Ob11 13st


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Ob11 13st

  1. 1. Chapter 13 Power and Politics ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS PowerPoint PresentationAll rights reserved. by Charlie Cook
  2. 2. A Definition of PowerA Definition of Power Power A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. Dependency B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 13–2
  3. 3. Contrasting Leadership and PowerContrasting Leadership and Power Leadership  Power – Focuses on goal – Used as a means for achievement. achieving goals. – Requires goal – Requires follower compatibility with dependency. followers. – Used to gain lateral – Focuses influence and upward downward. influence. Research Focus  Research Focus – Leadership styles – Power tactics for and relationships gaining compliance with followers© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 13–3
  4. 4. Bases of Power: Formal PowerBases of Power: Formal Power Formal Power Is established by an individual’s position in an organization; conveys the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of information. Coercive Power A power base dependent on fear. Reward Power Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 13–4
  5. 5. Bases of Power: Formal Power (cont’d)Bases of Power: Formal Power (cont’d) Legitimate Power The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. Information Power Power that comes from access to and control over information.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 13–5
  6. 6. Bases of Power: Personal PowerBases of Power: Personal Power Expert Power Influence based on special skills or knowledge. Referent Power Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits. Charismatic Power An extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 13–6
  7. 7. Dependency: The Key To PowerDependency: The Key To Power The General Dependency Postulate – The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B. – Possession/control of scarce organizational resources that others need makes a manager powerful. – Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple suppliers) reduces the resource holder’s power. What Creates Dependency – Importance of the resource to the organization – Scarcity of the resource – Nonsubstitutability of the resource© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 13–7
  8. 8. Power TacticsPower Tactics Power Tactics Influence Tactics: : Influence Tactics Ways in which • • Legitimacy Legitimacy individuals translate • • Rational persuasion power bases into Rational persuasion specific actions. • • Inspirational appeals Inspirational appeals • • Consultation Consultation • • Exchange Exchange • • Personal appeals Personal appeals • • Ingratiation Ingratiation • • Pressure Pressure • • Coalitions Coalitions© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 13–8
  9. 9. Factors Influencing the Choice andFactors Influencing the Choice andEffectiveness of Power TacticsEffectiveness of Power Tactics Sequencing of tactics  How the request is – Softer to harder tactics perceived works best. – Is the request accepted Skillful use of a tactic as ethical? – Experienced users are  The culture of the more successful. organization Relative power of the – Culture affects user’s tactic user choice of tactic – Some tactics work better  Country-specific cultural when applied downward. factors The type of request – Local values favor attaching to the tactic certain tactics over – Is the request legitimate? others.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 13–9
  10. 10. Power in Groups: CoalitionsPower in Groups: Coalitions Coalitions • • Seek to maximize their Seek to maximize their Clusters of individuals size to attain influence. size to attain influence. who temporarily come • • Seek aabroad and diverse Seek broad and diverse together to a achieve a constituency for support constituency for support specific purpose. of their objectives. of their objectives. • • Occur more frequently in Occur more frequently in organizations with high organizations with high task and resource task and resource interdependencies. interdependencies. • • Occur more frequently if Occur more frequently if tasks are standardized tasks are standardized and routine. and routine.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 13–All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in theSexual Harassment: Unequal Power in theWorkplaceWorkplaceSexual Harassment – Unwelcome advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.The U.S. Supreme Court test for determining ifsexual harassment has occurred: – whether comments or behavior in a work environment “would reasonably be perceived, and is perceived, as hostile or abusive.”© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 13–All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. Politics: Power in ActionPolitics: Power in Action Political Behavior Activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization. Legitimate Political Behavior Normal everyday politics. Illegitimate Political Behavior Extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 13–All rights reserved. 12