nORe.ueHHH». BO~Ha B03MyrueHHH npOI(aTH~aCb no CIlIA, r.ue, BH.uH­ MO, .uo ytIpe)l{.ueHHH npaBHTe~bcTBeHHoH c~e.ucTBeHHoA KO­ MHCCHH HHKTO He C~blllla~ pa3rOBopOB 0 npocTHTyUHH. noc~e 3Toro BHKKepCOB 06BHHH~H B TOM, tITO OHH B 1932 ro.uy 3an~aTH~H 38 yc~yry O.uHOMy KHTaHcKoMy reHe­ pa~y 50 TbIC. <p. CT. AreHT BHKKepCOIJ, KOTOpblH nan 3TY rue.upylO B3HTKY, 6bIn nonpOUleH npH 3aKpbITblX nBepHX. Vl3 KaMepbl c~ellOIJaTenH ero OTnpaBH~H npHMO B nCHXHaT­ pHtIeCJ<ylO netIe6HHIly KaK 6yHHO nOMewaHHoro. HHKTO, BHnHMO, He nOCTaDH~ npOCToro Bonpoca: KaKHM 06pa30M npaBHTenbCTBeHHaH KOMHCCHH pa3.uo6b1na CBepx­ ceKpeTHble nOCbe, npHHa.une>l<anWHe 'IaCTHbIM KOMnaHHHM, B KOTOpblX He 6blnH npOH3Be~eHbl KaKHe-~H60 KOH<pHCKa­ 108 UHH? ToprOBUbl nylllKaMH 06BHHH~H KOMHCCHIO B TOM, tITO OHa Hcnonb~OBana UlnHOHOB, Ma<pHIO H lllaHKH npo<peCCHO­ HanbHblX raHrCTepOB, 'IT06bl 3anO~Y'lHTb YKa3aH~ble .uOCbe. HaCKonbKO MHe H3BeCTHO, 31'0 - e.uHHCTBeHHblH cnytIal%, Kor.ua npaBHTenbCTBeHHaH c~e~CTBeHHaH KOMHCCHH 6b1na 06BHHeHa B COTpy.uHH'IeCTBe C Ma<pHeH. no MeHbllleH Mepe, MO)l{HO CKa3aTb 'ITO :Ha c~e.uCTBeHHaH KOMHCCHH, BH.uHMO, pa60Tan a B 06~TaHOBKe, 06bl'lHO H306pa)l{alOrueHcH B ~e­ TeKTHBHblX pOMaHax, Kor.ua .uOBonbHO Tpy.uHO OT~H'IaTb no­ nHueHCKHX OT raHrCTepOB. TeM BpeMeHeM aMepHKaHCKaH npOMblUlneHHOCTb nepe­ CTpaHBa~aCb, p0)l{.ua~CH «aMepHKaHCKHH BbI30B», 0 KOTO­ pOM Tenepb TaK MHoro rOBopHT. noc~e TH)I{enOrO nepHo.ua 3KOHOMH'IeCKOH .uenpeCCHH, noc~e.uOBaBlllero 3a Be~HKHM KpaXOM Ha HblO-HOpKCKOH 6Hp)l{e B 1929 ro~y, CllA COBep­ llleHCTBOBanH rHraHTcKylO npoMblUlneHHocTb, KOTopaH .uo~)I{: Ha 6blna BblHrpaTb BOHHy, 3aTeM no.uHHTb CIlIA Ha TaKOH ypoBeHb npoMbIlllneHHo-TeXHH'IeCKOH opraHH3aUHH, tITO Te· nepb O'leHb MHorHe 3.upaBOMblcnHruHe nlO.uH 3a~a1OTCH BO­ npOCOM: MO)l{HO ~H 6y~eT Kor.ua-HH6y.ub .uorHaTb HX? O.uHa­ KO nOnO)l{eHHe 6blno HCKnlO'IHTenbHO HanpH)I{eHHblM. npaB­ .ua, KpynHble KOMnaHHH oxpaHHnHCb naTeHTaMH, HO aHTHTpec­ TOBCKHH 3aKOH BblHY)l{~an HX B HeKOTopblX cny'laHx nepe­ .uaBaTb 3TH naTeHTbl KOHKypeHTaM, a B .upymx - npHB~eKan K HHM, KaK K .uep)l{aTe~HM naTeHTOB, BH~MaHHe lllnHOHOB. n03TOMY nHTb J<pynHblx 'IaCTHbIX nonHueHCKHX areHTCTB­ BpaHca, nHHKepTOHa, Y3J<eHxaTa, r~06a H d1HTepCTeHT»­ Ha'lanH 3aHHMaTbCH BonpocaMH npOMbllllneHHOH 6e30nac­ HOCTH. OHH npo.uoml<aIOT CBOIO .ueHTe~bHOCTb H B HaCTOHruee BpeMH; 06ruaH cyMMa HX ro.uOBblX 060pOTOB .uOCTHraeT 150 MnH. .uo~~. Bblno pa3pa60TaHo HeKOTopoe 'IHCnO 06ruenpHHHTbIX Tenepb npHHUHnoB. HanpHMep,. eC~H KaKaH-nH60 uaMepH­ KaHCKaH KOMnaHHH nonytJaeT nHCbMO, B KOTOpOM eH npen­ ~araeTCH H306peTeHHe, ceKpeTapHaT KOMnaHHH HeMe.uJleH­ HO B03BparuaeT ero OTnpaBHTe~lO, He nOKa3aB ero KaKO­ My-nH60 .cneUHanHcTy KOMnaHHH. n03TOMY noc~e.uHHH He MO)l{eT 6bITb n03.uHee 06BHHeHa B noxHrueHHH H306peTeHIiH. LI.eno B TOM, 'ITO, KaK nOKa3bIBaeT on bIT, B cnytJae cy.ue6HO­ ro npouecca npHCH)I{Hble 3ace.uaTenH H3 'IHCna cpe~HHX aMe.­ pHKaHueB CKnOHHbl BblHOCHTb pellleHHe npOTHB KpynHoH KOMnaHHH (<<nOToMy 'ITO y Hee MHOrO .ueHer H OHa, BH.uHMO, Morna 3annaTHTb KalwMy-HH6y.ub ropeMblKe 100 TbIC. .uonn. 6e3 60nbllloro yruep6a .u~H ce6H»), a He npOTHl3 H306peTa­ 109
  • 51. TeJHI-OnHHOqKH, eCJIH na)l{e· BCe epaKTbl H BCe 3aKOHbi Ha CTO­ pOHe KpynHblx TpeCTOB, npOTHB H300peTaTeml. HeH30e)l{HbIM, HO nOCanHblM pe3YJIbTaTOM 3TOrO epaKTa SlBJISleTCSI TO OOCTO­ SlTeJIbCTBO qTO HH OnHa aMepHKaHCKaSl KOMnaHHSI He npH­ HHMaeT H;oopeTeHHH H300peTaTeJIeH-OnHHOqeK. BOJIbllJe Toro eCJIH KaKaSl-JIHOO aMepHKaHCKaSl KOMna­ HHSI nOJIyqaeT n~CbMO C npenJIO)l{eHHeM nponaTb eH ceKpe­ Tbl KOHKypeHTa, TO nHCbMO HeMenJIeHHO nepeCblJIaeTCSI KOH­ KypeHTy, KOTOpblH HaqHHaeT pa3blCKHBaTb ero ~BTopa. Ta­ KHM oopa30M nblTaJIHCb yMepHTb npOMblllJJIeHHblH llInHOHa)l{, I<OTOPblH npHOOpeJI epaHTaCTHqeCKHe pa3MepbI. Llpyr 3a npyroM lllnHOHHJIH KpynHble XHMHqeCKHe TpeCTbI, HeepTSI­ Hble, aBTOMOOHJIbHble, aBHaUHOHHble KOMnaHHH. Bce 3TH rpYllllbl HCKaJIH CpenCTB nOMelllaTb CBOHM ClleUHaJIHCTaM yHTH K KOHKypeHTy CO 3HaHHSlMH, KOTopble Te MorJIH 3alle­ qaTJIeTb B CBoeH naMSlTH, He yHOC51 C COOOH HH OnHoro ceK­ peTHoro nOKyMeHTa. B CBooonHOM OomeCTBe qpe3BblqaHHO TpynHo C03naBaTb nOMeXH npOMblllJJIeHHoMy lllnHOHa)l{y TaKoro pona. I13BecTeH CJIyqaH, Korna XHMHK, npopaOOTaBlllHH B on­ HOH KOMnaHHH 12 JIeT, lIepellJeJI Ha paooTy B KOHKypHpy­ IOmylO C HeH KOMllaHHIO. Ha nepBblH B3rJISln ero KOHTpaKT, oCHoBaHHblH Ha aHTHTpecToBcKOM 3aKOHe, He Mor nOMe­ lllaTb ero nepexony B npyrylO KOMllaHHIO. TeM He MeHee ero npe)l{HHe paOOTOnaTeJIH B030ynHJIH IIpOTHB Hero cyneo­ Hoe neJIO H non npHCSlrOH 3aSlBHJIH Ha cyne, qTO 3HaHHSI, KOTOpblMH OOJIanaeT HH)I{eHep-OTBenHK, CTOSIT 15 MJIH. nOJIJI. I1H)I{eHep nOJIyqaJI 10 TbIC. nOJIJI·. B ron. CJIenOBaTeJIbHO, OH nOJI)I{eH OblJI ObI npopaOOTaTb y CBOJiX npe)l{HHX paOOTona­ TeJIeH 15 CTOJIeTHH, qTOObl nOJIyqHTb TaKylo CYMMY. BHnHMo, HM He npHIlJJIa B rOJIOBy MblCJIb 3aHHTepeCOBaTb ero yqac­ THeM B npenllpHSlTHH, npenJIO)l{HB eMy, HanpHMep, aKUHH. B KOHue KOHUOB, caM OH Hero HOBble paOOTOnaTeJIH 3aSlBH­ JIH 1I01J. npHCSlrOH, qTO OHH XOTeJIH HCIIOJIb30BaTb He ero clle­ UHaJlbHbIe 3HaHHSI, a JIHlllb ero HHTeJIJIeKTyaJIbHbIe CIIOCOO­ HGCTH (TOHKoe pa3JIHqHe!) H qTO Tenepb OH oyneT 3aHSlT B COBepllleHHO HHOH OOJIaCTH. B nOH aTMocepepe 1I0n03pHTeJIbHOCTH H B yCJIOBHSlX pac­ llJIbIBqaTOCTH 3aKOHOnaTeJIbCTBa B03HHKJIH ynHBHTeJIbHble opraHH3aUHI1 npOMbIlllJIeHHoro IlJIIHOHa)l{a 11 KOHTppa3Ben­ KH. PYKOBonl1TeJIb onHOH 113 TaKI1X OpraHI13aUHH, KOTopaSl OblJIa OCHOBaHa B 1927 rony 11, BHnI1MO, ObIJIa onHoH H3 nep­ BblX Cpe.ll.H HHX,- Y. KaMMHHr ollyOJIHKOBaJI B 1961 rony CBOH BOCnOMI1HaHI1S1. no ero CJIOBaM, OH 3aHI1MaJICH «COO­ POM I1HepopMaUHH, OTHOCSlmeHCSI K KOHKypeHUl111 B OOJIaCTH lIaTeHTOB, epaopHqHbIX MapOK H OTpaCJIeH npOMbIIlJJIeHHOC­ TI1». 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BllpOqeM, paCCKa­ 3bIBa1OT, qTO OnHa)l{nbI lllllHOH IIpOllleJICSI C BepTSlmHMCH CTO­ JIHKOM 110 BceM 3Ta)l{aM 3naHHSI, B KOTOpOM 1I0MemaJII1Cb OTneJIbI nl1peKUl111 onHOH OqeHb KpyllHOH KOMllaHHH. OH 3a­ XOnHJI BO Bce OTneJIbI H OO'bSlBJISlJI: «npOBepKa nOKyMeHToFl, OJIarOBOJIHTe BbIJIO)l{HTb HX Ha 31'01' CTOJI». nOCJIe 3Toro OH HCqe3 BMeCTe C nOKyMeHTaMH. B03MO)l{HO, qTO OH ObIJI CO­ TpynHHKoM YIIOMSIHYTOH Bblllle CJIenCTBeHHOH KOMHCCHH. lIHC­ JIO TaKoro pona nOXO)l{neHHH MHO)J(HJIOCb, H KOMnaHHH Bce qaiue HaHI1MaJIH qaCTHblX neTeKTHBOB. OnHH H3 HHX ObIJI yBOJIeH, Korna oyxraJITepHSI yCTaHOBHJIa, qTO eMy CJIHlllKOM menpo nJIaTHJIH I1CKJllOqHTeJIbHO 3a TO, qTO OH BeJI CJIe)l{KY 3a )l{eHOH reHepaJIbHOrO nHpeKTopa. I1Hble KOMnaHHH npH­ MeHSlJIH oOJIee KpyTbIe MeTOnbl, H OblJIO nOBOJIbHO MHoro aMe­ pHKaHcKHx KOMllaHHH, KOTopbIe pa3pelllaJIH CBOHM neTeKTH­ BaM CTpeJIHTb B ynop B Ka)l{nOrO, KTO oe3 pa3pellleHHH npo­ Xa)l{HBaJICH HOqblO no OTneJIaM nHpeKUHH. 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  • 52. WaJIHCh B npOMhIWJIeHHOCTH nJIaCTHlJeCKHX BemeCTB, rJJ,e KOHKypeHT MOr BhmYCTHTh HOBOe nJIaCTHlJeCKOe BemeCTBO eme JJ,O peaJIHSaUHH Hs06peTeHHH nepBOrO Hs06peTaTeJIH. KaK yBHJJ,HM JJ,aJIee, TOJIhKO nOCJIe BOHHhI, COBCeM HeJJ,aB­ HO, HeKOTOphIM lIlTaTaM yJJ,aJIOCh HaBepCTaTh OTCTaBaHHe CBoero saKOHOJJ,aTeJIhCTBa OT JJ,OCTH)KeHHH B 06JIaCTH HayKH H COSJJ,aTh yCJIOBHH JJ,JIH oxpaHhI npOMhIlIlJIeHHhIX ceKpeTOB. Me)KJJ,y TeM eme B 1862 roJJ,y B lIlT aTe KaJIH¢OpHHH 6hlJI npHHHT CneUHaJIhHWH SaKOH npOTHB HeJIeraJIhHOro OTBeJJ,e­ HHH TeJIerpa¢HhIX JIHHHH. B 1864 roJJ,y npoHcxoJJ,HJI nepBhIH cyJJ,e6HhIH npouecc Ha OCHOBe 3Toro saKOHa, OKOHlJHBlIlHHCH oCy)KJJ,eHHeM rpynnhI cneKyJIHHTOB, KOTophle HeJIeraJIhHO nOJIyllaJIH 6Hp)KeBhle KOTHpOBKH. 