Tertiary Education: A Global Report (Sept 2011)
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Tertiary Education: A Global Report (Sept 2011)

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    Tertiary Education: A Global Report (Sept 2011) Tertiary Education: A Global Report (Sept 2011) Presentation Transcript

    • The State of Education Series Tertiary Education A Global Report Author: Jennifer Klein EdStats Team Leader: Emilio Porta September 2011
    • Tertiary Education: Indicators This presentation includes data on:  Gross Enrollment Rates (GER) for pre- primary and tertiary  Correlations between GDP per capita and enrollment rates for each educational level  Income/Gender/Location Disparities  Expenditures on Tertiary Education
    • Acronym Guide Acronym Name EAP East Asia and Pacific ECA Europe and Central Asia LAC Latin American and the Caribbean MNA Middle East and North Africa SAS South Asia SSA Sub-Saharan Africa WLD World (Global Aggregate) FTI Education for All Fast Track Initiative Countries IDA International Development Association GER Gross Enrollment Rate GDP p.c. Gross Domestic Product per capita NAR Net Attendance Rate Gender Parity Index (female value/male GPI value)
    • TertiaryEnrollments
    • How many youth are enrolled?Tertiary – Gross Enrolment Rates (GER) Almost ¾ of tertiary age youth around the world Just over ¼ of tertiary are not enrolled in tertiary education. age youth were enrolled 60 in tertiary education 2009 (27%). This figure Gross Enrolment Rate. Tertiary (ISCED 5 & 6). Total (%) was a 9 percentage 50 point improvement over 1999 (18%). 40 ECA has consistently had the highest tertiary GERs of any region. 30 25.9 27.1 Over half (55%) of 22.5 24.0 tertiary age youth were 20 enrolled in 2009 which is 18.1 20.0 a 19.2 percentage point increase over 1999. 10 SSA lags behind other regions with 3.9% of 0 youth enrolled in 1999 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 and 6.3% in 2009. EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, July 2011 Note: SAS 2009 is 2008 data.
    • Which countries have the lowesttertiary enrollment rates? 8 of 10 countries are in 10 Countries with the Lowest SSA. Only 4 countries of Tertiary Gross Enrollment Rates the top 20 are not in SSA (2007-2010) (Dominica, Djibouti, Afgh 1 Niger 1.43 anistan and Pakistan). #10 Ethiopia’s GER more 2 Eritrea 1.98 than doubles the GER of 3 Chad 2.00 #1 Niger. 4 Central African Republic 2.46 9 countries have tertiary GERs higher than 80% 5 Burundi 2.68 and 4 countries have 6 Burkina Faso 3.41 tertiary GERs higher than 90%: Greece, South 7 Dominica 3.46 Korea, Finland and 8 Djibouti 3.47 Cuba. Cuba’s GER is 117%. 9 Madagascar 3.58 10 Ethiopia 3.60 Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Aug. 2011 Notes: Figures are most recent year with data between 2007-2010. Maroon = 2008; Black = 2009; Blue = 2010. Data was not available for 74 countries.
    • Which countries have improvedtertiary enrolment rates the most? These countries have 10 Countries with the Most improved their tertiary Improvement in Tertiary gross enrolment rates Enrollment Rates by 29 to 95 Percentage percentage points Points 2000 NER 2009 NER % Improved Improved between 2000 and 2009. 1 Cuba 95.5 22.3 117.8 428.1 6 countries more than 2 Venezuela, RB 49.8 28.4 78.2 175.2 doubled their 2000 3 Romania 43.0 24.0 67.1 179.0 tertiary GER – Cuba, 4 Greece 39.6 51.2 90.8 77.4 Venezuela, Romania, Macao, Cyprus, and 5 Macao SAR, China 36.2 26.7 62.9 135.6 the Czech Rep. 6 Cyprus 32.4 19.6 52.0 165.8 All of the countries 7 Ukraine 32.2 48.9 81.1 65.7 are in LAC or ECA 8 Slovenia 32.0 55.6 87.6 57.7 except Macao SAR, 9 Czech Republic 31.4 29.4 60.9 106.9 China. 1 Lithuania 29.2 50.4 79.5 57.9 0 Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Sept. 2011; Notes: Greece 2009 NER is 2007 data; Data were not
    • Tertiary Gross Enrollment Rate (%) (2007-2010)Country-LandGERS < - 40 40 - 70 > - 70 No data available Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2011 Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.
