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  • 1. LC 0918 / 0518AY 2011/12Week 12
  • 2. !""#$%&$ ()*)+,-$./0.! !  You will individually research the issue you and your group has decided on !  Your essay should be 300 – 500 words long !  your research and your stand and your conclusion should be of your own. !  Takes 20% of your final grade.CRS Unit 4: Writing an Argument
  • 3. ()*)+,-$./0.! !  "#$%&()*!+!&,-.!()-!(//&0-1!23()1!$&4*5!#,&!$/(..!6&)! )-6-)-$-7!! !  8!-..(*!&)!/&9!4()(9)(43.!()-!(1.!(//&0-17! !  8//!&,-.!,&!:-!.;:<#=-1!2->$-4,!1#$%&()*5!0#,3!*&;)!-..(*7! !  (1!?/#-!+!-/-$,)&#$!3-/4!1;)#9!,3-!,-.,7! !  @&!->,)(!%<-!#.!9#A-!6&)!/(,--..7!! !  8:.-$-!<;.,!:-!($$&<4(#-1!:*!&B$#(/!CD7!!CRS Unit 4: Writing an Argument
  • 4. WARNING 2345647689$68$4$8"76:;8$:<"=>"$4=?$@633$=:A$ B"$>:=?:="?C$ $ )68>6D36=47E$4>F:=$@633$B"$A4#"=$4546=8A$ AG:8"$@G:$D34564768"$H7:9$D48A$:7$"I68F=5$ 7"D:7A8C$ $ ):$=:A$>;A$4=?$D48A"$96=?3"883E$H7:9$:AG"7$ 8:;7>"8C$$CRS Unit 4: Writing an Argument
  • 5. !  @&,-E!F3-!,&4#$!*&;)!9)&;4!$3&&.-.!0#//!:-!,3-!G8CH!,&4#$! *&;!0&)I!&!6&)!D8!JK!L(),!8!2M1#A#1;(/!H..(*5!(1!L(),!N 2"#.$;..#&!D(6O57!! !  !L(),!8P!*&;)!.,(1!#.!(.!*&;!/#I-!6&)!*&;)!#1#A#1;(/!-..(*7!!CRS Unit 4: Writing an Argument
  • 6. Recap: Argumentative Essay Format What it Looks LikeCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 7. Argumentative Essay: Basic Format !  Introduction !  Hook !  Background !  Stand !  Preview of 3 Arguments !  Body !  Argument 1 !  Argument 2 !  Argument 3 !  Counterargument & Rebuttal !  Conclusion !  Restate stand !  Restate 3 argumentsCRS Unit 4: Writing an Argument
  • 8. CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 9. Five Key Questions1.  Do you have a specific intended audience?2.  Who is your intended audience? What are their personal characteristics?3.  What is their job, profession, or field of expertise?4.  What does your audience know about your topic? What could they NOT know about your topic, considering their personal characteristics?5.  What is their level of need/interest regarding your writing? How will your audience use your writing?
  • 10. The Audience Is Skeptical
  • 11. An Argument = A Conversation!
  • 12. Writing an Argumentative Essay The IntroductionCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 13. Introduction • Hook • Background • Summary of argumentsCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 14. Recap: What is “hook”? Something that attracts the reader !  Possible strategies: !  Anecdote (story) !  Quotation !  Hypothetical situation (invoking curiosity) !  Statistics !  shocking statistics !  striking imageCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 15. Background informationCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 16. Why? "  to prepare your audience for the body of the essay. "  To acts as a bridge between the attention grabbing “hook” and your stand.CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 17. Structure Content – when you do Content and Language the planning and – when you actually searching for get down to writing information Issue Paragraph 1 & 2 Paragraph 1 Topic sentence Introduction Supporting details Hook Paragraph 2 Background Topic Sentence Summary of Arguments Supporting Details Argument 1 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 3 Argument Topic sentence Reason Supporting details Supporting Evidence Argument 2 Paragraph 4 Paragraph 4 Argument Topic sentence Reason Supporting details Supporting Evidence Argument 3 Paragraph 5 Paragraph 5 Argument Topic sentence Reason Supporting detailsCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument Supporting Evidence
  • 18. Title: Is the flag-raising ceremony a good way of instilling patriotism in students? "  Example 1 "  Example 2CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 19. Example 1"  The sound system was blaring the national anthem. One would expect the students to sing their anthem with pride. However, one could hear some giggles from the back. Faint murmurs were heard from those who were actually singing. Others were just mouthing the words. One could not sense any pride at all during the singing of the anthem."  The national anthem was officially adopted in 1965 when Singapore separated from Malaysia. For the new nation then, it was important to have a symbol, or an activity in which all the citizens could identify with. As such, the practice of holding a daily flag- raising ceremony began. Students renew their pledge of allegiance to the country daily by singing the national anthem and reciting the pledge."  Recently, there has been concern that Singapore students do not know or care much about the affairs of Singapore. Thus, the ways in which patriotism is inculcated in our young are being questioned. This includes the daily singing of the national anthem in schools."  Singing a song and reciting a pledge cannot be equated with allegiance to the country. Surely, there must be better ways to demonstrate love for the country. In the next few paragraphs, I will explain why I think flag-raising ceremonies are unnecessary.