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MHorHe H ceroJJ,HH JJ,yMaIOT, lJTO B 3TOM OTHOlIleHHH 60JIee HaJJ,e)KHO nOJIhSOBaHHe 06U.I.eCTBeHHhIM TeJIe¢OHOM. n03BOJIHM ce6e npeJJ,OCTepelJh HX: 3TO rJIy60Koe sa6JIy)K­ JJ,eHHe. BCKope aMepHKaHCKHH saKOH sanpeTHJI TaK)Ke TaHHoe ¢OTorpa¢HpOBaHHe 061>eKTOB HJIH JJ,OKyMeHTOB. BhlJIO Bhl­ HeceHO HeCKOJIhKO npHrOBopOB no TaKHM JJ,eJIaM. 3THM BO­ npOCOM 3aHHJIHCb naJIaTa npeJJ,CTaBHTeJIeH, ceHaT H MHoro­ lJHCJIeHHble nOJIHueHCKHe areHTCTBa. TeM He MeHee ceKpeTbl nepeXOJJ,HJIH HS pyK B pyKH. OlJeHb CKOpO lIlnHOHbl HaYlJH­ JIHCb paSJIa)KHBaTh MexaHHsM ClJeTlJHKOB KonHpOBaJIhHblX MaIIlHH JJ,JIH nOJIylJeHHH OTTHCKOB Ha BOCKOBKe. OHH nOJIy­ lJaJIH 52 OTTHCKa, TOrJJ, a KaK ClJeTlJHK nOKaShIBaJI 50. rro Cll1A uHpKyJIHpOBaJIO orpOMHoe KOJIHlJeCTBO HesaKOHHO H TaHHO CKonHpOBaHHbIX nJIaHOB H JJ,oKyMeHToB. ll1nHoHbl TaK)Ke OlleHb 6blCTpO HaYlJHJIHCh nOJIhSOBaTbCH caMblMH co­ BeplIleHHblMH nOJJ,sopHblMH Tpy6aMH. B OTBeT Ha 3TO aMe­ pHKaHCKHe aBTOM06HJIhHble KOMnaHHH CTaJIH cKynaTh Ii pa3­ pVlIlaTh XtJ6apKH, HS KOTOpblX MO)l{HO 6blJIO Ha6JIIOJJ,aTb B 6HHOKJIb HCnhITaHHH HOBbIX MOJJ,eJIeH. nOSJJ,Hee, nOCJIe H306­ peTeHHH BepTOJIeTOB, OJJ,Ha KpynHaH aBTOM06HJIhHaH KOMna­ HHH 06SaBeJIaCh yCTpoikTBOM, KOTopoe MOMeHTaJIhHO onyc­ KaJIO HenpOHHuaeMbIH saHaBec HaJJ, OKOHHhlMH npoeMaMH KOHCTpyKTopcKoro 61OpO, KaK TOJIhKO JJ,OHOCHJICH lIlyM Bep­ TOJIeTa HJIH, BepHee, KaK TOJIbKO lJYBCTBHTeJIhHhlH MHKPO¢OH yJIaBJIHBaJI 3TOT lIlyM. YCHJIHBaJIHCh CTpaXH nepeJJ, ¢OTorpa­ ¢HpOBaHHeM C He60JIblllOH DbICOThl KaK lJepTe)l{eH, TaK H Ma­ KeTOB HOBblX npoeKTOB. ll1nHoHbl, pa60TaBlllHe B TO BpeMH, COBeplIleHCTBOBaJIH KJIaCCHlJeCKYIO TexHHKy, npHMeHHBlIlYIO­ CH B «lJepHblX Ka6HHeTax» paSJIHlJHhlX CTpaH JJ,JIH BCKpbITHH nHceM. BnpOlJeM, OJJ,HH lJaCTHbIH JJ,eTeKTHB nHCaJI: «CaMH )KepTBbl 06JIerlJalOT pa60Ty lIlnHOHOB, nOMelJaH CBOH nHChMa CJIOBaMH: «JIHlJHO», «KOH¢HJJ,eHUHaJIbHO» H 3THM npHBJIeKaSl K HHM BHHMaHHe lIlnHOHOB». C 3Toro BpeMeHH lIlHpOKoe pacnpOCTpaHeHHe nOJIYlJalOT MHHHaTIOpHble ¢OToannapaTbI, BJJ,eJIaHHble B saMOK nopT¢e­ JIH HJIH D aBTopylJKy. ll1nHoH C MHHHaTlOpHblM ¢OToannapa­ TOM lJame Bcero BblJJ,aBaJI ce6H sa HHocTpaHHoro nOKynaTe­ JIH, XOJJ,HJI no saBoJJ,aM H KOHCTpyKTOpCKHM 61Opo H BosBpa­ maJICH K ce6e C 'IpeSBhllJaj:'IHO ueHHhIMH ¢OTocHHMKaMH. HHorJJ,a BHsHTephl yXOJJ,HJIH C 06pasuaMH. OlJeHh lJaCTO HM yJJ,aBaJIOCh ¢OTorpa¢HpOBaTh JJ,oKyMeHThl 0 saKynKax, npo­ HSBeJJ,eHHhlx KOMnaHHeH, ceKpeThl KOTOpOH OHH nOXHmaJIH. TaKHM 06paSOM, OHH nOJIylJaJIH HH¢opMaUHIo, Ha OCHOBe KOTOpOH MO)KHO 6bIJIO yMoSaKJIlOlJHTh, lJTO OHa npOHSBOJJ,HJIa H HS KaKHX MaTepHaJIOB. AMepHKaHUbl He JJ,OXOJJ,HJIH JJ,O TOro, lJT06bl SaCBelJHBaTh ¢OTOnJIeHKy npOMbIlIlJIeHHOrO lIlnHOHa, 60M6apJJ,HpySI ee HKC-JIylJaMH (KaK 3TO JJ,eJIaJIOCb B repMaHHH), OJJ,HaKO OHH perYJISIpHO npOHSDOJJ,HJIH 06b1CK. 06blCK HepeJJ,KO COnpOBO)K­ naJICSI Hs6HeHHeM. BnpOlJeM, 3TO He OlJeHb 06ecKypa)KHBaJIO lIlnHOHOB. OHH, BepOHTHO, nOJIylJaJIH JJ,onOJIHHTeJIbHOe BOS­ Harpa)l{JJ,eHHe sa «HenpeJJ,BHJJ,eHHble CJIylJaHHOCTH». ll1HpOKO npaKTHKOBaJIaCb TaK)Ke yCTaHoBKa B OTJJ,~JIaX HJIH JIa60paTopHHX H uexax 6eClIlYMHblX KHHOKaMep, aBTO· MaTHlJeCKH BKJIIOlJaBlIlHXCSI B MOMeHT, KorJJ,a HS OKHa KTO­ JIH60 npOHHKaJI B nycTylO KQMHaTy. B OJJ,lIOH KpynHoH aBHa· UHOHHOH KOl1naHHH, ceKpeTbl KOTOpOH perYJISIpHO nOXHma­ JIHCh, TaKoro pOJJ,a KHHOKaMepa nOKaSaJIa pa6blJero, BXOJJ,SI­ mero B Ka6HfleT JJ,HpeKTopa, 'IT06hl cepOTorpa¢lIpOBaTb npeJ.I.JIQ)KeHHSI KOMnaHHH, OTHOCHmHecSi K paSJIHlJHhlM noJJ,pSI­ 5-292 113112
  • 53. )laM C ToprOB H KOI-IKypcaM, 06bHBJleHHhlM KOMnaHHHMH Fl03Jl.YWHoro TpaHcnopTa. Pa60'-lHH, )lOnpOWeHHbI11 (BepOHT­ HO, :meprH'-IHO) '-IaCHlblM )leTeKTHBOM, IWTOPblH yCTaHoBI1J1 KI1HOKaMepbl, np113HaJlC5I, '-ITO OH 6blJl areHTOM KOMnaHHH­ KOHI{ypeHTa. Bce 31'0 C03)laBaJlO )lOBOJlbHO He06w'-IHyW aTMoc~epy nO.ll.03pI1TeJlbIlOCTH. ATMocepepa HaCTOJlbKO crycTI1J1aCb, 'ITO 6J1arOTBOpHTeJlbHble npoeKTbl MHJlJlHap)lepa POK~eJlJlepa 11306pa>l{aJlHCb KaK fHraHTCKaH onepaUI1H npOMblWJleHHOrO WnI10Ha>Ka! 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AnIOc~epa, C03.u.aHHaH YCHJlHBWHMCH npOMblllIJleHHblM IlInuHoHa~eM, npHBeJla JJ.a>Ke K y'-lpe>K.u.eHHIO «KOHcyJlbTa­ UHH», .u.eHcTBylOlllHx DHYTpl1 KOMnaHHH H 3aHHMalOlllHXC5I B HHX WnHOHa)KeM. O.u.Ha H3 ueJleH 3THX KOHCYJlbTaUHH­ cJle)J{Ka 3a BCell-IH D03MO>KHbIMH conepHHKaMH npe3H.u.eHTa KOMnaHHI1. PyKoBo.u.HTeJlb O.u.HOH H3 TaKHX «KOHcyJlbTaUHH» npl13­ HaJlCH cnYCTH '-IeTBepTb BeKa CBoeR .u.eHTeJlbHOCTH: «O.ll.HOH H3 HallIHX epyHKUHH, ~YHKUHH KOHcyJlbTaHTOB, HBJlHeTCH KOI-ITppa3Be.u.Ka. Bbl .u.OJl>KHbl nOHHTb, '-ITO )lJlH BHue-npe311­ Jl.eHTa e.u.MHCTBeHHwH cnoc06 CTaTb npe3H.u.eHTOM .u.o 1'01'0 KaK nOCJle.u.HHH yH)leT Ha neHCHIO,- 31'0 paCCTaBHTb ceTH: '-IT06bl OH no.u.MO'-lliJl CDOIO penyTaUHIO, no.u.CTaBHTb eMy HO>K­ KY. O)lI1H H3 cnoc060B )lOCTI1>KeHHH 31'01'0 - )la'-la npe311.u.eH­ Ty HenpaBHJlbHbIX COBeTOB. BOT 31'0 H eCTb c~epa HailleH .u.eHTeJlbHOCTH. Mbl pa60TaeM no.u.nOJlbHO, OCTaJlbHble '-IJleHbl a.u.MI1HHCTpaTHBHoro COBeTa H .u.pyrHe BWCOKonOCTaBJleHHWe OC06bl KOMnaHHH He 3HaIOT, '-ITO Mbl HBJlHeMCH COBeTHHKaMI1 npe3HJJ.eHTa. CYllleCTBYIOT .u.eCHTKH cnoc060B TaHHoro npo­ HHKHOBeHHH B KOMnaHHIO. Kor.u.a 51 y>Ke HaXO>Kycb B KOMna- HHH, npe3H)leHT nepe.u.aeT MHe )lOKJla.u.bl CBOHX nOMOlllHHKOB. Mbl HX H3y'-laeM H rOBopHM eMy, KaK Hy>KHO OTBeTHTb, KaK nOCTaBHTb HX B 3aTpy.u.HHTeJlbHoe nOJlO>KeHHe )leJlbHbIMH BO­ npocaMH Ha O'-lepe)lHOM 3aCe)laHI1I1 aJl.MI1HHCTpaTHBHoro COBeTa. 31'0 HX y6e>K)laeT B TOM, '-ITO npe3HJl.eHT npeBOCXO­ .u.HT HX, H OHH y>Ke He nbITalOTCH nO)lpblBaTb ero peny­ TaUHIO». O'-leBH)lHO, 3Ta aTMoc~epa MHoro06pa3Horo llInHOHa>Ka CI1J1bHO .u.eikTBOBaJla Ha HepBbI. IT03TOMY ellle B 1935 rony KpynHble aMepHKaHcKHe KOMnaHHH «HcTMeH Ko.u.aK», «IOHaHTe)l CTeHTc CTHJI KopnopeHwH», «HHTepH311IHJI 6H3­ Hec M3WHH3» H «)l.lOnoH» npHHHMaJlH Ha pa60Ty tIcHXl1aTpOB, '-IT06bl MO>KHO 6blJlO THXO H 6e3 CKaH)laJlOB nOMemaTb B nCH­ XHaTpH'-IeCKl1e Jle'-le6HI1UW reHepaJlbHWX )ll1peKTOpoB 11 BI1­ ue-npe3H)leHTOB. BH.u.HMo, aT1llOc~epa B aMepHKaHcKHx I<OM­ naHHHX B Te BpeMeHa HanOMHHaJla aTMoc~epy HaUHcTcKOH napnm )l0 «Bap<!:OJlOMeeBCKoH HO'-lH». 31'0 6blJl - BepOHTHO, BCJle.u.CTBl1e TaKOH HanpH>KeHHOH 06CTaHOBKH B KOMnaHH­ HX - BeJlI1KI1H nepHO)l KOHueHTpaUI1H npOMbIWJleHHOCTH CIllA. B 1939 rO)ly Bcero 200 npOMbIWJleHHblX KOMnaHI1H KOHTpOJlHpOBaJlH TpH nHTblX ~I1HaHcoBbIX 11 nOJloBI1HY npo­ MblWJleHHblX 60raTcTB CTpaHbl, CTaTHCTI1'-1eCKl1e .u.aHHble 3a 1945 rO)l nOKa3bIBaJlH, '-ITO Bcero 100 npOMblWJleHHblX KOM­ nalIHH KOHTpOJll1pOBaJlH TpeTb npOMblllIJleHHOrO npOH3BO)lCT­ Ba CTpaHbl H B HI1X 6blJla 3aHHTa o.u.Ha nHTaH pa60'-lHx. Ha­ '-IHHaH C 1950 ro.u.a KOHueHTpaUHH npHHHJla TaKHe pa3Mepbl, '-ITO '-IeTbIpe KOMnaHHH, OXBaTbIBalOllll1e npOH3Bo.u.CTBO aBTO­ M06HJleH, CHrapeT, IlII1H, KOHcepBHbIX Kop060K, ueJlJlIOJl03bl, nHIlIY~X MaIlIHHOK, IlIBeHHblX MaIlII1H, 3J1eKTpOJlaMn, )KeBa­ TeJlbHOH pe3HIIKH, npOMblWJleHHblX 113.u.eJlHH H3 3epHa, BbInY­ CKalOT 70 % n pO.u.yKUHH. TaKHM 06pa30M, nOHBHJlI1Cb ceKTopbl, r.u.e Dcero '-IeTblpe HJlH nHTb KpynHblx KOMnaHHH rocno.u.CTByloT Ha pblHKe, Ha­ npHMep Ha aBTOM0611J1bHOM. O.u.HaKo Ha 3TOM KOHueHTpa­ HI1H npeKpalllaeTcH - no 3KOHOMI1'-1eCKI1M npl1'-1HHaM, no co­ 06pa>KeHI1HM JlH'-IHOro xapaKTepa H H3-3a aHTHTpecToBcKHX 3aKOHOB. H Tor.u.a '-IeTblpe HJlH n5ITb HMnepl1H npo.u.OJl>KaIOT DeCTH KOHKypeHTHylO 60pb6y Me>K.u.y C060H, H Ka)l{)la5I H3 HHX CO)lep>KHT IlInl10HOB H B TO >Ke BpeM5I JlH60 HaHHMaeT Ha nocToHHHylO pa60Ty KOHTppa3Be.u.'-IHKOB, JlH60 BperMI 01' BpeMeHH 06palllaeTCH K yCJlyraM cneUI1aJlH3HpOBaHHblX ~JIPM KOHTppa3Be.u.'-IHKOB. Mbl paCCKa)l{eM HI1>Ke, KaKoe no­ JlO)l{eHl1e CJlO)l{HJIOCb B pe3YJlbTaTe 31'01'0 B 1968 ro.u.y, O.u.H a­ KO He06xo.u.HMO Tenepb >Ke OTMeTHTb, '-ITO OCHOBbl 31'01'0 no­ 5* 115114
