FISCALIS Human Nature - Behavioral Science

486 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
486
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

FISCALIS Human Nature - Behavioral Science

  1. 1. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />Johan de Veer<br />Psychologist<br />Consultant<br />Researcher<br />CKC<br />Centre for Knowledge & Communication<br />NTCA<br />Netherlands Tax & Customs Administration<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />TAX COMPLIANCE<br />HUMAN BEHAVIOR<br />
  4. 4. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />?!<br />?<br />!<br />?!<br />?!<br />
  5. 5. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />PUBLIC SECTOR SERVICE VALUE CHAIN<br />CITIZEN<br />TRUST<br />public institutions<br />EMPLOYEE<br />WORK satisfaction<br />CITIZEN<br />SERVICE satisfaction<br />DRIVERS:<br />Outcome<br />Fairness<br />Knowledge<br />Timeliness<br />Courtesy<br />Extra ‘Mile’<br />DRIVERS:<br />Autonomy<br />Communications<br />Workload<br />Career Development<br />Fair Pay/Benefits<br />Work Environment<br />Leadership/Management<br />Heintzman& Marson 2003<br />Brian Marson 2007<br />Treasury board of Canada<br />
  6. 6. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />HUMAN BEHAVIOR<br />COMPLEX<br />BIO LOGICAL<br />UNCONSCIOUS<br />IR RATIONAL<br />ABNORMAL<br />EMOTIONAL<br />SITUATIONAL<br />PREDICTABLE<br />
  7. 7. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />Able <br />Want<br />Dare<br />Know <br />Allowed<br />BEHAVIOR<br />
  8. 8. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />COMPLEX<br />
  9. 9. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />Society<br />Economy<br />History<br />Prosperity<br />Culture<br />Community<br />Peers<br />Friends<br />Family<br />Education<br />Media<br />Climate<br />….<br />….<br />BEHAVIOR<br />S I TUAT I ON<br />Impulses<br />Intentions<br />Habits<br />Routines<br />Competencies<br />Attitudes<br />Abilities<br />Skills<br />Knowledge<br />INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS<br />Values<br />Norms<br />Emotions<br />Needs<br />Expectations<br />Beliefs<br />Motives<br />Drives<br />Moods<br />Intelligence<br /> Cognitive capacities<br />Personality <br />Dispositions, Traits<br />GENETICS & BIOLOGICAL FACTORS<br />DNA & Genes & Cells & Hormones & Enzymes<br />EFFECT RESULT OUTCOME<br />
  10. 10. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />HUMAN BEHAVIOR<br />RATIO<br />EMOTION<br />SITUATION<br />
  11. 11. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />THINK = DO<br />DO = THINK<br />BEHAVIOR<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />EMOTIONAL<br />
  15. 15. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />
  16. 16. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />
  17. 17. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />Horizontal monitoringTrustCooperationTransparency ServiceUnderstandingCommunication<br />
  18. 18. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />TRUST<br />Means “Taking a Risk”<br />Is a ‘Way of thinking’<br />Is a ‘Proces’<br />Is more than ‘Self interest’<br />Can grow through ‘Conflicts’<br />You can trust ‘People, Business, Society’<br />
  19. 19. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />TRUST<br />Crucial for society<br />Fundamental in a Human’s live<br />Essential for survival<br />Biologically based<br />Important character trait<br />Basis of wellbeing & prosperity<br />
  20. 20. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />POSITIVE<br />FACTS<br />BELIEF<br />NEGATIVE<br />STADIA VAN VERTROUWEN<br />TRUST<br />Still …<br />TRUST <br />Until …<br />SUSPICIOUS <br />Until …<br />SUSPICIOUS Still … <br />
  21. 21. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />
  22. 22. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />
  23. 23. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />
  24. 24. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />PYGMALION EFFECT<br />We have Expections of others<br />Which we communicate by many signals<br />‘Others’ react (behavior/results)<br />Our “Expectation” is met (“I knew it”)<br /> “That’s How We Like It”<br />?!<br />
  25. 25. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />TRUST<br />BEHAVIOR<br />EFFECT<br />CONFIDENCE<br />SELFEFFICACY<br />
  26. 26. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />
  27. 27. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />BIOLOGICAL<br />
  28. 28. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />Don’t try this at home<br />
  29. 29. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />
  30. 30. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />AMYGDALA<br />
  31. 31. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />HUMAN<br />Cognition<br />MAMMAL<br />Emotion<br />REPTILE<br />Instinct<br />
  32. 32. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />FIGHT<br />FLIGHT <br />FREEZE<br />THINK<br />
  33. 33. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />IRRATIONAL<br />
  34. 34. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />ARE WE REALLY: Rational? Selfinterested? Attaining goals at minimum cost?<br />We prefer avoiding losses to acquiring gains<br />We donate money to good causes and do community work for free<br />We choose an expensive article because we get a ‘free gift’<br />We can’t decide between ‘small’ short-term goals and ‘big’ long-term goals<br />We pay taxes (we don’t love it, but we do)<br />
  35. 35. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />BEHAVIORAL ECONOMIC MAN<br />
  36. 36. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />ABNORMAL<br />