  • 20. Example 2"  Ask a typical secondary school student to translate the national anthem to English. Aside from the Malay students, it is likely that many will not be able to go beyond the title, “Majulah Singapura”. So, what is the issue if Singaporean students cannot do a translation of the national anthem?"  After graduation, a number of them will bring their ignorance and their indifference with them into society. This apathetic attitude is worrying to the government."  But who are we kidding? If singing a song could make a teen love his/her country, the government would be bringing the likes of F4 and Westlife to promote and market our anthem."  Inculcating a love for the country must go beyond the daily singing of a song. I will now explain why.
  • 21. Example: “for” the issue In this essay, I will explore the negative impact of globalization on indigenous culture (argument 1), manual labour (argument 2) and the environment (argument 3). Note: each argument is concise and preciseCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 22. Example: “against” the issue Globalization is a boon because it promotes international trade (argument 1), raises living standards (argument 2), and exposes human rights abuses (argument 3). Note: each argument is concise and preciseCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 23. CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 24. The Argument BodyCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 25. Arguments"  Begin from strongest to weakest."  Look for new interesting information"  Counter Arguments, decide if each counter-argument can be destroyed, discredited or weakened.
  • 26. Structure Content – when you do Content and Language the planning and – when you actually searching for get down to writing information Issue Paragraph 1 & 2 Paragraph 1 Topic sentence Introduction Supporting details Hook Paragraph 2 background Topic Sentence Supporting Details Argument 1 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 3 Argument Topic sentence Reason Supporting details Supporting Evidence Argument 2 Paragraph 4 Paragraph 4 Argument Topic sentence Reason Supporting details Supporting Evidence Argument 3 Paragraph 5 Paragraph 5 Argument Topic sentence Reason Supporting details Supporting EvidenceCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 27. Examples of Supporting Details "  General information # use general information to support your stand "  Case studies # research and use relevant materials from your case studies related to your issue "  Statistical evidence # use statistics to give an unbiased support "  Expert opinions # use testimonies / quotes from experts , people in power or individuals in positions of authority to support as evidenceCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 28. CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 29. CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 30. Counter Argument
  • 31. Structure Content – when you do Content and Language the planning and – when you actually searching for get down to writing informationCounter-arguments Paragraph 6 Paragraph 6 Acknowledgement of Counter-Argument Acknowledgement Topic sentence Refute the counter- Supporting details ArgumentConclusions Paragraph 7 Paragraph 7 Satisfying Ending Topic sentence Supporting detailsCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 32. Counter Argument"  3 main ways:"  Acknowledge the opposition’s point is good BUT so is the point you make"  Say that while the opponent’s point is good, yours is better"  Simply disclaim the opponent’s as false.