  • 54. 5l13JHIIOTCH tIaCTHble aMepHl{aHCKHe KO:vmaHHH H, npaBHTeJIb­ CTBa. B 3THX opraHH3au,HHX 06ecnetIHBaeTCH 60JIbWaH ceK­ peTHOCTb, 'reM B KOMnaHHHX ,npyroro po,na. MO)l{HO ,nyMaTb, 'ITO HMeHHO BCJle,nCTBHe IIPOMblWJIeHHOrO WnflOua>Ka 3TH KOMllalUIH nOJIytIHJIH TaKoe IllHpOKoe pacnpOCTpaHeHHe B CiliA ~l HCI{JIIO'IHTeJIbHO npOMbIWJIeHHoMy wnHOHa>Ky 06»­ 3aHbi OHH CBOHM ycnexoM. HaCKOJIblW MHe H3BeCTHO, HH o~­ Ha H3 KpynHblx H cepbe3Hbix aMepHKaHcKHx JIa60paTopHH, 3aHHMaI0w.HXCH HCCJIe,nOBaTeJIbCKHMH pa60TaMH no 3aKa3Y, He 6bIJIa yJIHtIeHa B wnHOHaX{e. ECJIH HHKor,na He cyw.eCTBO­ BaJIO TpeCTa, KOHTpOJIHpyIOw.ero HCCJIe,nOBaHHH no 3aKa3Y, TO 06bHCHeHHe 3TOMy CJIe,nyeT HCKaTb B caMOM xapaKTepe PYK0I30.nHTeJIeH 9THX KOMnaHHH. TaKHe KOMnaHHH, KaK npa­ BHJIO, C03,naIOTCH HH,nHBH,nyaJIHCTaMH, KOTOpbIX HeJIerKO BO­ nJIetIb B Kal{YlO-JIH60 KOpnOpau,HIO. BcneT 130npoc: KaKHM 06pa30M OHH MoryT Bbl,nep>KH­ BaTb KOHKypeHu,mo rHraHTCKHX KOMl1aHHH, KOTopble HMelOT c06CTBeHHble HCCJIe,nOBaTeJIbCKHe JIa60paTopHH? CHJIa 9TH X He3aI3HCHMbIX, OTHOCHTeJIbHO He60JIbWHX H ,neMOKpaTHtIeCKH ynpaBJIHeMbIX KOMnaHHH COCTOHT He TOJIb­ KO B CB060,nHOH U,HpKyJIHU,HH H,neH, HO H B HX CB060,nHOM 06cy>K,neH HH, a ,n06HTbCH 3Toro, KCTaTH CKa3aTb, ropa3,n0 Tpy,nHee B 60JIbWHX rpa>K,naHCKHX H BoeHHblX HCCJIe,nOBa­ TeJlbCKHX ytIpe>K,neHHHx. 31'11 60JIbWHe HCCJIe,nOl3aTeJIbCKHe ytIpe>K,neHHH HatIaJIH nO»I3JIHT1.>CH B 1918 ro,ny. OHH B03HI1KJIH nO~JIe p0>K,neHHH He3aBI1CHMbiX HCCJIe.n,oBaTeJIbCKI1X opraHH3au,l1~ H CJIe,nOBaJIH I1X npHMepy. B 1920 ro,ny TaKHX ytIpe>K,neHHH 6blJI0 O'IeHb MaJIO, HatIHHa5l. C 1938 ro,na HX llHCJIO 6bICTpO pacTeT. 06w.He pacxo,nbI CiliA Ha I1CCJle,nOBaTeJIbCKHe pa60Tbl, COCTaBJI5IB­ WHe B 1938 roJI.Y OKOJIO 3 MJIP,n. ,nOJIJI., B 1970 ro,ny ,nOJI>KHbl ,nOCTHtIb 25 MJlpA. AOJI.iI. Ha1160JIbWa51 tIaCTb 9TH X pacxo,non na.naeT Ha Kpymlble HCCJIe,nOBaTeJIbCKHe KOMnaHHH, KOTopble I3CJIe.nCTBHe 3Toro CTaHOB5ITC5I OCHOBHblM 06beKTOM ,ne5lTeJIb­ HOCTlf wnnOHOB. 50pb6a, KOTopa51 nOBJIeKJIa 3a C060H KOHu,eHTpau,HIO npOMblWJIeHHOCTH B CiliA B nepHoA Me)J{,ny .nBYM5I MHpOBbl­ MH BOHHaMI1 H KOTopaH BceMH cnoc06aMH, B TOM tlHCJIe 1l0Cpe,nCTBOM npOlllblWJIeHIWrO WllHOHaX{a, npOTHBonOCTaB­ JI5IJIa 60JIbWIIX - MaJIblM, H306peTaTeJI5IM - TpeCTbl, nopo­ AHJIa HaCTOSlw.ylO MHepOJIOrHIO. B 9TOH MHepOJIOrHI1 <3JIble TpeCTbl» npOTHBonOCTaBJI5IIOTCSl «.n06PbIM H306peTaTeJI5IM», npeCJIc.nyeMblM raHrCTepaMH, wnHOHaMH H pa3JIHllHblMH areHTaMH 3THX TpeCTOB. 3Ta MHepOJIOrH5I, KaK H Bce MHepOJIOrlm, npe,nCTaBJI5IeT C060H JI1060nbiTHYlO CMeCb npaB,nbl H BbIMbICJIa, H Ha HeH CTOHT OCTaHOBHTbC5I. HeCO~'!HeHHO, 6blJIH CJIytIaH npeCJIe,no­ BaHH5I H306peTaTeJIeH, K HHM OTHOCHTCH CJIytlaH C 3,nBI1HOM Ap!)1CTpOHrOM, KOTOpbIH B 30-x ro,nax H306peJI tIaCToTHylO MO.nyJI5IU,HIO. 31'0 H306peTeHHe 51BHJIOCb nOMeXOH .nJI5I Kpyn­ HblX aMepHKaHcKHx pa,n110Bew.aTeJIbHbIX KOMnaHHH, KOTO­ pble HCnOJIb30BaJIH aMnJIHTy,nHylO MO,nyJI5IU,HlO. OHH BceMH cnoc06aMH npeCJIe,noBaJIH ApMcTpoHra, H OH B 1954 ro,ny nOKOHtIHJI >KH3Hb caMoy6HHcTBOM. JIHWb HaMHoro n03,nHee, B 1960 ro,ny, CTaJIO H3BeCTHO, tITO OH OCTaBHJI CBoeH CTpaHe BeJIHKOJIenHOe H306peTeHHe: p a,nHOJIOKaTOp, ,neHcTByIOW.I1H Ha 60JIbWHX paCCTOHHHHX, He HCnblTbIBa51 nOMex 01' KpHBH3­ Hb[ 3eMHoro wapa. ApMCTpOHr - O,nHH H3 neJIHtIaHWHX H306peTaTeJIeH Bcex BpeMeH, H cOBepweHHo BepHo, 'ITO OH Bbl6poCHJICH H3 OKHa B pe3YJIbTaTe npeCJIe,nOBaHHH, KOTO­ pbIM OH no,nBepraJIC5I C 1936 ro,na. BepHo TaK>Ke, tITO TaKoro po,na npeCJIe,nOBaHH5I 06ecKypa>KHJIH HeKOTopbIX 6JIeCTHw.HX H306peTaTeJIeii, HanpHMep H306peTaTeJIH 9JIeKTpOHHoro yMHO>KHTeJIH epapHcyopTa. OOCJIeAHHH BbIHrpaJI 6HTBy C TpeCTaMH, o.nHaKO 6b1J[ HaCTOJIbKO Ha,nJIOMJINI 3TOH 60pb60H, tITO B B03pacTe 34 JIeT ye,nHHHJIC5I Ha He60JIbWOH epepMe B WTaTe M3H, 3aHHMaHCb .neJIaMH, He HMelOw.HMH HHKaKoro OTHOWeHH5I K npOMbIWJIeHHocTH. ApMCTpOHr H <l>apHcyopT OTHlO,nb He 6blJIH napaHOHKa· MA, Kor,na nOBepHJIH, tITO 3a HHMH wnHOHHT. 3a HHMH .neH­ CTBHTeJIbHO WnHOHHJIH. O,nHaKO ,npyrHe JIereH.nbl 6bJ.flH He 60JIee tIeM BbIMbIC­ JIOM. HanpHMep, JIereH,na 0 Kap03epce, H306peTaTeJIe Ha(l­ JIOHa. Y. X. Kap03epc pO,nHJICH 27 anpeJI5I 1896 r. B Bap­ JIHHrTOHe (Il1TaT AHoBa). C 1928 ro,na OH pyKOBO.nHJI n KOM­ naHHH «.LI.lOnoH» nporpaMMoH HCCJIenOBaTeJIbCKHX pa60T no CHHTeTHtIeCKHM BOJIOKHaM H OTKpbIJI HaHJIOH. Kap03epc no­ KOHtlHJI >KH3Hb ca1vIOyoHikTBOM 29 anpeJIH 1937 r. B <l>HJIa­ ,neJIb<pHH. OocJIe ero ca~lOy6HHcTBa CJIO>KHJICH MHep: 51K06bl Kap03epc nOKOHtIHJI C C060H 1l0TOMy, tITO ero BbIHY>K.lI.aJIH Bblpa6aTbIBaTb epaJIbWHBblH HaHJIOH OTHOCHTeJIbHO HH3Koro KatIeCTBa, H60 HaCTOHw.I1H Ha(IJIOH COBepweHHO He CHaWH­ BaeTCH. 4yJIKH H3 HacToHw.ero HaHJIOHa HHKorna He CHaWH­ BaJIHCb 6bl H, CJIe.ll.OBaTeJIbHO, H306peTeHHe B ero peaJIbHOH epopMe He nOJIytIHJIO 6bl Wl1pOKOrO npHMeHeHHH. 31'01' Ml1ep nep>KHTC5I ynopHo H COBceM He,naBHO nOCJIy>KHJI CIO)KeTOM epHJIbMa non Ha3BaHueM «4eJIOBeK B 6eJIOM KOCTiOMe». B ,neHcTBHTeJIbHOCTH Kap03epc nOKOHtIHJI C C060H no npHtIH­ 119 118
  • 55. HaM JHflIHOrO xapaKTepa, KOTopbIe He I1MeJII1 Hl1l1erO oow.ero C HafIJIOHOM 11 ObIJIH CBH3aHbI C lIaCTbIMI1 H THJKeJIbIMI1 HepB­ HbIMI1 nenpeCCHHMI1. COBpeMeHHbIe ycnoKOHTeJIbHbIe cpenCT­ Ba, BepOHTHO, CnaCJIH ObI ero. ECJII1 JIereHna CTOJIb ynop Ha, TO 001>HCHHeTCH 9T0 TeM, liTO nyOJIHKa CKJIOHHa ynpHMo Bepl1Tb. liTO TpeCTbI CKpbIBa­ 101' H300peTeHHH, KOTopbIe MOrJII1 ObI HaHeCTI1 HM yw.epo. COrJIaCHO ~IH¢Y, KpynHbIe KOMnaHl111 ueHOH OOJIblllHX 3a­ TpaT COnepJKaT apMHIO lllnI10HOB, OXBaTbIBalOlll.I1X CBOI1MI1 lll.ynaJIbuaMH BCIO TeppHTopHIO ClIlA. DynTo 3TH Illnl10HbI BbIHBJIHIOT H300peTeHHH, KOTopbIe MoryT cnOCOOCTBOBaTb CHI1JKeHI1IO ueH, nOXI1lll.aIOT I1X, nOCJIe lIero MorYlll.eCTBeHHbIe npOMbIIllJIeHHI1KH rJIylllaT 11300peTeHI1H. 3a HeKOTopbIMH YKa3aHHbIMH BbIllle HCKJIlOlIeHI1HMI1, 31'0 HeBep HO. MOJKeT ObITb. nOJIe3HO nepelll1CJII1Tb HeKOTopbIe 11300peTeHHH, B KOTopbIe Illl1pOKaH nyOJIHKa TBepno Bepl1T, XOTH ObI nJiH Toro, lITOObI nOBepllHBbIe JIlOnl1 He nOnnaBaJII1Cb oOMaHy: - nHJIIOJIH, n03BOJIHIOlll.aH BJII1BaTb B oeH300aI{ aBTOMO­ OHJIH Bony BMeCTO OeH3I1Ha. Pellb I1neT 0 nl1JIIOJIHX 113 Kap­ ol1na ypaHa. Kapol1n KaJIbUI1H npl1 COnpl1KOCHOBeHI1H C BO­ nOH naeT aueTHJIeH. DOJIee TH)KeJIbIe KapOl1nbI, 11 B lIaCTHOC­ TH KapOHn ypaHa. nalOT OOJIee THJKeJIbIe yrJIeBOnOponbI, nOXOJKHe Ha OeH3HH. Ho H3rOTOBJIeHHbIH TaKI1M 00pa30M oeH311H CTOHT nOllTI1 B 100 pa3 nOpoJKe, lIeM OObIlIHbIH oeH­ 311H. H300peTaTeJIb OObIliHO KJIaneT B KapMaH KpynHylO CyMMy, nOJIyllHB ee 3a ¢OpMyJIy nI1JIIOJII1, H nOCJIe neMOHCT­ pauHI1 OnblTa HClIe3aeT. HeKoTopbIe 11300peTaTeJIH HaxonHT­ CSI B TlOpbMe... - Te, nJiSI KOTOpbIX B MOMeHT neMoHCTpaUI1H OnbITa ObIJIa BbI3BaHa nOJIHUI1H; - KapolOpaTop, n03BOJIHIOlll.I1H COKpalll.aTb pacxon oeH­ 3HHa npl1MepHO Ha 50%'. 