The Bologna Process – 2010 and beyond
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  • 1. The Bologna Process – 2010 and beyond Michael Gaebel European University Association AUCC Bologna Symposium 26/01/2008
  • 2. EUA - « the Voice of 34 national Rectors’ Conferences European Universities« 800 individual universities in 46 European countries …2… EUA Membership - 2008
  • 3. European University Association (EUA) • Independent membership organisation • Secretariat in Brussels, Belgium • Goals: Strengthen the European universities • Institutional development • Advocacy and representation of the European universities • Shaping HE and Research policy at European level Bologna Process + Lisbon Agenda …3…
  • 4. 2010 – Completion of two complementary European reform processes Lisbon Strategy/European Research Area: Bologna Process: 27+ Member States of European Union 46 Bologna Countries + international associate countries …4… …4…
  • 5. The Bologna Process: Building the European Higher Education Area 1998/99 46 European countries have signed up • Governmental push for system convergence, • Focus: Teaching and learning The Lisbon Strategy/European Research Area 2000 European Union – currently 27+ countries • multi-national co-operation among all the actors & in all scientific fields • EU Member States and international partners • to make Europe the most competitive knowledge based society • « capable of sustainable economic growth, with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion » • Focus: R&D, S&T – also requires innovation of teaching and learning Universities are central actors in both processes …5… …5…
  • 6. Bologna : a pan-European HE Reform Process a voluntary process; with no legal obligations & a tiny ‘Bologna’ Secretariat every 2 years: Joint Ministerial Meeting & Communiqué Reform at national and institutional level shared responsibility: governments, universities, staff & students = members of the Bologna Follow-Up Group increasingly stakeholder driven now that implementation is the priority 46 countries signed up 2010: Realisation of a European Higher Education Area characterised by system convergence, mobility of students and staff, and enhanced international attractiveness …6… …6…
  • 7. 10 Bologna Actionlines Bologna Declaration of 1999: 1. Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees 2. Adoption of a system essentially based on two cycles 3. Establishment of a system of credits 4. Promotion of mobility 5. Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance 6. Promotion of the European dimension in higher education Prague Ministerial summit of 2001: 7. Focus on lifelong learning 8. Inclusion of higher education institutions and students 9. Promotion of the attractiveness of the European Higher Education Area Berlin Ministerial summit of 2003: 10. Doctoral studies and the synergy between the European Higher Education Area and the European Research Area …7…
  • 8. Approaching 2010 Have the reforms achieved their goals at institutional and national level? …8…
  • 9. The Global Dimension of Bologna Bologna Declaration (1999): “the objective of increasing the international competitiveness of the European system of higher education” growing Bologna interest across the globe Recognition of the process and Bologna degrees London Ministerial Meeting 2007 - Adoption of a “strategy for the EHEA in a global context” Universities are a driving force but new approaches required > globalisation, growing competition, new providers etc. rethink their role, mission & goals & develop specific profiles & portfolios: demand for policy dialogue & enhanced cooperation …9… …9…
  • 10. A European Dimension in Quality Assurance Quality - a core issue of Bologna Bergen 2005 - Joint European Standards and Guidelines for internal, external QA, at institutional and agency level Annual European Quality The E4 – from left to right Forum • European QA agencies (ENQA) London 2007: EQAR - European Register of Quality Assurance • European Colleges (EURASHE) Agencies – launched in 2008 • EUA • European Student Union (ESU) …10… …10…
  • 11. Three Cycle System - Achievement EUA Trends Report 2007: 83% of HEIs have the 3-cycle structure in place ?% Trends III - Trends V - Trends VII - 2003 2007 2010 EUA’s Trends report – a regular report on the implementation of Bologna reforms at institutional level - around 900 institutions answered to the Trends V questionnaire …11…
  • 12. Three-cycle system - issues to be tackled Curriculum reform, innovation of teaching and learning, Learning outcome approach Degrees – and qualifications? Employability of the Bachelor Transparency and readability of Master degrees Articulation between the cycles Development of national Qualifications Frameworks …12…
  • 13. Mobility European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) in place – but still to be improved To what extent Bologna enhances student and faculty mobility? Issues within and outside HE Students overrun from Bachelor to Master Bachelor and Master too short for mobility portability of grants, pension rights visa problems residence, work permits etc. …13…