    • Do countries with higher GDP p.c.have higher tertiary enrollments? Countries with a GDP pc higher than $15,000 Most countries with generally have tertiary GERs higher than 50%. 120 GDP pc less than Cuba R² = 0.168 $1000 have tertiary 110 Gross Enrollment Rate. Tertiary (ISCED 5 & 6). Total (2007-2010) GERs less than 15%. 100 Korea, Rep. Finland Ukraine is one 90 Greece exception with a GER Ukraine 80 of 81%; Mongolia (53%), Moldova 70 (38%), Tajikistan (20%) 60 are three other 50 examples of low income countries with higher 40 GERs. 30 United Arab Emirates Countries with GDP pc 20 more than $15,000 Andorra Qatar 10 have tertiary GERs Dominica higher than 50% except 0 for 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Andorra, UAE, Qatar, B GDP per capita in thousands (constant 2000$) ermuda, and Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, July 2011
    • Which regions have reached gender parity in tertiary enrollments? Globally, the gender Gender disparities in tertiary enrolment rates vary parity index (GPI) for greatly across regions. 1.30 tertiary enrollments has been increasing from 1.25 Gender Parity Index (GPI) for Gross Enrolment Rate. Tertiary 0.98 in 1999 to 1.08 in 1.20 2009. The global female 1.15 GER is now higher than 1.10 1.07 1.08 the global male GER. 1.05 1.05 1.02 1.00 MNA is the only region 1.00 within +/- 0.05 of gender 0.95 0.98 parity in 2009. 0.90 LAC and ECA have 0.85 consistently had higher 0.80 female GERs, and EAP 0.75 has reversed from a male bias to a female bias. 0.70 0.65 SAS and SSA have 0.60 remained stagnant over time with a male bias in 0.55 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 tertiary enrolments. WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, August 2011 Note: SAS for 2009 is 2008 figure.
    • Does gender parity exist in tertiaryenrollments in most countries? Many countries have higher female enrolment rates Only 11 countries are than male enrolment rates in tertiary education. within +/-0.05 of 6.5 gender parity in 6.0 tertiary enrollments. Gender Parity Index (GPI) for Gross Enrolment Ratio. Tertiary 5.5 64% of countries have a female bias in 5.0 tertiary enrolments. 4.5 Many of these countries are in LAC 4.0 or are high income 3.5 countries. 3.0 In 8 countries, the 2.5 female GER more than doubles the male 2.0 GER. These countries 1.5 Female Bias are island nations in 1.0 LAC and Qatar. 0.5 Male Bias 0.0 Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, August, 2011 Note: Data points are the most recent year with data available (2007- 2010)
    • Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in tertiary enrolments? 10 Countries with the Largest Female 10 Countries with the Largest Male Bias Bias in Tertiary Enrolments in Tertiary Enrolments (2007-2010) (2007-2010) 1 Qatar 6.31 1 Chad 0.17 2 Dominica 3.22 2 Congo, Rep. 0.21 3 St. Lucia 2.58 3 Afghanistan 0.24 4 Bermuda 2.56 4 Ethiopia 0.31 5 Jamaica 2.22 5 Eritrea 0.33 6 Antigua and Barbuda 2.21 6 Guinea 0.34 7 Cayman Islands 2.16 7 Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.35 8 St. Kitts and Nevis 2.10 8 Niger 0.36 9 Iceland 1.92 9 Mali 0.41 10 United Arab Emirates 1.89 10 Tajikistan 0.41 Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Aug. 2011; Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Aug. 2011; Notes: Blue figures are 2010 data; Black=2009; Maroon=2008; Notes: Blue figures are 2010 data; Black=2009; Maroon=2008; Data were not available for 77 of 213 countries. Data were not available for 77 of 213 countries.