31'0 H300peTeHHe B ocooeHHocTH nOJI)I{HbI ObIJIH ObI rJIYlllHTb He¢THHHKI1, OnaCalOlll.l1eCH CHH­ )KeHHH CYMMbI CBOHX OOOpOTOB. KapOlOpaTopbI TaKoro pona neHCTBI1TeJIbHO ObIJII1 CKOHCTpyl1poBaHbI. OHH HCKJlIOllI1TeJIb­ HO TOliHO n03HpYIOT oeH311H, YllHTbIBaSl aTllfOc¢epHYIO BJIaJK­ HOCTb, TeMnepaTypy H T. n. OnHaKO OHI1 HaCTOJIbKO CJIOJKHbI, 'lTO lIepe3 5 MHHyT BbIXonHT H3 CTpOH. 31'0 HaCTOHlll.He Ma­ JIeHbKHe 3aBonbl, nJiH ¢yHKuHoHHpoBaHHH KOTOpbIX nOHa­ nOOHJIHCb ObI 3JIeKTpOHHO-BbIlIHCJII1TeJIbHbIe MaIllHHbI. A 3KO­ HOMHH oeH311Ha naJIeKO He nOCTHraeT 50%; -. HeneperopalOIuaH 3JIeKTpHlieCKaH JIaMna HaKaJII1Ba­ HHH. 31'0 - HCKJllOlIl1TeJIbHO ynopHbII1 MH¢. B ClIlA lIaCTO paccKa3bIBaIoT 00 OJJ.HOM nOKynaTeJIe. KOTOpblH CJlYllaHHO KynHJI JIaMnoliKY 11 KOToporo nOCeTHJI npeJJ.cTaBI1TeJIb Kpyn­ HOH npOMbIIllJIeHHOH KOMnaHI1H. npocH npoJJ.aTb eMy JIaM­ nOliKY 3a JIIOOyIO ueHy. OpenCTaBHTeJIb KOMnaHl111 001>HCHI1JI eMy, liTO 31'0 OnblTHaH MOJJ.eJIb, KOTopaH He nOJIJKHa ObIJIa nocTynHTb B npOnaJKY. OC8)KnaeMbIH BonpOCaMI1, npenCTa­ BI1TeJIb KOMnaHHI1 B KOHue KOHUOB npH3HaJICfl: «3Ta OnbIT­ HaH JIaMnOliKa HI1KOrna He neperopaeT. ECTb JIaMnOllKI1. KO­ TopbIe ropHT CO BpeMeH 3nHCOHa. ECJIH ObI MbI n03BOJIHJIH npOJJ.aBaTb HX, Hallle npennpl1flTHe naBHO yJKe npeKpaTI1JIO ObI CBoe CYlll.eCTBOBaHl1e». B JJ.eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTI1 JKe «3JIbIe TpeCTbI» XOTeJIH ObI 3HaTb, KaK np0l13BOnHTb nOnOOHbIe JIaMnOliKH. B03MO)KHO, liTO Ta­ Kl1e JIaMnOliKH MOJKHO ObIJIO ObI np0113BOn11Tb, eCJIH neJIaTb HI1':H JIaMn HaKaJII1BaHI1H H3 pueHI1H. Ho neJIO B TOM, liTO pe­ HI1H - I1CKJIlOlIl1TeJIbHO penKI1H MeTaJIJI, a npOH3BOnl1Tb ero CI1HTeTWIeCKH no yMepeHHOH ueHe MbI ew.e He yMeeM. OOKa He nOHBI1TCH COBpeMeHHbIH aJIXI1MHK, YMelOlll.I1H nellleBO 113­ rOTOBJIHTb peHHH, MbI He YBl1nl1M BellHbIX JIaMn HaKaJIHBaHI1H. TeM BpeMeHeM «3JIbIe TpeCTbI» ynopHO CTapaIOTCH 3aMeHHTb HaKaJII1BaHl1e ¢JIyopecueHUl1eH. a nOCJIenHlO1O - 3JIeKTpO­ ¢OTOJlIOMI1HeCue HUl1eH, KOTopafl neHCTBHTeJIbHO naeT npaK­ THlieCKI1 BellHbIe 11 nOTpeOJIHIOlll.l1e OlleHb MaJIO 9HeprHH I1C­ TOllHI1KI1 CBeTa; - 'BeliHoe JIe3BI1e nJIH OpHTbH. TeopeTHlieCKH TaKHe JIe3­ BI1S1 MOJKHO neJIaTb 113 KapOHna BOJIb¢paMa. Ho npaKTHlIe­ CKI1 MbI He yMeeM npHnaBaTb Kapol1ny BOJIb¢paMa ¢OPMY JIe3BHH nJiH OpH1'bH. MOJKeT ObITb, Korna-Hl1oynb 91'0 ynac1'­ CH, HO nOKa, K COJKaJIeHI1IO, HHKOMy He ynaBaJIOCb cne­ JIaTb 31'0. B 3aKJIIOlIeHHe 91'OH rJIaBbI Mbl nonYCTHM HeI<oTopbIH aHaXpOHI13M 11 npHBeJJ.eM cnHCOK cpenC1'B nOJIylleHHH HH­ ¢opMaUHH 0 KOHKypeHTa~ npHMeHHeMbiX 8MepHKaHCKHMH IlPOMbIIllJIeHHHKaMH. 31'01' cnHCOK ObIJI onYOJIHKOBaH nOKTO­ pOM YOpTOM Y3HJJ.OM B JKypHaJIe «KeMHKJI HHnJKHHl1pHHr» 23 MaH 1965 r., onHaKO Bce 9TH cpenC1'Ba npHMeHHJIHCb B nepl10n, KOTOpbIH OXBaTblBae1' naHHafl rJIaBa. H no noCJlY­ )l{HT ee npeKpaCHbIM pe3IOMe. CyulecTBye1' 20 CpencTB. Oep­ Bble 7 HBJIHI01'CSI 3aKOHHbIMI1, OCTaJIbHble - He3aKOHHbIMI1. 1. OyOJII1KaUHH KOHKypeH1'oB H OTlle1'bI 0 npoueccax, no­ JIYlleHHble OObIlIHbIMH nyTHMI1. 2. CBeneHHH, IlaHHbIe nyOJIHlIHO ObIBIllHMH CJIY)Kalll.HMH KOHKypeH1'a. 3. 0030PbI PhIHKOB H nOKJIanhi HHJKeHepOB-KOHCYJIb­ TaH1'OB. 120 121
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Y Ka)K.n.oro COTpy.n.HHKa !SbIJlH .n.Be KOP3HHbl: o.n.Ha - .n.JIH 06blt IHbiX 6y­ Mar,a .n.pyraH, KpaCHoro UBeTa,- .n.JIH ceKpeTHblX. E)I{eBe­ tIepHe CO.n.ep>KHMoe KpacHblX KOp3HH C)I{HraJlOCb B npHCyT­ CTBHH areHTa <Pe.n.epaJlbHOrO 6IOPO paccJle.n.oBaHHfI. OoCeTHTeJIH .n.OJl)KHbI 6bJJlH He TOJlbKO 3anOJlHHTb B KHH)I{Ke nocew.eHHH J1HCTOK, HO H caMH OTpbIBaTb ero. Ta­ KHM 06pa30M OHH OCTaBJIHJIH Ha CneUHaJIbHOH tIyBcTBHTeJlb­ I-IOH 6yMare OTnetIaTKH naJibueB. Tw.aTeJlbHO npOBepel-lHble .n.eBylllKH H MOJlo.n.ble )J{eHw.HHbl HOCHJIH lIaKeTbl H3 o.n.Horo 3.n.aHHH B .n.pyroe, npH ~TOM Ka)l{.n.yIO conpOBO)l{.n.aJl .n.eTeK­ THB H3 H3BeCTHoro 06w.eCTBa «OpHHKC», BoopY)l{ellHblH pe­ BOJIbBepOM. Bce 31'0, BepOHTHO, .n.OJl)J{HO 6blJlO npHBJleKaTb BHHMaHHe, HO HHl{aKOH yTetIKH CBe.n.eHHH He npOH30IllJIO. 124 125
  • 58. Ha npeJJ.npH5lTH5IX qlHpMbI «KpaHCJIep» OTJJ.eJIeHHe aTOMHOH 60~16bI, HaXOJJ.lIBllleeC5I B LI.eTpoHTe B JJ.OMe NQ 1525 Ha ByJJ.­ BYA-aBeHIO, 3aMacKHpOBaJIH nOA areHTCTBO no npOAa}l{e BoeHHoro 3aHMa. Koma KTO-HH6YAb nbITaJIC5I KynHTb 06JIH­ raUHH BoeHHoro 3aHMa, eMy OTBelJaJIH, lJTO B HaCT05lru.ee BpeM5I HX HeT, nOCKOJIbKY naTpHOTHlJeCKH HaCTpoeHHble rpa>KJJ.aHe LI.eTpoiha y}l{e KynHJIH Bce 06JIHraUHH. KorAa 6bIJI nOCTpoeH aTOMHbIH ropOA floc AJIa.Moc, MepbI npeAO­ CTOpO}l{HOCTH npH06peJIH ¢aHTaCTHlJeCKHH xapaKTep. Bnpo­ lJeM, OHH npHHeCJIH HeKOTopble BblrOAbl 06HTaTeJI5IM. no: CKOJIbKY ropoJJ. O¢HUHaJIbHO He cyru.eCTBOBaJI, ero }l{HTeJIeH He MOrJIH npHBJIeKaTb K CYJJ.e6HOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3~ npe­ BbIllleHHe CKOpOCTH Ha JJ.oporax. AreHTbl aMepHKaHCKOH ceK­ peTHOH CJIy}l{6bI JIHKBHAHpOBaJIH H3Beru.eHH5I 0 lllTpa¢e 3a HapyllleHHe npaBHJI ABH}l{eHH5I. HeKOTopble }l{HTeJIH floc AJIaMoca nOJIyllaJIH TaM pa3pellleHH5I Ha BO}l{AeHHe aBTOMO­ 6HJI5I, B KOTOpbIX 6bIJI HoMep BMeCTO HMeHH H He 6blJIO nOAnHCH BJIaAeJIbua. Ho TeJIe¢OHHble pa3rOBopbI nOACJIylllH­ BaJIHCb, nHCbMa npOXOAHJIH ueH3YPY· B KHHre «nOCMeeMC5I BMeCTe C YlJeHbIMH» 51 paCCKa3bIBaJI 0 HeKOTopbIX 3a6aBHbIX HHUHAeHTax, KOTopble 6bIJIH CJIeACTBHeM TaKoro nOJIO>Ke­ HH5I. B KOMnaHHH «3JIJIHC - 4aJIMepc» cJIy}l{6a 6e30naCHOC­ TH np05lBJI5IJIa TaKoe ycepJJ.He, liTO y OTAeJIbHbIX CJIy}l{aru.HX HallaJIHCb HepBHwe 3a60JIeBaHH5I. Y caMoro fpOBca 6bIJIH .'1I1111b ABe KOI1HaTbI B BoeHHOM MHHHCTepCTBe, NQ 5120 H 5121, HO HX OXpaH5IJIH TaK, KaK, Bep05lTHO, He OXpaH5IJIOCb JJ.O 3Toro HH OAHO MeCTO B MHpe. B KOMnaHHH «KpafICJIep» npOH30111JIa JJ.paMa, KorJJ.a ee reHepaJIbHOrO AHpeKTopa •K. T. KeJIJIepa nOnpOCHJIH 3anOJI­ HHTb BeCbMa HeCKpOMHbIH BonpOCHHK. OH pelllHTeJIbHO OT­ Ka3aJIC5I CAeJIaTb 3TO, 3a5lBHB, liTO npeKpaTHT BCIO pa60Ty H rOTOB Aa}l{e ompaBHTbC5I B TIOPbMY, eCJIH eMy 6YAyT Ha­ AoeAaTb. npHlllJIOCb YCTynHTb. K KOHUy BOHHbI cJIy}l{6a KOHTppa3BeAKH reHep~JIa fPOB­ ca HaClJHTbIBaJIa 485 lIeJIOBeK. EIO pyKOBOJJ.HJI MaHop LI.}l{OH nOHcJJ.eHJI-MJIaAlllHH. • TaKHM 06pa30M, 3TO 6bIJI BeCbMa npHMelJaTeJIbHblH yc­ nex B 06JIaCTH npOMbIlllJIeHHOH 6e30nacHocTH. fpOBC caM 06b5lCH5IeT ero B CBoeH KHHre «Tenepb MO}l{HO paCCKa3aTb HCTOpHIO npoeKTa "MaHX3TTeH"» Ao6pOBOJIbHbIM COTpyAHH­ lJeCTBOM aMepHKaHCKOH nelJaTH, KOTopa51 caMa ueH3ypHpO­ BaJia ce651 BeCbMa 3¢¢eKTHBHO. MO>KHO JJ.onycTHTb, lJTO ycnex B 06JIaCTH 6e3?naCHOCTH, KaK H ycnex B c03AaHHH 60M6bI, B 3HalJHTeJIbHOH Mepe 3a­ 1~6 BHCeJI OT opraHH38TOpCKHX cnoc06HOCTeH reHepaJIa fpOBca. OH KOHTpOJIHpOBaJI TaK>Ke CJIy>K6y aTOMHoro lllnHOHa>Ka B fepMaHHH. fpOBC npHKa3aJI B ¢eBpaJIe 1945 rOJJ.a noJJ.