  • 14. Approaching 2010 New goals and priorities? …14… …14…
  • 15. 1) Lifelong learning and access Demographic and economic changes more education to more people more diverse student population flexible provision social questions (tuition fees, grants & other financial support) Lifelong learning as the new paradigm EUA: “Lifelong Learning Charter for Europe’s Universities” (2008) …15… …15…
  • 16. 2) Link between higher education and research HEIs to develop further their specific research profiles maintain the momentum of the reform of doctoral education career opportunities for young researchers …16…
  • 17. 3) Redefine public responsibility public responsibility & institutional autonomy accountability institutional governance diversification of funding sources excellence in relation to a variety of different institutional missions …17…
  • 18. Outlook 2010 - less a deadline and more the start of a new phase Some reforms are accomplished, others on their way The economic and social environment is changing e. g. demographic situation of Europe Increasing need for university for linking research and education mission and addressing LLL opportunities Global Dimension to be mainstreamed mobility Bologna needs global reflection and recognition Some of issues such as learning outcomes, recognition, mobility, to be addressed with international partners Global challenges, globalisation & emergence of international education …18… …18…
  • 19. Thanks! Further info at www.eua.be or contact me Michael.gaebel@eua.be …19…
  • 20. Additional slides …20…
  • 21. 4) Mainstream the global dimension EHEA cannot function in a vacuum : communicating the ‘process’ to the world and engaging with partners is crucial Mobility is an international, & not simply an intra- European question Different institutions and countries across the EHEA are at different phases of their ‘internationalisation’ process & have different priorities …21…
  • 22. Towards the European Higher Education Area: Lisbon and European Research Area ERA Green Paper “modern and open Universities recognised as key stakeholders in achieving the future successful development of S & T in Europe. “Modern”: Modernisation agenda, EC Communication of 10 May 2006. “Open”: to collaboration with external partners, regional and international; readiness to share knowledge. 7th Framework Programme 2007-2013: 54 bill. EUR funding multilateral international research networks, European Research Council, European Institute of Technology Europe’s funding gap: 2% of GDP to higher education institutions by 2015 (currently 1.2% GDP - Modernisation Agenda). University Autonomy: cover all aspects of the university’s functions – academic, organisational, financial and recruitment and staffing matters – No micro management by governments …22…
  • 23. V. EHEA- increasingly intertwined in a global setting EHEA cannot function in a vacuum : communicating the ‘process’ to the world and engaging partners is crucial Different institutions and countries across the EHEA are at different phases of their ‘internationalisation’ process & have different priorities Mobility is an international, & not simply an intra-European question Attracting global talent: the changing role of the university as a service provider and an ‘exporter’ Demographic developments will play an increasingly important role EUA Slide 23 …23… …23…
  • 24. V. Impact on universities and EUA Internationalisation is an increasing priority for universities across Europe Builds on longstanding research collaboration but now takes account of the challenges of globalisation – competition and cooperation Particular importance of cooperation at master & doctoral level EUA increasingly developing its own international agenda, e.g. Longstanding & regular ‘Transatlantic Dialogue’ with the US and Canada (ACE & AUCC) International cooperation with associations of graduate schools Development of new form of policy dialogue, especially with Asia & Latin America Publication of a Bologna & …24… an,Internationalisation Handbook …24…
  • 25. VI Conclusion The 2010 deadline for creating the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is approaching – time to reflect & move on Successful movement for reform across 46 countries in a relatively short period – raising the profile of European HE & overcoming fragmentation considerable progress but also still work to do: mobility, LLL, realising a student centred approach Has proved to be a catalyst for new reform thinking & ways of working (e.g. government – stakeholder cooperation) Is developing a European HE discourse (identity & approach) while providing a basis for cooperation with other regions Must now respond to increasing global pressure – rankings, international competition, brain drain etc. …25… …25…
  • 26. “Europe, thanks to Bologna, may have been given the opportunity to respond to the 21st century agendas” Peter Scott, ACA President, Vice-Chancellor, Kingston University/UK EUA Bologna Handbook, 2006 …26… …26…