  37. 37. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />Personality and tax evasion<br />Positive relation<br />• Egoism, <br />Social isolation<br />Psychoticism (Manipulative, impulsive, not responsible)<br />Negative relation<br />• Social responsibility, <br />Risk aversion<br />Conscientiousness (Conventional, planful, and detail-oriented)<br />
  38. 38. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />
  39. 39. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />UNCOUNSCIOUS<br />
  40. 40. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />
  41. 41. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />http://www.unconsciouslab.com/<br />http://mind333.wordpress.com/<br />http://www.gladwell.com/blink/<br />
  42. 42. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />Priming<br />“everyday sights, smells and sounds can selectively activate goals or motives that people already have ”<br />
  43. 43. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br /> 60%<br />50%<br />
  44. 44. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br /> 60%<br />40%<br />
  45. 45. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />The feel of it <br />Students who held a cup of iced coffee rated a hypothetical person they later read about as being much colder, less social and more selfish than did their fellow students, who had held a cup of hot java.<br />
  46. 46. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />The smell of it<br />People tidy up more thoroughly when there’s a faint scent of lemon in the air<br />
  47. 47. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />It’s what you see<br />People become more conforming when they watch foto’s of accountants<br />
  48. 48. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />It’s what you see<br />People become more competitive if there’s a briefcase in sight<br />
  49. 49. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />What’s in a word?<br />People are more cooperative if they glimpse words like “dependable” and “support”.<br />People become more rude when reading words like “impatience”, “fight” and “agression”.<br />
  50. 50. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />Solomon Asch, Conformity experiments, 1951<br />Control 3%, Experiment 36%, 75% <1 <br />
  51. 51. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />It’s where and what you eat<br />"exposure to fast food and related symbols reinforces an emphasis on impatience and instant gratification and that fast food can have a far broader impact on individuals' behaviors and choices than previously thought.“<br />
  52. 52. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />
  53. 53. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />Control<br />Fraude<br />Inspection<br />Lawbreaking<br />Prosecution<br />Corrections<br />Sanctions<br />Lawsuit<br />Malversations<br />COMPLIANCE OFFICER<br />COMPLIANCE<br />TRUST SERVICE<br />BEHAVIORMANAGER<br />
  54. 54. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />SITUATIONAL<br />
  55. 55. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />
  56. 56. “Each urinal at the Amsterdam airport has the black outline of a fly etched into the porcelain-”This improves the man’s aim,” says Aad Kieboom, an economist. His staff conducted fly-in-urinal trials and found that etchings reduce spillage by 80 per cent. The Dutch will transfer the technology to New York. “It gives a guy something to think about,” says Jan Jansen, the new Dutch general manager in New York. “It’s a perfect example of process control.”<br />
  57. 57. NUDGE<br />Choice Architecture<br />Libertarian Paternalism<br />
  58. 58. Passive Choice:<br />DEFAULT<br />
  59. 59. B/CKC Advies - Johan de Veer – 2008<br />PREDICTABLE<br />
  60. 60. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />
  61. 61. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />Monitoring Style<br />DISTRUST<br />Control & Sanctions<br />TRUST<br />Information & Education<br />BEHAVIOR<br />TRUSTWORTHY<br />Good Intentions<br />NOT TO BE TRUSTED<br />Bad Intentions<br />Too Hard<br />Too<br />Soft<br />
  62. 62. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />Monitoring Style<br />DISTRUST<br />Control & Sanctions<br />TRUST<br />Information/Education<br />50 %<br />50 %<br />25%<br />25%<br />25%<br />25%<br />TRUSTWORTHY<br />Good Intentions<br />50%<br />Behavioral Style<br />25%<br />25%<br />25%<br />25%<br />NOT TO BE TRUSTED<br />Bad Intentions<br />50%<br />‘Beating the Odds’<br /> Information (Intelligence)<br /><ul><li>Analysis
  63. 63. Controlling tools & skills
  64. 64. Professional Knowledge
  65. 65. Intuition
  66. 66. Cooperation
  67. 67. Bit of luck!</li></ul>50%<br />0%<br />‘BASERATE’<br />50%<br />0%<br />
  68. 68. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />Monitoring Style<br />DISTRUST<br />Control & Sanctions<br />TRUST<br />Information/Education<br />10 %<br />90 %<br />9%<br />81%<br />TRUSTWORTHY<br />Good Intentions<br />90%<br />Too Hard<br />Behavioral Style<br />9%<br />1%<br />NOT TO BE TRUSTED<br />Bad Intentions<br />10%<br />Too Soft<br />100%<br />+18%<br />90%<br />0%<br />10%<br />0%<br />
  69. 69. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />Gametip 1-5<br />‘Until’ …<br />Start with Trust<br />Know the ‘Baserate’<br />Collect and use ‘Intelligence’<br />Use your ‘intuition’<br />Stay smart! Don’t get fooled!<br />Information<br />Knowledge & Experience<br />
  70. 70. Belastingdienst - Johan de Veer – 2010<br />Be Nice, Positive, Appreciative<br />Use the ‘others’ (Conformity / Norm)<br />Make it Fun<br />Use rewards more and first<br />Use punishment less and at last<br />

×