­ BeprHyTb 60M6apJJ.HpoBKe repMaHcKHe 3aBOAbI 06ru.eCTB3 «AY3p» B OpaHHeH6ypre, TaK KaK npeAnoJIaraJIOCb, lJTO OHH MOrJIH pa60TaTb HaJJ. repMaHCKHM aTOMHbIM npoeKTOM. LI.JIH MaCKHpOBKH ueJIH 3TOH 60M6apJJ.HpOBKH OH npHKa3aJI COBeplllHTb HaJIeT H Ha ropoJJ. UocceH. Bo BpeM5I 3TOH Mac­ KHpOBOlJHOH 60M6apAHpOBKH 6WJI paHeH KpynHwH HeMeu­ KHH CneUHaJIHCT TaHKOBbIX BOHCK reHepaJI fYJJ.epHaH, KOTO­ PbIH B TO BpeM5I 6bIJI HalJaJIbHHKOM reHepaJIbHOrO lllTa6a repMaHCKOH apMHH. COlO3HHKaM nOBe3JIO. 23 anpeJI5I 1945 r. B iliTaa¢YPTe 6bIJIO 06Hapy}l{eHO 1200 T ypaHoBoH PYJJ.bI, KOTOpyIO HeMUbI KOH¢HCKOBaJIH B 1940 roJJ.Y B 5eJIbfHH. TOTliac areHTbI COlO3HHKOB M06HJIH30­ BaJIH HeMeUKHH TapHbIH 3 a BOJJ., KOTOpbIH 3a n5lTHaAuaTb AHeH nOA OrHeM HeMeUKOH apTHJIJIepHH H3rOTOBHJI 20 TbIC. 60lJeK. 3aTeM ueHHa51 PYA3 6bIJIa BbIBe3eHa H3 fepMaHHH Ha rpY30BbiX aDTOM06HJI5IX. nOcJIe 3Toro y fepMaHHH He OCTa­ JIOCb HHKaKOH 6a3W AJI5I C03JJ.aHH5I c06CTBeHHOH aTOMHOH 60M6bl. HeMeUKHe CneUHaJIHCTbI B 06JIaCTH 51JJ.epHoH 3HeprHH 6bI­ JIH nepeBe3eHbI B Be3HHe, HO MeCTHoe HaCeJIeHHe npHH5IJIO HX 3a MaplllaJIa neT3Ha Hero CBi'lTy Ii YCTPOHJIO MaHH¢eCTa­ lJ,HH. Hx oTnpaBHJIH CaMOJIeTOM B AHrJIHIo. C nOMOll.I.bIO MHKPO¢OHOB 6bIJIH 3anl1CaHbI Bce HX pa3rOBOpbI. 3TH cne­ UHaJIHCTbI OnaCaJIHCb, lJTO 3MepHKaHUbI BOCnOJIb3YIOTC5I Kor­ JJ.a-HH6YAb HX 3HaHH5IMH H A06blOTCH nporpecca B C03A8HHH aTOMHbIX 60M6. YiM H B rOJIOBy He npHXOAHJIa MbICJIb, flTO Y aMepHKaHueB y>l{e eCTb aTOMHa51 60M6a, H60 HeMeUKHe ceKpeTHble CJIy}l{6bI H HaUHCTCKHe pyKoBoAHTeJIH, KOTOpbIX 3TH CJIy}l{6bI OCBeJJ.OMJl5IJlH H C KOTOpbIMH YlJeHble-aTOMHHKH nOJJ.Aep>KHBaJIH npeKpaCHble OTHOllleHM5I, COBepllleHHO He JJ.onycKaJII1 TaKOH B03MO>KHOCTH. n03TOMY, KorJJ.a CTaJIa H3­ BeCTHa 3Ta HOBOCTb, HeMeUKHe YlJeHble 6bIJlH nOpa}l{eHbl 60Jlbllle, lJeM lJHTaTeJIH HaYlJHO-¢aHTaCTHlJeCKHX pOMaHOB. KorJJ.a OTTO XaH, OTKpblBlllHH 51BJIeHHe JJ.eJleHH5I ypaHa, Y3HaJl 06 aMepHKaHcKoH aToMHoH 60M6e, OH CHalJaJIa XOTeJI nOKOHlJHTb }l{H3Hb caMoy6HHcTBOM, HO 3aTeM npeJJ.nolJeJI HanHTbC5I. HHKTO He AyMaJI, lJTO y aMepllKaHUeJ? y}l{e eCTb 60M6a, HeCMOTp51 Ha TOT ¢aKT, lJTO 600 TbIC. aMepHKClHueB pa60TaJIH HaJJ. npoeKTOM «MaHJ,SpTTeH». UeJIble ropOAa YC­ KOJIb3HyJIH OT BHHMaHH5I HeMeUKOH ceKpeTHOH CJIy}l{6bI B CiliA. 127
  • 59. BOM6bl 6blJIH C6pOWeHbl Ha XHpOCHMy Ii Haracal<H; 51rro­ HH5I KamlTyJIHpOBaJIa. KaK TOJIbKO aMepHKaHQbl BbICa.n.HJIHCb, "IT06bl OKI{yrrHpoBaTb cTpaHy, OHH YHH"ITO)l{HJIH .n.Ba .n.eHCT­ nylOr.u.HX QHKJIOTpOHa, a TaK)I{e O.n.HH CTpOHBWHHC5I. 3TH CJIy­ )I{HBWHe "IHCTO HCCJIe.n.OBaTeJIbCKliM QeJI5IM yCTpoikTna 6bl­ - JIH rrpaKTH"IeCKH He rrpHMeHHMbI .n.JI5I rrpOH3Bo.n.CTBa KaKOH 6bl TO HH 6blJIO 601l16bl. 11 aMepHKaHUbl COBepWHJIH Tor.n.a o.n.Hy H3 caMblX cepbe3HblX rrCHXOJIOrH"IeCI<HX OWH60K. AMepHKaHQaM OCTaBaJIOCb pa3peWHTb cnopHblH Borrpoc, CB5I3aHHbIH C orrpe.n.eJIeHHeM BI(JIa.n.a CBOHX COI03HHKOB B co­ 3.n.aHHe aTOMHO~1 60M6bl. 4TO KaCaeTC5I AHrJIHH, rrOJIO)l{eHHe OCJIO)l{H5IJIOCb "IHCTO TeXHHQeCKHM BonpOCOM: opHrHHaJI aTOMHoro corJIaWeHH5I, 3aKJIIO"IeHHorO 4ep"lMJIJIeM H PY3BeJIbTOM 18 CeHT5I6p51 1944 r., HC"Ie3. OH 6blJI HaH.n.eH MHorHe ro.n.bl cnycT5I B apXH­ Be, Ky.n.a ero rrOJIO)KHJI "IHHOBHHK, He OCMeJIHBInHHC5I npo­ C~WTpeTb narrKy, TaK KaK Ha HeH 6blJIO HarrHcaHO «COBep­ IUCIIHO ceKpeTHo». Tax Kal( naIIKa 6blJIa rrOMe"leHa KO.n.OBbIM Ha3BaHHeM, 0603Hat laBwHM B AHrJIHH rrpOH3Bo.n.CTBO aTOM­ HMI 60M6bl,- «npOH3BO.n.CTBO CnJIaBOB .n.JI5I Tpy6», OH rro­ JIO)KHJI ee B .n.eJIO 0 napOBblX KOTJIax. ECJIH 6bl 3TOT 6lopo­ KpaT nOCMOTpeJI Ha no.n.nHCH, OH CrrpOCHJI 6bl ce651, nO"leMy .n.OKJIa.n. 0 napOBWX KOTJIaX 6WJI rro.n.rrHcaH 4ep"lHJIJIeM M PY3BeJIbTOM. Bo BC5IKOM CJIY"lae, aHrJIH"IaHe HMeJIH npaBO 3aHHMaTbC5I npHMeHeHHeM 5IJl.epHOH 3HeprHH B npOMbIWJIeH­ . HblX QeJIHX, 'ITO OHH H .n.eJIaJIH, BnpOtJeM, CTapa5lCb orpa.n.HTb ce65I B TO )l{e BpeM5I aT aMepHKaHCKoro WrrHOHa)l{a. C <ppaHQY3aMH .n.eJIO 06CT05lJIO CJIO)l{Hee. <I>pe.n.epHK >Ko­ JIHo-KIOPH c.n.eJIan 3a5lBKY Ha HeCKOJIbKO naTeHTOB B 06JIa­ CTH aToMHOH 3HeprHH. OH HCrrOJIb30BaJI HX .n.JI5I 3ar.u.HTbl rr03HQHH <I>paHQHH, "Iero aMepHKaHQbl TaK H He npOCTHJIM eMY. 113BecTHO, "ITO rrpOH30WJIO H KaKHM 06pa30M <I>paH­ QH5I caMOCT05ITeJIbHO C03.n.aJIa aTOMHble y.n.apHble CHJIbl, 3a "ITO ee npo.n.OJI)I{alOT .n.o CHX nop yrrpeKaTb. .upyrHe Ba)l{Hble rraTeHTbl 6blJIM rrOJIy"leHbl He3aBMCMMO OT >KOJIHo-KIOPM B 1940 ro.n.y TpeM5I <ppaHQY3aMM: AH.n.pe 3JIb6pOHHepoM, AJIb<ppe.n.oM 3cKeHa3H M aBTopOM 3TOH KHHrH. B Mae 1945 ro.n.a, Kor.n.a Ha"laJIH yCTaHaBJIHBaTb npHopHTeT H pac­ rrpe.n.eJI5ITb Harpa.n.bl 3a 51.n.epHylO ~lHeprHlo, .n.BOHX H3 Bblwe­ yrrOM5IHyToH TPOHKM y)l{e He 6blJIO B )I{MBbIX, a TpeTH~1 6blJI B KOHQeHTpaQHOHHOM JIarepe. OH HMKor.n.a HHtJero He Tpe­ 60BaJI, Hoero 3aCJIyrH no c06CTBeHHoMy nO"lMHy npH3HaJIM CHa"laJIa Coe.n.MHeHHble WTaTbl AMepHKM, a 3aTeM COBeT­ CKMH COI03. 128 feHepaJI fpOBC yrrpeKaeT B cBoeA KHMre >KOJIHo-KIOPM 3a «ero KOHTaKTbl» C HeMuaMH. KaK 6y.n.TO eMy HeH3BeCTHO, "ITO 3TH npeCJIOByTble «KOHTaKTbJ» npOMcxo.n.MJIH B CB5I3H C 60pb60H 3a OCB060)l{.n.eHHe napH)f(a H QeJlblO HX 6blJIO rro­ pa)l{eHHe HeMeQKHx TaHKOB 6YTblJIKaMH C 3a)l{HraTeJIbHOH cMecblO. COBepweHHO O"leBH.n.Ho, "ITO B 1962 ro.n.y, B MOMeHT Bblxo.n.a KHMrH fpoBca, aMepHKaHCKa51 ceKpeTHa51 cJIy)l{6a Bce er.u.e IHltJero He 3HaJIa 0 6HTBe 3a napmK. ABTOp HaCT05lr.u.eH KHHrH, BepHyBwHCb H3 JIarep51 B 1945 ro.n.y, BCTpeqaJlC5I C 4J1eHaMH aMepHKaHcKoH aToMHoH pa3Be.n.bIBaTeJIbHOH MHCCMH «AJIcoc», B qaCTHOCTH C JIMQOM, I<OToporo Ha3bIBaJIH «3ara.n.O"lHbIM MaHopoM» H KOTOpblH HH­ TepeCOBaJIC5I rJIaBHblM 06pa30M 31-laMeHMTbIM aJIXHMMKOM <PYJIbKaHeJIJIM, KOToporo, BnpOqeM, He HaWeJl. 3TO e.n.HHCT­ BeIIHblH npMMep WnHOHa)l{a, KacalOr.u.erOC5I aJIXHMMH B XX BeKe, KOTOpblH H3BeCTeH aBTopy. 51rroHcKa5I ceKpeTHa51 cJIy)l{6a, Tal{ )l{e KaK H HeMeQKa5I, He rro.n.03peBaJIa 0 cyr.u.eCTBOBaHHH aTOMHOH 60M6bl. Y"Ie­ HblM rrpHWJIOCb 06b5lCHHTb HMrrepaTopy OCHOBbl 51.n.epHO~ <p H3HKH, .n.JI5I Toro "IT06bl 51noHH5I KarrHTyJIHpOBaJIa. 11 B .n.aH­ HOM CJIy"lae Ha 100%' 6blJIa coxpaHeHa TaHHa H npeBocxo.n.HO 06eCrre"leHa npOMblWJIeHHa5I 6e30naCHOCTb. KaKHM 6bl HH 6blJlO cy)l{.n.eHHe 0 npOH3Bo.n.cTBe M B3pbIBe rrepBOH aToMHoH 60M6bl, aBTOp He MO)l{eT 3a6bITb, "ITO 3TH 60M6ap.n.HpOBKH, KOTopble .n.o CHX rrop B03Myr.u.aIOT COBeCTb, .n.aJIH B03MO)K­ HOCTb OCB060.n.HTb nJIeHHblX H3 5IrrOHCKHX KOHQeHTpaQHOHHblX JlarepeH, KOTopble rrpeBocxo.n.HJIH B 3BepCTBe, eCJlH Bo06r.u.e 3TO B03MO)l{HO, .n.a)l{e HeMeQKHe JIarep5l. nOJIl-lblH ycnex Mep 6e30naCHOCTH 6blJI y.n.HBHTeJIbHbIM. XOT5I 3T0 Ka)l{eTC5I He­ nOCTH)I{HMbIM, HO 3TH Mepbl 3<p<peKTHBHO C06JIIO.n.aJIHCb .n.a)l{e rrOCJIe B3pbIBa rrepBOH aTOMHOH 60M6bl B AJIaMOrop.n.o 16 HIOJIH 1945 r. Tor.n.a )l{e 6blJIO orry6JIHKOBaHo CJIe.n.YIOr.u.ee co06r.u.eHHe: «AJIaMOrop.n.o, 16 HIOJI5I 1945 ro.n.a. CTapwHH 0<pH­ Qep, I<oMaH.n.ylOr.u.HH aBHaQMOHHOH 6a30H AJIaMOrop.n.o, co­ 06r.u.aeT HH)I{eCJIe.n.Ylor.u.ee: "Hac Heo.n.HoKpaTHo cnpaWHBaJIH o CHJIbHOM B3pblBe, KOTOpblH npOH30WeJI cero.n.H5I yTpOM Ha CneQHaJIbHOH rrJIor.u.a.n.Ke aBHaQHOHHOH 6a3bl AJIaMOrop.n.o. B30pBaJIHCb Haxo.n.51 r.u.HeC5I .n.OBOJlbHO .n.aJIeKO OT 6a3bl CKJIa.n. 60enpHnacoB H nHpOTeXHHqeCKHe OCBeTHTeJIbHble paKeTbI. Y6HTblX H paHeHblx HeT. MaTepHaJlbHblH yr.u.ep6 He3Ha"lHTe­ JIeH. BBH.n.y TOro "ITO B30pBaJIHCb CHap5l.n.bl c-ra30M, HeKOTO­ pble rpa)K.n.aHCKHe JIHQa 6y.n.yT 3BaKyHpoBaHbl 113-3a MeTeo­ pOJIOrH"IeCKHX YCJIOBHH"». 129 b