    • Do gender, income, or location disparitiesexist in post-secondary attendance ratios? Levels of gender Income is the largest source of disparity in post- disparity in post- secondary gross attendance ratios in all regions. secondary attendance 35 Gender disparity are much lower than Percentage Point Difference in Gross Attendance Ratio. Post-Sec. Location disparity Income disparity levels of location and 30 (Male-Female, Urban-Rural, and Quintile 1-Quintile 5) income disparity. More girls than boys attend 25 post-secondary schools in EAP, ECA, and LAC. 20 Rural areas have 15 between 5 (SSA) and 15 (LAC) percent lower 10 attendance ratios than urban areas. 5 Income is the largest source of disparity 0 across regions. Income disparities range from 8 -5 percentage points in EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA SSA to 34 in LAC.2 Source: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living Standards Measurement Studies for 1985-2007
    • Expenditures on Tertiary Education
    • Which regions spend more perstudent on tertiary education? Countries on average spend 57.7% of GDP Public Expenditure per Tertiary per capita per tertiary education student. Student as a % of GDP per capita (2007-2010) SSA countries have the highest average per EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA IDA FTI WLD student spending (181.9%) and a large Average 32.3 27.5 27.3 31.6 81.9 181.9 146.6 121.1 57.7 range between the countries with the lowest Median 22.3 25.2 26.2 21.7 55.5 139.5 118.4 102.9 27.2 (16.7%) and highest Maximum 92.7 62.2 58.8 71.1 150.4 520.4 520.4 429.4 520.4 (520.4%) levels of per student spending. Minimum 9.5 7.4 12.1 10.2 39.8 16.7 17.3 11.2 7.4 The next closest region # of to SSA is SAS at 81.9%. Countries 13/ 38/ 14/ 8/ 3/8 17/ 22/ 19/ 95/ with 31 53 38 21 47 62 43 201 All other regions have data/Total average per student Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, July 2011 Note: Figures are for the most recent year with data available (2007-2010) spending ranging between 27.3% (LAC) and 32.3 (EAP).
    • Which countries spend the least perstudent on tertiary education? Half of the countries are 10 Countries with the Lowest Share of in ECA. p.c. GDP per Tertiary Student (2007-2010) 5 of these countries spend more on primary Share of Ratio of Ratio of Tertiary Private pc GDP for Tertiary to Tertiary to Enrollment and secondary than tertiary Primary Secondary GER Share (%) tertiary (less than 1.0). 2 countries (El Salvador 1 Armenia 7.4 0.42 0.26 50.1 22.8 and Philippines) spend 2 Kazakhstan 7.9 39.5 47.3 less on primary and 3 Liechtenstein 9.2 0.85 0.48 34.7 100.0 secondary than tertiary. 4 Philippines 9.5 1.06 1.05 28.7 65.9 Korea, Rep. has the 5th 5 Korea, Rep. 10.1 0.52 0.44 100.0 80.4 lowest spending level, but has a 100% gross 6 Lebanon 10.2 52.5 56.0 enrollment rate. The 7 Georgia 11.2 0.77 0.74 25.8 28.5 Russian Federation also 8 Chile 12.1 0.82 0.76 54.8 78.0 has a high GER (77.2%) despite low spending. 9 El Salvador 13.7 1.61 1.51 24.6 66.4 6 of 10 countries have 10 Russian Fed. 14.2 77.2 14.2 private enrollment shares Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, July 2011 Note: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: higher than 56%. Blue figures are for 2007; Green for 2008; Black for 2009; Beige for 2010; Data were not available for 106 countries.
    • Which countries spend the most perstudent on tertiary education? All countries except 10 Countries with the Highest Share of Bhutan are in SSA. p.c. GDP per Tertiary Student These countries spend (2007-2010) from 140% to 520% of Share of Ratio of Ratio of pc GDP for Tertiary to Tertiary to Tertiary Private Enrollment NER GDP per capital per tertiary Primary Secondary Share (%) tertiary student, but all 1 Burundi 520.4 24.7 8.8 2.7 53.0 have gross enrollment 2 Niger 429.4 15.2 7.6 1.4 25.0 rates less than 8%. 3 Burkina Faso 307.1 10.6 10.2 3.4 17.8 All countries spend drastically more per 4 Botswana 251.5 20.3 6.7 tertiary student than 5 Chad 212.8 17.1 9.0 2.0 31.8 per primary or 6 Rwanda 211.7 27.0 6.5 4.8 64.2 secondary student. For example, Rwanda 7 Senegal 195.6 9.2 7.6 8.0 29.8 spends 27 times more 8 Togo 155.2 11.9 8.1 5.3 per student on tertiary than primary. These 9 Bhutan 150.4 21.0 4.8 6.6 countries seem to 10 Madagascar 139.5 18.6 12.6 3.6 22.2 prioritize spending on Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, July 2011 tertiary education over Note: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Blue figures are for 2007; Green for 2008; Black for 2009; other levels. Beige for 2010; Data were not available for 106 countries.
