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  • 1. Chapter 16 Organizational Culture ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS PowerPoint PresentationAll rights reserved. by Charlie Cook
  • 2. Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture Institutionalization When an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, becomes valued for itself, and acquires immortality.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 16–2
  • 3. What Is Organizational Culture?What Is Organizational Culture? Organizational Culture Characteristics: Characteristics: A common perception held by the organization’s 1. Innovation and risk 1. Innovation and risk taking taking members; a system of shared meaning. 2. Attention to detail 2. Attention to detail 3. Outcome orientation 3. Outcome orientation 4. People orientation 4. People orientation 5. Team orientation 5. Team orientation 6. Aggressiveness 6. Aggressiveness 7. Stability 7. Stability© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 16–3
  • 4. Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures?Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? Dominant Culture Expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members. Subcultures Minicultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 16–4
  • 5. Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures?(cont’d) (cont’d) Core Values The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization. Strong Culture A culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 16–5
  • 6. What Is Organizational Culture? (cont’d)What Is Organizational Culture? (cont’d) Culture Versus Formalization – A strong culture increases behavioral consistency and can act as a substitute for formalization. Organizational Culture Versus National Culture – National culture has a greater impact on employees than does their organization’s culture. – Nationals selected to work for foreign companies may be atypical of the local/native population.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 16–6
  • 7. What Do Cultures Do?What Do Cultures Do? Culture’s Functions: Culture’s Functions: 1. Defines the boundary between one organization 1. Defines the boundary between one organization and others. and others. 2. Conveys aasense of identity for its members. 2. Conveys sense of identity for its members. 3. Facilitates the generation of commitment to 3. Facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than self-interest. something larger than self-interest. 4. Enhances the stability of the social system. 4. Enhances the stability of the social system. 5. Serves as aasense-making and control mechanism 5. Serves as sense-making and control mechanism for fitting employees in the organization. for fitting employees in the organization.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 16–7
  • 8. What Do Cultures Do?What Do Cultures Do? Culture as a Liability: Culture as a Liability: 1. Barrier to change. 1. Barrier to change. 2. Barrier to diversity 2. Barrier to diversity 3. Barrier to acquisitions and mergers 3. Barrier to acquisitions and mergers© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 16–8
  • 9. How Culture BeginsHow Culture Begins Founders hire and keep only employees who think and feel the same way they do. Founders indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and feeling. The founders’ own behavior acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs, values, and assumptions.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 16–9
  • 10. Keeping Culture AliveKeeping Culture Alive Selection – Concern with how well the candidates will fit into the organization. – Provides information to candidates about the organization. Top Management – Senior executives help establish behavioral norms that are adopted by the organization. Socialization – The process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 16–All rights reserved. 10
  • 11. Stages in the Socialization ProcessStages in the Socialization Process Prearrival Stage The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization. Encounter Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge. Metamorphosis Stage The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the work, work group, and organization.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 16–All rights reserved. 11
  • 12. How Employees Learn CultureHow Employees Learn Culture •• Stories Stories •• Rituals Rituals •• Material Symbols Material Symbols •• Language Language© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 16–All rights reserved. 12
  • 13. Creating An Ethical Organizational CultureCreating An Ethical Organizational Culture Characteristics of Organizations that Develop High Ethical Standards – High tolerance for risk – Low to moderate in aggressiveness – Focus on means as well as outcomes Managerial Practices Promoting an Ethical Culture – Being a visible role model. – Communicating ethical expectations. – Providing ethical training. – Rewarding ethical acts and punishing unethical ones. – Providing protective mechanisms.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 16–All rights reserved. 13
  • 14. Creating a Customer-Responsive CultureCreating a Customer-Responsive Culture Key Variables Shaping Customer-Responsive Cultures 1. The types of employees hired by the organization. 2. Low formalization: the freedom to meet customer service requirements. 3. Empowering employees with decision-making discretion to please the customer. 4. Good listening skills to understand customer messages. 5. Role clarity that allows service employees to act as “boundary spanners.” 6. Employees who engage in organizational citizenship behaviors.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 16–All rights reserved. 14
  • 15. Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d)Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) Managerial Actions :: Managerial Actions •• Select new employees with personality and Select new employees with personality and attitudes consistent with high service attitudes consistent with high service orientation. orientation. •• Train and socialize current employees to be Train and socialize current employees to be more customer focused. more customer focused. •• Change organizational structure to give Change organizational structure to give employees more control. employees more control. •• Empower employees to make decision about Empower employees to make decision about their jobs. their jobs.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 16–All rights reserved. 15
  • 16. Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d)Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture (cont’d) Managerial Actions (cont’d) :: Managerial Actions (cont’d) •• Lead by conveying a customer-focused vision Lead by conveying a customer-focused vision and demonstrating commitment to customers. and demonstrating commitment to customers. •• Conduct performance appraisals based on Conduct performance appraisals based on customer-focused employee behaviors. customer-focused employee behaviors. •• Provide ongoing recognition for employees who Provide ongoing recognition for employees who make special efforts to please customers. make special efforts to please customers.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 16–All rights reserved. 16
  • 17. Spirituality and Organizational CultureSpirituality and Organizational Culture Workplace Spirituality The recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of the community. Characteristics: Characteristics: • • Strong sense of purpose Strong sense of purpose • • Focus on individual development Focus on individual development • • Trust and openness Trust and openness • • Employee empowerment Employee empowerment • • Toleration of employee expression Toleration of employee expression© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 16–All rights reserved. 17