  • 60. TaKHM OClpa30M, C rrOMOmblO .n06poH BOJIH H arrJIoMCla ynaJIOCb 3aMaClmpOBaTb aTOMHblH B3pbIB. Ha.no 6blJIO eme YBe.nollIHTb 06 y.na'lHOM B3pbIBe rocy­ .napcTBeHHoro ceKpeTap51 CTHMcoHa, KOTOpblH B 31'0 BpeM51 BeJI neperOBOpbl C COI03HI1I<aMH B nOTc.naMe. He Bep51 yJKe B He rro.n.nalOmHeC51 paCIllH<pPOBKe KO.nbl, COCTaBHJIH .nOCTa­ TO'lHO TyMaHHoe H B TO JKe BpeM51 51CHoe rrOCJIaHHe: «Orre­ pau,H51 cero.nH51 yTpOM y.naJIaCb. OKOH'IaTeJIbHOrO .nHarH03a eme HeT, HO pe3YJIbTaTbl rrpeKpaCHble H yJKe rrpeBocxo.n51T HaIllH OJKH.naHli51. H a.no CKa3aTb KOe-'1TO MeCTHOH rrellaTH, TaK KaK HHTepec orpOMHbIH». CTHMCOH rrOHHJI. BCKope liM 6blJI rrOJIy'leH rrOJIH;'IH OT4eT, B CB513H C qeM rrpHIllJIOCb 3ace­ KpeTHTb ceKpeTapIlly, KOTopa51 ero rre'laTaJlai TaKHM 06pa­ 30M ceKpeTHOCTb HH¢OpMau,HH 6blJIa rrOJIHOCTblO coxpa­ HeHa. MO)I{HO 6blJIO 6bI HarrHcaTb u,eJIylo KHHry, paccKa3bIBa51 o CJIy'la5lX, Kor.na rrpH orrpe.neJIeHHblX 06CT051TeJIbCTBaX rrpHxo.nHJIOCb rrpeHe6peraTb rrpaBHJIaMH 6e30rraCHOCTH. TaK, HarrpHMep, Kor.na B pe3YJIbTaTe 3a6aCTOBKH cJIeCapeH-Bo.no­ rrpoBo.n'lHKOB ocymeCTBJIeHHe rrpoeKTa OKa3aJIOCb rro.n yrpo­ 30H, reHepaJIy fpOBCy npHIllJIOCb 06'b5lCHHTb HM, 'ITO pe'lh H.neT 0 CBepXCpO'lHOM rrpaBHTeJIbCTBeI-IHOM rrpoeKTe. Kor.na B pa60Ty Ha.n rrpoeKTOM «MaHX3TTeH» BKJIlO'lHJIH 3JIeKTpOH­ HO-Bbl'lHCJIHTeJIbHble MaIllHHbl ¢HpMbl «115M», TeXHHKH, KO­ TOPblM 6blJIO rropy'leHo .neJIaTb Bbl'lHCJIeHH5I, Ka3aBIllHeC5I HM cOBepIlleHHo HenOH51THbIMH, pa60TaJIH nJIOxo. npo¢eccopy PH'Iap.ny ¢eHHMaHHy, «aH¢aH TeppH6JIb» cpe.nH ¢H3HKOB, rrpHIllJIOCb 06'b5lCHHTb HM orpoMHylO BaJKHOCTb rrpoeKTa, rrOCJIe '1ero p a60Ta rrOIllJI a B.nBoe 6blcTpee. KCTaTH CKa3aTb, KpyrrHble y'leHble, B '1aCTHOCTH .uJKOH ¢OH HOHMaH, rrOH5IJIH Tor.na 3Ha'leHHe 3TH X MaWHH H 3aH51JIHCb nOCJIe BOHHbl HX ycoBepweHCTBOBaHHeM. TaK rr05lBHJIHCb COBpeMeHHble 3JIeK­ TpOH HO-BbllIHCJIHTeJIbHble M aWHHbI. l1TaK, 51rroHH51 KarrHTy.TmpOBaJIa H BOHHa KOH'IHJIaCb. TOT'Iac HaqaJIaCb OXOTa 3a HeMeu,KHMH H 51rrOHCKHMH rrpo­ MbllUJIeHHblMH ceKpeTaMH (HTaJIb5lHu,bl He OTKpblJIH HH'IerO oc06eHHoro). 06CJIe.nOBaTeJIbCKHe KOMHCCHH HaBo.nHHJIH fepMaHHIO H 51noHHIo H Ha'laJIH rry6JIHKOBaTb B orpOMHblX KOJIH'IeCTBaX Bce, 'ITO Haxo.nHJIH. 4aCTO, OC0geHHO B fep­ MaHHH, OHH .neJIaJIH Heaep051THble OTKpbITH51. TaK, orpOMHblH TpeCT «l1f ¢ap6eHHH.nyCTpH» 6blJI 6yKBaJIbHO Ha6HT He­ 06blKHOBeHHblMH ceKpeTaMH H y'leHblMH, Bbl3bIBalOmHMH y.nHBJIeHHe. O.nHH H3 rrpHMepOB - crreu,HaJIHCT rro opraHH­ '1eCKOH XHMHH BaJIbTep Perrrre, KOToporo «l1f ¢ap6eHHH.ny­ 130 CTpH» y.naJIOCb rrOJIHOCTblO 3aMaCKHpoBaTb; ero OTKpbITHe, CB5I3aHHOe C au,eTHJIeHOM, H Bce pe3YJIbTaTbl 3Toro OTKPbl­ TH5I B 06JIaCTH XHMli'leCKOro CliHTe3a COBepWliJIH TaKOH rre­ peBopOT B OpraHH'IeCKOH XHMHH, 'ITO 6blJIO rrpe.nJIO)KeHO .neJIHTb ee He Ha .nBe '1aCTH (XHMH5I JKHpHblX BemeCTB H XIi­ MH51 apOMaTH'IeCKHX BemeCTB), a Ha TpH (XHMH51 )I<HpHbIX BemeCTB, XHMH5I apOMaTH'IeCKHX BemeCTB H XHMH5I Perrrre). .uorrpalIIHBa51 Perrrre B 1945 ro.ny, 51 rOBOpHJI eMy 0 rrpe­ cTyrrJIeHH5IX fepMaHHH. Perrrre OTBeTHJI: «51 He 3Hal0 fepMa­ HHH. M051 pO.nHHa - "l1f ¢ap6eHHH.nycTpH"». Ero «po.nH­ Ha» rroKyrraJIa rrOJIbCKHX JKeHmHH rro 40 MapoK H Haxo.nHJIa, 'ITO 31'0 CJIHlIIKOM .noporo. Ho eMy 31'0 6blJIO COBeplIIeHHO 6e3pa3JIH'IHO. 3aTO OH 51pOCTHO rrpOTeCTOBaJI rrpOTHB pa3rJIa­ lIIeHH51 HeMeu,KHx ceKpeToB, BKJIIO'Ia51 H ceKpeTbl CYJIb¢a~IH­ .nOB, Ha KOTOpblX MOJKHO 6blJIO HaJKHTb MHoro .neHer. A Be.nb «l1f ¢ap6eHHH.nycTPH» 06peKJIa Ha CTpa.naHH51 H CMepTb MHJIJIHOHbI 60JIbHbIX, xp aH5I 31'01' ceKpeT. Perrrre, Ka3aJIOCb, He 6blJI oc06eHHO CMymeH 3THM. Ha.no OTMeTHTb, 'ITO B TO BpeM5I fepMaHH5I 6blJIa BHHOBHa B rH6eJIH rrpHMepHo 10 MJIH. cOBepIlleHHo HeBHHHblX JIIO.neii. Pa3rJIalIIeHHe HeMeu,KHX rrpOMbllIIJIeHHblX ceKpeTOB co­ 103HHKaMH 6blJIO e.nHHCTBeHHbIM, rrpOTHB '1ero HeMu,bl rrpoTe­ CTOBaJIH. Ka3aJIOCb, OHH C'IHTaJIH, 'ITO Bce OCTaJIbHOe OHH u,eJIHKOM 3 aCJIyJKHJIH, Bce, KpOMe pa3rJIalIIeHH5I ceKpeTOB. q.nHa HeMeu,Ka51 ra3eTa rrHCaJIa B TO BpeM5I: «Mbl .norrycKa­ eM, rrOCKOJIbKY 3TOro Tpe6yeT cHTyau,H51, .neMOHTaJK HalIIHX 3aBo.nOB. Ho .nYXOBHbIH .neMOHTaJK - 31'0 yJK CJIHlIIKOM». CJIHIllKOM HJIH HeT, .neJIO rrpo.nOJIJKaJIOCb. OXOTa 3a HeMeu,­ KHMH TeXHH'IeCKHMH ceKpeTaMH BeJIaCb KaK crreu,HaJIH3HpO­ BaHHblMH opraHH3au,H5IMH '1eTblpex BeJIHKHX .nepJKaB, TaK H OT.neJIbHbIMH aBaHTlOpHCTaMH, KOTopbIe HblP51JIH B xaoc H BbITaCKHBaJIH oTTy.na Cneu,HaJIHCTOB, .nOKyMeHTau,HIO HMO­ .neJIH. HeKOTopble H3 3THX crreu,HaJIHCTOB 6blJIH HeH3BeCT­ HbIMH, KaK, HanpHMep, Perrrre, .npyrHe npOCJIaBHJIHCb CBOHMH ¢aHTaCTH'IeCKHMH H.ne5lMH, KaK, HarrpHMep, 3eHrep, KOTO­ PblH B 1945 ro.ny yJKe rrpoeKTHpOBaJI MeJKrrJIaHeTHylO paKe­ Ty co CBeTOBblM .nBHraTeJIeM. Bce ceKpeTHble CJIyiI<6bl l-IHpa HCKaJIH 3eHrepa. B KO­ He'lHOM C'IeTe 3eHrep 6blJI 3a.nepJK aH B 5epJIHHe ¢paHu,Y3­ CKHMH JKaH.napMaMH. KaK TOJIbKO 06HapyJKHBaJIOCb MeCTO, «HarrOJIHeHHOe co­ KpoBHmaMH», .CoI03HH'IeCKHe rpyrrrrbl OTrrpaBJI5IJIHCb Ty.na o.nHa 3a .npyroli, K3)K.na51 Haxo.nHJIa TaM '1TO-HH6y.nb, 41'0 yCKOJIb3HYJIO 01' BHHMaHH51 ee rrpe.nlIIeCTBeHHHKOB. TaK 6blJIO + 131
  • 61. Ha aBCTpHHCKOM 3aBO.lle «PeHTTe», r.lle npo<peCCOP lllBapu­ KOn<p pa3paOOTaJI MeTO.ll nOpOlllKOBO~I MeTaJIJIyprHH. TO eCTb npOH3BO.llCTBO He nyTeM MexaHH4eCKOH oopaOOTKH npe.llMe­ TOB, a H3 C)KaTOrO no.ll OOJIblllHM .llaBJIeHHeM MeTaJIJIH4e­ CKOro nopOlllKa H 3a4aCTYIO npH BbICOKOH TeMnepaType. 91'01' MeTO.ll, HMeHyeMbIH «cneKaHHeM», CTaJI H3BeCTeH B ClllA, a 3aTeM nOJIy4HJI .llaJIbHeHlllee pacnpocTpaHeHHe. I1pe.llMeTbl, H3rOTOBJIeHHbIe npH nOMOLUH 31'01'0 MeTO.lla, CTaJIH nOHBJIHTb­ CH BO BceM 1I'IHpe, ocooeHHO nOCJIe onyOJIHKOBaHHfI Ha aHr­ JIHHCKOM H3bIKe KHHrH lllBapUKon<pa 0 ero paooTax. T04HO TaK )Ke OOCTOflJIO .lleJIO C EepTOJIb.llOM, KpynHblM CneUHaJIHCTOM B OOJIaCTH Hepa3pYlllHTeJIbHbIX HCnblTaHHH MeTaJIJIOB H MaTCpHaJIOB nOCpe.llCTBOM raMMa-JIy4eH, C AJIb­ oepTcoM, KpynHblM CneUHaJIHCTOM B OOJIaCTH npOH3BO.llCTBa CHHTeTH4ecKoro oeH3HHa, H CO MHOrHMH .llpyrHMH. I10MHMO pa3JIH4HbIX COI03HH4eCKHX MHCCHH fepMaHHIo HaBO.llHflJIO HeCMeTHoe 4HCJIO aBaHTlOpHCTOB, .llOCTaBlllHX HJIH C<paopHKoBaBlllHx ceoe I<OMaH.llHpOB04HbIe Y.llOCTOBepe­ HHH. OHH OOP03.llHJIH cTpaHy B nOHCKax Y4eHbIx, HHiKeHepoB H H30opeTeHHH. MHe .llOBeJIOCb COnpOBO)K.llaTb O.llHY H3 COlO3HH4eCKHX MHCCHH: <ppaHUY3cKYIO Hay4Ho-TexHH4ecKylO HH<p0pMaIlHoH­ HylO MHCCHIO. Ee o003Ha4aJIH HHHUHaJIaMH «MI1CT». BclO.llY, KY.lla MbI HanpaBJIflJIHCb, HeMUbI BbICTaBJIflJIH nepe.ll HaMH nJIaKaTbI C Ha.llnlICblO «MI1CT». HaM 3Ta JIIOOe3HOcTb no­ HpaBHJIaCb KY.lla MeHbllle, KOr.lla MbI BCnOMHHJIH, 41'0 no­ HeMeUKH «MHCT» 3Ha4HT «OTOpOCbI»! Halll aBTOMOOHJIbHbIH napK HeJIb3H OWJIO H cpaBHHTb C napKOM COlO3HHKOB HJIH MalllHHaMH ceKpeTHbIX CJIYII(O, H HaM npHlllJIOCh nOnOJIHHTh ero aBTOMOOHJIflMH, HaH.lleHHhIMH Ha MeCTe. 51 BcnOMHHalO 06 aBTOMOOHJIe «Mepce.llec», KOTOphIH O.llHH H30opeTaTeJIh­ HhlH HeMeu oTpeMoHTHpOBaJI, nOCTaBHB lllHHhI C pyccKoro CaMOJIeTa «illTypMOBHK». TOpM030B He OhIJIO. 