    • Public Expenditure per pupil as a % of GDP per capita. Tertiary (2007-2010)Country-LandEXPENTER < - 40 40 - 100 100 - < No data available Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2011 Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.
    • Which countries spend the least ontertiary compared to primary? 10 Countries with the Lowest Ratio of 7 of 10 countries are in Tertiary to Primary Per Student ECA and 2 are in EAP. Expenditures as a % of GDP pc (2007-2010) 5 countries have private Ratio of Ratio of enrolment shares higher Share of pc GDP for tertiary Tertiary to Tertiary to than 77%, which seems Primary Secondary to show that the private 1 Armenia 7.4 0.42 0.26 sector compensates for 2 Korea, Rep. 10.1 0.52 0.44 the lower levels of public 3 Latvia 17.5 0.60 0.61 funding of tertiary education. 4 Poland 16.6 0.68 0.75 5 Serbia 40.1 0.70 2.95 Armenia and Korea, Rep. spend half as much per 6 Georgia 11.2 0.77 0.74 tertiary student than per 7 Chile 12.1 0.82 0.76 primary student. 8 Liechtenstein 9.2 0.85 0.48 Serbia and Thailand 9 Estonia 22.2 0.85 0.75 spend less on secondary and tertiary compared to 10 Thailand 22.3 0.93 2.44 primary. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, July 2011 Note: Figures include data for the most recent year (2007-2010) with data available.
    • Which countries spend the most ontertiary compared to primary? 10 Countries with the Highest Ratio of  9 of 10 countries are in Tertiary to Primary Per Student SSA. Expenditures as a % of GDP pc (2007-2010)  The listed countries Share of pc Ratio of Ratio of spend from 14 to 27 GDP for Tertiary to Tertiary to times more per tertiary tertiary Primary Secondary student than per primary 1 Central African Rep. 124.1 27.34 7.69 student. 2 Rwanda 211.7 27.05 6.49  They also spend 3 Burundi 520.4 24.66 8.77 between 5 to 12 times 4 Bhutan 150.4 20.98 4.77 more per tertiary student 5 Botswana 251.5 20.31 6.69 than per secondary student. 6 Madagascar 139.5 18.59 12.63  These data seem to 7 Chad 212.8 17.12 9.03 show that most of these 8 Niger 429.4 15.17 7.59 countries prioritize 9 Uganda 105.4 14.47 4.96 public funding of 1) tertiary, 2) secondary, 10 Guinea 102.9 14.35 16.28 and finally 3) primary Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, July 2011 Note: Figures include data for the most recent education. year (2007-2010) with data available.
    • Data SourcesThis presentation utilizes the following data sources:1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics data in the EdStats Query  The presentation was created with the most recent UIS data release that included 2009 data for most indicators and 2010 data for some countries.  Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitions available in the EdStats Query.  Regional averages created for the expenditure analysis in slide 15 include all countries in the geographic region – both developing countries and high- income countries. Bermuda, Canada, and the United States are not included in any of the aggregates.2) Income/Gender/Location Disparity slides were based on data and analysis extracted from:  Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living Standards Measurement Studies for 1985-2007; Reports were generated through ADePT Edu by Emilio Porta (2011).  Porta, Emilio, Gustavo Arcia, Kevin Macdonald, Sergiy Radyakin, and Misha Lokshin. 2011. Assessing Sector Performance and Inequality in Education. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    • The State of Education SeriesThe following State of Education presentationsare available on the EdStats website: Topics: Educational Levels:  Access  Pre-Primary Education  Quality  Primary Education  Expenditures  Secondary Education  Literacy  Tertiary Education  Equity  Gender