  • 33. How to Counter-argue? "  You can begin a counter-argument with "  However, one might argue that... "  It might seem that... "  It’s true that… "  Admittedly… "  Of course,… "  But how...? "  But why...? "  But isnt this just... "  But if this is so, what about...?CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 34. How to Rebut?"  In your rebuttal, you can do the following: "  State Opposition’s View first. "  Acknowledge it has some validity "  Show why the counter-argument is weak "  Provide elaboration and evidence and "  Reaffirm your stand.CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 35. $  G&<-!<(*!()9;-!,3(,SSS77! $  M!.,)&9/*!1#.(9)--!0#,3!3#.!#1-(!6&)!(! A()#-,*!&6!)-(.&.7!S7! $  T#.!()9;<-,!#.!0-(I!:-$(;.-!&6!,3-! 6&//&0#9!)-(.&.7!U#).,/*P!S77! $  L-&4/-!03&!.;44&),!,3#.!()9;<-,!.(*! ,3(,!S7! $  U;),3-)<&)-P!,3-!A#-0!#.!&-Q.#1-1! :-$(;.-!77777! $  M!<*!&4##&P!3&0-A-)P!S! $  M!(11#%&P!S7! $  F&!(!$-),(#!->,-,!,3-*!()-!)#93,77! $  F3-!A#-0!#.!/#<#,-1!;6&),;(,-/*S!CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 36. PerspectivesRemember to look from different angles:"  Cultural / racial"  Social"  Religious"  Economic"  Environmental"  Political"  historical
  • 37. The ConclusionCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 38. Structure Content – when you do Content and Language the planning and – when you actually searching for get down to writing information Counter-arguments Paragraph 6 Paragraph 6 Acknowledgement of Counter-Argument Acknowledgement Topic sentence Refute the counter- Supporting details Argument Conclusions Paragraph 7 Paragraph 7 Satisfying Ending Topic sentence Supporting detailsCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 39. Eg. 1 – using a quotation Example 1 There is definitely a need for students to participate in the flag-raising ceremony. Participation in common activities raises communal spirit. I believe that love is gradually internalised when the national anthem is sung and the pledge recited everyday. This daily renewal of love for one’s country will cause it to grow in each individual. I agree with the writer Willa Cather, who wrote, “The history of every country begins in the heart of a man or woman”CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 40. Eg. 2 Summary of Argument To sum up, the act of singing the national anthem and reciting the pledge is a routine, and sometimes, mindless activity for youths. Making students perform these tasks will not instill any love for the country. An appreciation of our past is far more important. To instill the spirit of “Onward Singapore” (Majulah Singapura), there is an urgent need to return to our past. Singaporean youths need to know about their country before they love it.CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 41. Your Conclusion Is Important! "  Make Sure you: "  Allocate time to write your conclusion. "  Summarise your main arguments briefly. "  Do not present new arguments in your conclusion. "  Convince the reader of your stand by leaving a lasting impression.CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 42. Citing Resources•  Based on studies done by …….,•  According to credible sources from …..,•  As mentioned in….,•  As reported by….,•  Studies conducted by …. have shown that….•  Evidence has shown that…•  Various findings have established that…CRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument
  • 43. $  !!D&//&V;#(/#.<+./(9!2#6&)<(/!/(9;(9-P!-9E!0((P!9&(P!1(15! $  !!G#9/#.3!2-9E!0(3!/#(;P!<-3P!W9&,!.--!&)!&,X!-,$5! $  !!8::)-A#(%&.!2.3&),!6&)<.P!.<.!/(9;(9-5! $  !!G-,-$-!6)(9<-,.!2#$&<4/-,-!.-,-$-.P!:#,.!(1!4#-$-.5! $  !!?A-)/*!.#<4/-!A&$(:;/()*!!Q!.3&0!.&<-!/(9;(9-!.I#//.P!.3&0! !((/*.#.!2,3#I#9!4)&$-..5! $  !!?-Q.-,-$-!4()(9)(43.!CRS Unit 4: Writing an Argument
  • 44. Title--why do you need one? "  Introduces the topic of discussion "  Generates reader interestCRS Unit 4: Writing an Argument Purdue University Writing Lab
  • 45. Creating a Title "  Attention Grabbing "  Offering a provocative image "  Using words or examples offered in the body or conclusion "  asking a question "  Don’t be too generalCRS Unit 3: Writing an Argument Purdue University Writing Lab
  • 46. Lastly…"  Be ready to come into class this week with your arguments and research materials for consultation time."  All the Best!"  See you in class this week!