9TH «BcnOMO­ raTeJIbHbIe» .lleTaJIH OblJIH OhI HaM 04eHb nOJIe3HhI, KOr.lla MhI H04hlO eXaJIH no H3BHJIHCThIM .llOpOraM WBapUBaJIh.lla. Ho Bce 31'0 He nOMelllaJIO HaM coopaTh orpOMHoe KOJIH4eCT­ BO .llOKyMeHTaUHH 0 HeMeUKOH npOMhIlllJIeHHOCTH. I1pOMhIIII­ JIeHHHKH, KaK npaBHJIO, OXOTHO nOMOraJIH. B npOTHBHOM CJIyqae MHe OhIJIO .llOCTaT04HO OnHCaTh nhITKH, KOTOphIM no.ll­ BepraJIH MeHH B reCTano, H cpa3y )Ke He TOJIhKO pa3Bfl3hIBa­ JIHCh H3hlKH, HO H BblTaCKHBaJIHCh H3 TaHHHKOB .llOKyMeHThI, oopa3UW H npOTOTHnw. I103)Ke Hac OOBHHHJIH B XHLUeHHHX, B 4aCTHOCTH B TOM, qTO Mhl YBe3JIH HMnepaTopcKylO KOpOHy faocoyprOB. Pa­ 132 3yMeeTcfI, Mbl onpOBeprJIH 3TH OOBHHeHHfI, HO, HeCMOTpfl Ha 31'0, O.llHa aHrJIHHCKafl caTHpH4eCK3f1 ra3eTa nOMeCTHJIa Ka­ pHKaTypy, H300pa)KaBIllYIO <ppaHlW3CKoro o<pHuepa, flBHB­ lllerOCH K lOBeJIHpy C ynoMHHyTOH KOpOHOH, rOBopH: «51 npo­ .llalO 31'0 no nopY4eHHlO O.llHOrO .llpyra». Mhl «cOOl1paJIH», TaKHM oopa30M, Y4eHhlX, H300peTeHHH, .llOKyMeHTw H pa3JIH4HWe oOpa3UW. B O.llHOH KpynHoH <pHp­ Me, pacnOJIO)KeHHOH Ha oepery 03epa IoHcTaHU, ceH<p MHe OTKphlJI napHII(CKHH iKyJIHK (3HaKOMhlH no KOHUJIareplO). 51 BhIHyJI OTTY.lla HeOOJIblllYIO OyThIJIKy CO CBepX4HCThIM ypa­ HOM, KOTOpylO B03H,1I C COOOH C MaH no aBrycT 1945 rO.lla. I10TpHxHBafl elO, H rOBOpHJI: «,UocTaT04Ho, 4TOOhl O.llHH HeH­ TpOH npoHHK B Hee,- H BeCb I1apH)K 0Y.lleT CMeTeH C JIHua 3eMJIH». Bce C )KaJIOCThlO nocTyKHBaJIH naJIhueM no JIoy, nOJIarafl, 41'0 fI l3epHyJICfI H3 K()HueHTpaUHOHHoro JIarepfl CJIerKa CBHXHYBlllHII1CfI. 3aTeM npOH30111JIa Tpare.llHH XHpOCH­ Mhl, H TOr.lla OTOBCIO.llY MHe Ha4aJIH 3BOHHTh B3BOJIHOBaHHhIe npe.llCTaBHTeJIH BJIaCTeH, yMOJIfIfI nepe.llaTh OyTblJIKy KOMne­ TeHTHhIM YlJeHhIM, 4TOObI OHH oOe3Bpe.llHJIH ee, nOKa I1apH)K He nOCTHrJIa YlJaCTh XHpOCHMhI... 51 OT.llaJI OyTblJIKy <I>pe.lle­ pHKy )KOJIHo-IlOpH B KalJeCTBe CKpOMHOro BI{JIa.lla B oY.llY­ LUHH <ppaHUY3CKHH aTOMHhlH KOTeJI. 110MHMO OYThIJIKH C ypaHoll1 H nOJIHOrO coopaHHH TOMOB HeOOhlKHOBeHHoro HeMeUKoro Tpy.lla «ApHHCKaH <pH3HKa», B KOTOpOM 001>HCHflJIOCh, lJTO «9HHlllTeHH 3aOJIy)K.llaJICH, TaK KaK OH OblJI eBpeeM», Mbl npHBe3JIH orpOMHoe KOJIHlJeCTBO .llOKYll1eHTOB H oOpa3UOB. ,UpyrHe C0103HHlJeCKHe H Me)KCOI03HHlJeCKHe areHTCTBa (<<EI10C». «CI10C») TaK)Ke COOpaJIH OOJIhlllOe lJHCJIO Ma­ TepHaJIOB. HalJaJIach HX nyO,1JHKaUHH. no CHX nop ell.l.e MOII{­ HO, BepOflTHO, nOJIh30BaThCfI HalllHMH nyOJIHKaUHHMH: Thl­ CHlJaMH OpOllllOp, OJIarO.llapfl KOTOphlM Ha)KHJIO COCTOflHHe HeCMeTHoe lJHCJIO npOMhIlll,1leHHHIWB, YHaCJIe.llOBaBllIHX Ta­ KHM oopa30M nJIO.llhI orpOMHOH paOOThl, npO.lleJIaHHOH HeM­ uaMH. Bbl.lla IOLUHHCH HeMeUKH~I YlJeHhlH, C KOTOphlM 5l npo­ CMaTpHBaJI 3TH OPOIlliOPhl, C.lleJIaJI no 3TOMy nOl3o.ny BeCbMa rJIyooKoe 3aMelJaHHe: «repll1aHHfI npOHrpaJIa BO~IHY». 91'0 OhlJIO .lleHCTBHTe,1lhHO BepHO. fepMaHHH Y.llaJIOCh B03P0.llHTbCfI oJIarO.llapH aMepHKaH­ CKHM .lleHhraM H yCHJIHIO, KOTopoe 3aCJIYII{HBaeT nOXBaJIbl. KOMnaHHH Ipynna cYLUecTByeT nO-npe)KHeMy H He BhIIIOJI­ HHeT OOJIhllle paCnOpflll{eHHH COlO3HHKOB 01' 1953 rO.lla. 112 TblC. lJeJIOBeK paooTaloT Ha ee npe.llnpHflTHflX, KaTaJIOr Ha <ppaHUY3cKOM H3hme I3bInycKaeMblx HMH H3.lleJIHH HalJH­ 133
  • 62. BrrpO'leM, 51 COBepweHHO He CKJlOHeH HaBJleKaTb Ha ce6H 06BHHeHli51 B .u11¢¢aMaUHH HH co CTOpOHbI .uOKTopa ApHeca, HH co CTOpOHbl ero npOTHBHHKOB. DYCTb ym pa36HpalOTCH Cy.ubI <ppaHUHH, iliBel1uapHH, CiliA. 51 me He 6y.uy 60JlbWe Ha 3TOM 3a.ue p)KHB8TbCH. He TaK .uaBHO cpe.uH npOMblWJleHHHKOB 6blJla pacnpo­ CTpaHeHa 6powlOpa, 03arJlClBJleHHaH «ilinHOHam - BOT pe­ aJlbHOCTb». 0 npOMbIWJleHHOM wnHOHame B 3T0l1 6pOWlope rOBopHTCH CJle.ll.ylOlllee: «06111eCTBeHHOCTb .lI.YMaeT ellle, LITO npOMblWJleHHbifI WnHOHa)l{ npeCJle.uyeT rJlaBHblM 06pa30M BoeHHble ueJiH. :3Ta KOHuenUHH 6blJla OWH601lH0l1 yme Ha­ KaHyHe nOCJlenHeH BOI1Hbl. B HaCT05l111ee BpeMH OHa B KopHe HeBepHa. COBpeMeHHoro wnHOHa HHTepecyeT HH¢opMaIU1H, 6e3rpaHHtIHa51 no CDoeMy .uHana30Hy. 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  • 64. aOMe MoaeneA, B KOTOpOM OHa pa60Tana nopoH B Ka4eCT­ Be MaHf;I<eHIl.lI1UbI. 011 noaapIL~ ell aBTO 1061Wb 11 Bblaan allaHC B cYM~le 3 TbIC. ¢paHI<Oo Ha paCXOabI. B KOHue I<OH­ UOB aeBywl<a H306MI4Hna ero. npHMeHeHHbIH ee c06na3HH­ Tene~1 ~leTOa aOBO!lbHO HeKpaCHB. MHorHe nlOaH nocTpa~a­ nl1 T!:II<J1M 06pa30M. ECTb TalOKe mOaH, KI)T0PbIX MO)KHO KynHTb. I1x ~'!Horo. rOBOpflT, 4TO B CIliA wnHOHbl OTblCKHBalOT HH>KeHep013 H TeXHHKOB, KOTopble cenflTCH B 60raTbIX KBapTaJJaX H >KHByi He no cpeaCTBaM. 3THM JJlOaHM cy)l<aeHO CTaTb )KepTBa~IH. nOJlY4HA aeHbrH, OHH OKa3bIBalOTCH BO BJJaCTH WaHTa>Ka, H n5raa HX MO>KHO 31<cnJlyaTHpoBaTb 6e3 KOHlla. OnHal<O, n6 MOHM OnelJaTneHHflM, caMble nylJWHe HCTOtI­ HHKI1 npOMblwneHHOH HH¢opMaUHH - 3TO He >KepTBbl, He npOJla>KHble cnellHanHCTbl, a 60JlTYHbI. 51 He pa3rJJawy TaHHbI, ecnH CKa>Ky, 4TO MHOrHe y4acT­ HHKH HaY4HbIX H TeXHl14eCKHX KOHrpeCCOB HaxoaHT yaoBO/lb­ CTBHe B 06cneaOBaHIlH 3na4HbiX MeCT ropoaa. HH B KoeM cnY4ae 51 He c06HpalOCb HrpaTb ponb nponOBeaHHKa CTbla­ JlHBOCTH H He cTaHy 6pocaTb KaMeHb B cneUHanHCTOB, KOTO­ pble npOBenH Tfl)l(enblH TpyaoBoH aeHb, HanpHMep, 06'bHC: HHH nOCerl1TenHM aOCTOHHCTBa nJJaCTH4eCKHX Macc HJJH 4acTHoro CaMOJleTa, I<oTOpblH OHH nOKa3b1Ba1OT. Ho y MeH~ TaKoe Bne4aTJJeHHe, 4TO BO BpeMH cneaYlOlllHX 3a 3THM H04­ HblX pa313JJe4eHHH OHH IvIHoro rOBopHT, H wnHOH, npoHHKlllHH B rpynny nOlleTHblX rocTeH, nOI(a3bIBaI0IllHH HM H04HYlO )I(H3Hb napH)Ka, CToKronbMa HnH Hblo-YfopKa, MO>KeT co­ 6paTb Maccy cBeneHHH. B nHTepaType 0 npOMblwneHHOM WnHOHa>Ke onHcaHbl COBepllleHHO HeBepOHTHble 60nTyHbl, B llaCTHOCTH aMepHKaH­ Ubi, KOTopble, CTpeMHCb npOH3BeCTH Bne4aTneHlle fla c06e­ CeJlHHKOB, paCCI<a3bIB310T, 4TO OHH 3aKnlO4HJJH KOHTpaKTbl C aMepHKaHCKHM MHHI1CTepCTBOM 060POHbi H npHBoaHT nOJl­ p06HOCTH ... MbI yBHaHM B nocnealieH rnaBe, Kal(He Mepl,l npeaOCTOpO>KHOCTI1 MO)KHO npHHHTb BO H36e)l(aHHe TaKOM 60JJTOBHI1. MO>KHO 6blno 6bI nemo COCTaBHTb cxeMbI opraHH3anHH ceTeH npOMblwneHHoro WnHOHa>Ka, cocpeaOT04HB B neHTpe «ronOEbl» 11 paCnOnO>KHB BOKpyr HI1X «npoJlaBu9B», areHTOB, )KepTBbl H apynte pa3nH4Hbie HCT04HHKH HH¢OpMau,HH. .lI.0­ BOJJbHO nI060nb1THO, 4TO ao CHX nop opraHH3aUHH nOJl06HO­ ro pOJla O¢HUHanbHO 6bIJJO nHKBllaHpOBaHO 04eHb MaJJO. 