Ob11 12st

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Ob11 12st

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Contemporary Issues in Leadership ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS PowerPoint PresentationAll rights reserved. by Charlie Cook
  2. 2. Trust: The Foundation of LeadershipTrust: The Foundation of Leadership Trust A positive expectation that another will not—through words, actions, or decisions—act opportunistically. Trust is a history-dependent process (familiarity) based on relevant but limited samples of experience (risk).© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 12–2
  3. 3. Dimensions of TrustDimensions of Trust Integrity  Loyalty – honesty and truthfulness. – the willingness to protect and save face for Competence another person. – an individual’s technical  Openness and interpersonal knowledge and skills. – reliance on the person to give you the full truth. Consistency – an individual’s reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 12–3
  4. 4. Trust and LeadershipTrust and Leadership Leadership Leadership TRUST TRUST and and INTEGRITY INTEGRITY© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 12–4
  5. 5. Three Types of TrustThree Types of Trust Deterrence-based Trust Trust based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated. Knowledge-based Trust Trust based on behavioral predictability that comes from a history of interaction. Identification-based Trust Trust based on a mutual understanding of each other’s intentions and appreciation of the other’s wants and desires.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 12–5
  6. 6. Basic Principles of TrustBasic Principles of Trust Mistrust drives out trust. Trust begets trust. Growth often masks mistrust. Decline or downsizing tests the highest levels of trust. Trust increases cohesion. Mistrusting groups self-destruct. Mistrust generally reduces productivity.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 12–6
  7. 7. Framing: Using Words to Shape Meaning and Framing: Using Words to Shape Meaning andInspire Others Inspire Others Framing A way to use language to manage meaning. Leaders use framing (selectively including or Leaders use framing (selectively including or excluding facts) to influence how others see excluding facts) to influence how others see and interpret reality. and interpret reality.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 12–7
  8. 8. Inspirational Approaches to Leadership Inspirational Approaches to Leadership Charismatic Leadership Theory Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. Charismatics Influence Followers By: Charismatics Influence Followers By: 1. Articulating the vision 1. Articulating the vision 2. 2. Setting high performance expectations Setting high performance expectations 3. 3. Conveying a new set of values Conveying a new set of values 4. Making personal sacrifices© 2005 4. Making personal sacrifices Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 12–8
  9. 9. Beyond Charismatic LeadershipBeyond Charismatic Leadership Level 5 Leaders – Possess a fifth dimension—a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will—in addition to the four basic leadership qualities of individual capability, team skills, managerial competence, and the ability to stimulate others to high performance. – Channel their ego needs away from themselves and into the goal of building a great company.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 12–9
  10. 10. Transactional and Transformational LeadershipTransactional and Transformational Leadership Transactional Leaders • Contingent Reward Leaders who guide or • Management by motivate their followers in Exception (active) the direction of established • Management by goals by clarifying role and Exception (passive) task requirements. • Laissez-Faire Transformational Leaders • Charisma Leaders who provide • Inspiration individualized consideration • Intellectual Stimulation and intellectual stimulation, • Individual Consideration© 2005 Prentice Hallcharisma. and who possess Inc. 12–All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. Emotional Intelligence and LeadershipEmotional Intelligence and LeadershipEffectivenessEffectiveness Elements of Emotional Elements of Emotional Intelligence: : Intelligence ••Self-awareness Self-awareness ••Self-management Self-management ••Self-motivation Self-motivation ••Empathy Empathy ••Social skills Social skills© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 12–All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. Contemporary Leadership Roles: ProvidingContemporary Leadership Roles: ProvidingTeam LeadershipTeam Leadership Team Leadership Roles: : Team Leadership Roles •• Act as liaisons with Act as liaisons with external constituencies. external constituencies. •• Serve as troubleshooters. Serve as troubleshooters. •• Managing conflict. Managing conflict. •• Coaching to improve team Coaching to improve team member performance member performance© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 12–All rights reserved. 12
  13. 13. Contemporary Leadership Roles: MentoringContemporary Leadership Roles: Mentoring Mentor Mentoring Activities: : Mentoring Activities A senior employee who sponsors and supports a •• Present ideas clearly Present ideas clearly less-experienced •• Listen well Listen well employee (a protégé). •• Empathize Empathize •• Share experiences Share experiences •• Act as role model Act as role model •• Share contacts Share contacts •• Provide political Provide political guidance guidance© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 12–All rights reserved. 13
  14. 14. Contemporary Leadership Roles:Contemporary Leadership Roles:Self-LeadershipSelf-Leadership Self-Leadership Creating self leaders: : Creating self leaders A set of processes • • Model self-leadership. Model self-leadership. through which • • Encourage employees to individuals control Encourage employees to create self-set goals. create self-set goals. their own behavior. • • Encourage the use of self- Encourage the use of self- rewards. rewards. • • Create positive thought Create positive thought patterns. patterns. • • Create aaclimate of self- Create climate of self- leadership. leadership. • • Encourage self-criticism. Encourage self-criticism.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 12–All rights reserved. 14
  15. 15. Ethical LeadershipEthical Leadership Actions:: Actions •• Work to positively change the attitudes and Work to positively change the attitudes and behaviors of employees. behaviors of employees. •• Engage in socially constructive behaviors. Engage in socially constructive behaviors. •• Do not abuse power or use improper means to Do not abuse power or use improper means to attain goals. attain goals.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 12–All rights reserved. 15
  16. 16. Online LeadershipOnline Leadership Leadership at a Distance: Building Trust – The lack of face-to-face contact in electronic communications removes the nonverbal cues that support verbal interactions. – There is no supporting context to assist the receiver with interpretation of an electronic communication. – The structure and tone of electronic messages can strongly affect the response of receivers. – An individual’s verbal and written communications may not follow the same style. – Writing skills will likely become an extension of interpersonal skills© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 12–All rights reserved. 16
  17. 17. Challenges to the Leadership ConstructChallenges to the Leadership Construct Attribution Theory of Leadership The idea that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals. Qualities attributed to leaders: : Qualities attributed to leaders • • Leaders are intelligent, outgoing, have strong verbal Leaders are intelligent, outgoing, have strong verbal skills, are aggressive, understanding, and industrious. skills, are aggressive, understanding, and industrious. • • Effective leaders are perceived as consistent and Effective leaders are perceived as consistent and unwavering in their decisions. unwavering in their decisions. • • Effective leaders project the appearance of being aa Effective leaders project the appearance of being leader. leader.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 12–All rights reserved. 17
  18. 18. Finding and Creating Effective LeadersFinding and Creating Effective Leaders Selection – Review specific requirements for the job. – Use tests that identify personal traits associated with leadership, measure self-monitoring, and assess emotional intelligence. – Conduct personal interviews to determine candidate’s fit with the job. Training – Recognize the all people are not equally trainable. – Teach skills that are necessary for employees to become effective leaders. – Provide behavioral training to increase the development potential of nascent charismatic employees.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 12–All rights reserved. 18

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