3TO 06bHCHHeTCH, BepOHTHo, TeM, 4TO J1X >KepTBbl B BocTopre OT Toro, tITO n03HaKOMHnHCb C HHMI1, nOJJaraH Koraa-HH6yab 160 Bocnonb30BaTbCH 3THM 3HaKOMCTBOM. Haao npH3HaTb, 4TO npaBHTeJlbCTBa noolllpHIOT npoMblwneHHbl11 WnHOHa>K. TaK, aHrJJHHCKOe npaBHTenbcTBo l(ym1JJO no CIlH>KeHHbIM u,eHaM Jl!lH cBoeii Mej],HUI1HCKOH cny>K6bl MeaHl(aMeHTbl, H3rOTOB­ neHHble B I1Ta.rlHH Ha OCHOB3Hl1H aOI<y ·reHTOB H 06pa3UOB, noxHllleHHblx B aMepHKaHcKHx I<OMnaHH5lX. nopa, BHaHMO, nOCTaBHTb Bonpoc: eCTb JJI1 HCKpeHHHe WnI10HbI, aeHCTBYIOUl.He H3 I1JleanbHbIX n06y>KaeHuH Hnu Be­ JJHKoaYlUHH? I13BecTHbl CJJy4au, Koraa cneuuanHCTbl no CBoeH HHJ1UHa­ THBe H 6ecnnaTHO C006111aJJH npOMbllUneHHble ceKpeTbI pa3­ BHBalOlllHMCH CTpaHaM, 4T06bl YMeHbwHTb TaM HHllleTY II CTepeTb CJIeabl I<OJIOHH3aUHI1. Bnp04eM, 6blJIO npeJIJIO)leliO opraHH30BaTb BceMHpHylo cHcTeMy 6ecn.TJaTHorO pacnpoCT­ paHeHHH TexHH4eCKOH HH¢OPMall.HH B pa3BHBalOlllHxCfl CTpaHax. TeM He MeHee CJIy4aH TaKoro poaa peaKH. npO¢C0103bl BO Bcex CTpaHax 3alllHlllalOT npaBO Ka>KaOro }IMeTb CBOH c06CTBeHHble nOJIHTH4eCKHe y6e>KaeHHH H npoTecTyloT - no­ pOH pe3Ko, HO BCerJla cnpaBeaJIHBO - npoTHB YBOJIbHeHHl'i no nOJIHTH4eCKHM MOTHBaM. Ho B UeJIOM lllnHOH aeHCTByeT H3 KOpbICTH. OH pa60TaeT nOTOMY, 4TO 31'0 06ecne4HBaeT eMy aoxoa, H, no BceH BHLlHMOCTH, KpynHblH. Bnp04eM, B nocJIea­ HeM rJIaBe Mbl yBHJlHM, 4TO no KpaHHei1 Mepe B CWA npo­ MblWJIeHHaH KOHTppa3Beal<a TaK)I<e JloxoaHa. Ea~IHCTBeHHbIM CpeJlCTBOM npeaOTBpallleHH5l WnHOHa)Ka HBnHeTCH, KOHe4­ HO, cya H HaKa3aHHe no 3aKoHy. Mbl >KHBeM y>Ke He B Te BpeMeHa, l<oraa 4aCTHa5l nOJIHUHH Kpynna MOrJIa noaBep­ raTb lUlIHOHOB nblTKaM Ha MeCTe H XOpOHBTb HX Tpynbl Ha TeppI1TOpml 3aBoaa. I1MeHHO n03TOMY CJIeayCT T04HO olIpe­ aenHTb npeaeJIbl npOMbllllJIeHlIOrO lllnHOHa)l<a. KaK 11 B 06­ JIaCTH BoeHHoro lllnHOHa)l(a, 95% npOMbllllJJeHHOH HH¢opMa­ 1.1.1111 MO)KeT 6blTb nOJIytIeHO nyTeM npOCToro 4TeH HH npeccb!. OJlHa)KJlbI BO BpeMH cyaa Haa WnHOHOM D WBeHIl.apHH 06­ BI1HHeMblfl, 3alllHllla5lCb, 3a5lBHn, lITO BC5l ero aeHTenbHOCTb 3aJ<JI104aJIaCb B TOM, 4TO OH Bblpe3an CTaTbH H3 ra3eT H 0606111aJI HX. Toraa eMy B03pa3HJIH: HO n04eMY )I<e, npe>Kae 4eM OTnpaBHTb BawB 0606111e1IHH I<.TJHeHTa~l, Bbl npHTi.1JIB HX B 6aHKax JlnH BapeHbR, B !<OTopble 6blnH BJlO>KeHbI Me­ TannH4eCKHe Tpy6KH C 31'HMH 0606111eHHHiHI? WnHOH He OTBeTBJI H 6blJI oCy)l(aeH. B aeHCTDHTenbHOCTH Bce )I<e MO>K­ HO aaBaTb HHTepecHylO npOMbIWJIeHHylO BH¢opMaUBIO, He HapywaH 3aKOHa . .lI.JJ5l 31'0ro Hano MHoro 4HTaTb, HMeTb 4yTbe, 4T06bl BblY>KHBaTb HHTepecHylo HHcpopMaUHIO. 161
  • 65. MO)l{HO nOJlY'laTb eme 60Jlee liHTepecHylO liH¢OpMallliIO, eCJIH IH..leTl> 1l0cTyn 1< CeI<peTHbIM )KypHaJlaM, I<OTOpble, BIi­ llliMO, cyluecTByloT B CiliA. 3TIi )l{ypHaJlbI npellCTaBJHlIOT C060H 0llHH li3 ceKpeToB HaweH 3nOXH, Hali60Jlee TluaTeJlbHO oxpaHHeMblx. 51 HliKOrlla He BlilleJl HX caM, HO, no o<jJHUHaJlb­ HblM CBelleHliHM, OHIi cymecTBylOT, Ii B 0llHOM 06bHBJleHlili, COllep)l<ameM nplirJlaWeHlie Ha pa6clTy Hay'lHblX pa60THIi­ 1<0II, pa60TalOmHX B HeKOTopbIX OTpaCJIHX npOMbIWJleHHOCTIi, 06ell~aeTCH, 'ITO OHIi cMoryT ny6J1lil<oBaTb CBOIi OTKpbITliH B ceKpeTHbIX )l<ypHaJlax Ii 06eCne'lliTb TaKliM 06pa30M CBOH npliopliTeT, KOTOpbIM raK 1l0p0)l{aT Y'leHble. BnpO'leM, BlillHMO, cymecTByIOT Hay'lHble Ii npOMbIWJleH­ HbIe wnHoHbl, BblllalOmlie ce6H 3a )KypHaJlliCToB. B lJaCTHO­ CTIi, '»<ypHaJlliCTOB, 3aHliMalOmlixcH aBTOM06liJlbHOH npo­ MbIWJleHHOCTblO, ynpeKalOT B TOM, I-ITO OHIi lleHCTBYIOT KaK wnliOHbl Ii nplilJliHHIOT TaKliM 06pa30M 60JlbWOH ymep6 npOMbIWJleHHOCTIi. )KYPHaJlliCTbl CTpeMHTCH liH<jJOpMlipOBaTb 06meCTBeH­ HOCTb, a He KOHKYPlipYlOmlie ¢liPMbI. OOJlbme Taro, TeXHIi. lJeCKlie lleTaJlIi B HaylJHO-nonyJlHpHblX CTaTbHX CJlliWI(QM 06mli, lJT06bl OHIi MarJlIi lleHCTBliTeJlbHO OCBe1l0MJlHTb KOH­ KypeHTOB. TeM He MeHee OTMeTliM, lJTO liHTepeCbl 06meCTBeHHOCTIi Ii lJaCTHOH KOMnaHliH He BCerlla COBnallalOT, Ii nopaH 06meCT­ BeHHOCTb liMeeT npaBo nOJlYlJliTb HeKoTopylO liH¢opMaUlilO, KOTOpylO llaCTHaH <jJlipMa 3aliHTepecoBaHa CKpblTb. 11 rJIABA IIPOMbIIIIJIEHHAH ROHTPPA3BE,[I;I~A _~... ~lTOH KHlire l'lbI nOKa3aJlli OnaCHOCTb _~. npOMblWJleHHOrO mnliOHa)l{a. aT Hero HalJliHalOT 3HepfHlJHO 3amlimaTbCH; B lJaCTHOCTIi, aMepHKaHUbI npliBJleKalOT llJlH ::)1'oro CliJlbHblX .JJlOlleH Ii MorymeCTBeHHble opraHli3aUlili. K lJliCJlY CliJlbHblX JllOlleii OTHOCliTCH allBOKaT YOJlTep M3Hc<jJliJlll. 3TOT 6b1B­ IllliH napTli3aH, cpa.»<aBIllliflCH B pHllax IOrOCJlaBCl<oro llBIi­ meHliH ConpOTHBJleHliH BO BpeMH BTOpOn MlipOBOH BOHH~, JlliKBlilllipOBaJl 6 aHllY, KOTopaH nOXlimaJla ¢apMaueBTlilJe­ C[(lie ceKpeTbl rpynnbl «UliaHaMlill»; na 6aHlla nplilJliHliJla rpynne y6b1TKIi, COCTaBliBWlie KpyrJleHbKYIO CYMMY 13 100 MJlH. 1l0JlJl., a lJeM Mbl y)Ke paCCKa3aJlli B npe1lblllymerl r JI aBe. • B 06J1aCTIi 6e30naCHocTIi Ii npOMblIllJleHHOIi KOHTppR3­ BellKI1 CJlellyeT oc060 OTMeTliTb nHTb aMepliKaHcKlix opraHIi­ 3aUliH: «opaHC», «nliHKepTOH», «Y3KeHxaT», «fJl06» Ii «HH­ repCTeHT». «nliHKepTOH» - 3TO, pa3yMeeTcH, KJlaCClilJeCKOe areHTCT­ BO, KOTopoe qaCTO <jJliryplipyeT B CTapOH xpoHliKe liJlIi B YlJe6HliKax liCTOplili. AreHTcTBO «Y3KeHxaT» 3apa6aTbIBaeT 20 MJlH. 1l0JlJl. ~ rOll. aHa liMeeT 22 OTlleJleHIiH 13 CiliA Ii 12 B JIaTliHcKoli AMepliKe. Y Hero liMeeTCH 2,5 MJlH. nanOK C 1l0KyMeHTaMI1, KacalOmliMHCH JlliU, KOTOpblM MoryT yrpo.»<aTb WnliOHbI. B COOTBeTCTBHIi C npaBliJlaMIi KpynHblx lleTeKTHBOB li3 flO­ JlliueileKHx pOMaHOB areHTCTBO «Y3KeHxaT» n01l03peBaeT Bcex; 01lliH li3 era lllipeKTOpoB 3aHBliJl B liHTepBblO, lITO «MO)l{HO 6blTb 1l0KTOpOM HayK Ii B TO )l(e BpeMH nOllJleUOM». 3,5 TbIC. lleTeKTliBOB pa60TalOT B nOM areHTCTBe. 3 TbIC. l<pynHblx aMepliKaHcKlix <jJlipM HBJlHIOTCH era nOCTOHHHblMIi KJllieHTaMIi. MHorlie areHTbl «Y3KeHxaTa» He TOJlbKO 1l0KTO­ pa npaBa, HO Ii 1l0KTOpa eCTeCTBeHHbIX HayK liJlIi lllinJlOMI1­ pOBaHHbie liH)l(eHepbI. OHIi, BHllliMO, PYKOBOllCTBYIOTCH npa­ BHJlOM, lJTO Bopa MO)l(eT nOHMaTb TOJlbKO BOp. «Y3KeHxaT» - 3TO peaJlliCTlilJeCKIi HaCTpoeHHaH opraHIi­ 3aUliH, KaK Ii lfeTblpe llpYfHe KpynHble opraHli3aUIili npo­ MblWJleHHOH KOHTppa3BellKIi B CiliA. 3aTo opraHli3aUlIH «HopMaH LL)l(3CneH accowli3lhec» HaCTpo.eHa HBHO pOMal]­ TlilJeCI<1i Ii CTapaeTCH paBHHTbCH Ha .Ll)KeliMCa DOHlla . .LlH­ peKTop «HopMaH .Ll)K3CfleH» CTOJlb )I<e li3DeCTeH B Kpyrax npOMblWJleHHOH 6e30nacHocTIi, Kal< 31lrap fyBep cpellli «He­ nO)lKynHbIX». HanOMHliM, lJTO 31lrap fyBep HBJl5IJlCH pyKO­ BOllliTeJleM <t>6P. no MHeHHIO HopMaHa .Ll)l(3CneHa, TOT, In? MO)l{eT yKpaCTb Hliuo, MO)l(eT yKpaCTb Ii 6bIKa: a Jll060n lJeJlOBeK, KOTOpbIH npellaeT KOMnaHliIO, B KOTOpOIi pa60TaCT, cnoc06eH COBepIllHTb pacTpary. no CJlOBaM .Ll)l(3CneHa, TOT, KTO npOllaeT ceKpeTbl CBoero X0351liHa H Kpa)leT era lleHbrll, cnoc06eH COBepwliTb callwe cepbe3HOC npecTynJleHlie: or­ Kpblfb 3a era ClJeT CHoe npellllpHHTlie. MIiJlJlliOHbl 1l0JlJlapOB, TaKI1M 06pa30M, f10TepHHbl, nliweT .Ll)l(3CneH, 1l06aDJlHH, lJTO 6bIHaIOT CneUliaJlliCTbl, KOTOpbJe OXOTHO ca60TlipyIOT pa3BHTlie CIlOJ1X c06CTBeHHbiX liCCJle1l0DaHliii, lJT06bl HX He npHHHMaJlH Bcepbe3, 3aTeM YXO)lHT H OTl<pbIBaIOT Clloe npellnpHHTliel Ll>I<3CneB npHllaeT 60JlbWOe 3Ha 1leBHe f1pli­ 1"I30pCTDY. Korlla 13XOllHlUb 13 Jln<jJT llCJlOlloro I3l>lCOTIIOro 3)la­ 1fl3 102
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  • 67. Kor.ua onpe.uCJIeH KaHaJI, no KOTOpOMy HanpaBJI5IeTCH ce!{penIaH HHcj)QpMalLHH, HeTpy.uHO 06ecne4HTb COOTBeTcTBy­ IOmylO oxpaHy Bcero 3Toro KaHaJIa. TaK, HanpHMep, MO){HO cHa6.uHTb Bce .uOKyMeHTbI HeBH.uHMoH lIYBCTBHTeJIbHOH ceT­ KOH, KOTopaH nOKa){CT, 6bl.'lH JIH OHH cepOTorpacjmpOBaHbI. 3TO n03BOJIHeT MaCI<HpOBaTb .uBH){eHHe HHepopMaUHH, lie npH6eraH !{ rpl1epaM «ceKpeTHO» H K ne4aTHM Ha naKeTax. Bnp04eM, 13 HeKOTopbIX CJIy4aHx nOJIe3HO 3anpemaTb JIH­ uaM He HMelOmHM Ha TO CneUHaJIbHOrO pa3peweHHH, .uocTyn 13 ndMemeHHH, Ka6HHeTbI, I{ ceHepaM H .ua)Ke 13 ueJIble OT.ueJIe­ HHH npennpHHTHH, He3aBHCHMO OT Toro, xpaHHTCll TaM CCI{­ peTbI HJIH HeT. He06xo.uHMO TaK){e npe.uyc~IOTpeTb oxpally ceKpeTHoH HHf:JopMaUHlI BO BpeMH ee nepeCblJIKH. HMeHHO B 3TO BpeMH I1HepopMauHH HaH60JIee Y5I3BHMa. CODepwelIHo He06xo.uHMO HMeTb T04Hoe npeACTaBJIeHHe, HaCKOJIbKO 3TO 1l03MO){HO, 0 .uBI1)I{eHHH ceKpeTHoII HHepopMaUHH. 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