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    Ob11 11st Ob11 11st Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 11 Basic Approaches to Leadership ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS PowerPoint PresentationAll rights reserved. by Charlie Cook
    • What Is Leadership?What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 11–2
    • Trait TheoriesTrait Theories Traits Theories of Leadership Traits:: Leadership Traits Leadership •• Ambition and energy Ambition and energy Theories that consider •• The desire to lead The desire to lead personality, social, physical, or intellectual •• Honest and integrity Honest and integrity traits to differentiate •• Self-confidence leaders from nonleaders. Self-confidence •• Intelligence Intelligence •• High self-monitoring High self-monitoring •• Job-relevant Job-relevant knowledge knowledge© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 11–3
    • Trait TheoriesTrait Theories Limitations:: Limitations •• No universal traits found that predict No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. leadership in all situations. •• Traits predict behavior better in “weak” Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. than “strong” situations. •• Unclear evidence of the cause and effect Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. of relationship of leadership and traits. •• Better predictor of the appearance of Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders. and ineffective leaders.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 11–4
    • Behavioral TheoriesBehavioral Theories Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders. •• Trait theory: Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Leaders are born, not made. •• Behavioral theory: Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Leadership traits can be taught.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 11–5
    • Ohio State StudiesOhio State Studies Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub-ordinates in the search for goal attainment. Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 11–6
    • University of Michigan StudiesUniversity of Michigan Studies Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 11–7
    • Scandinavian StudiesScandinavian Studies Development-Oriented Leader One who values experimentation, seeking new ideas, and generating and implementing change. Researchers in Finland and Sweden question whether there are only two dimensions (production-orientation and employee- orientation) that capture the essence of leadership behavior. Their premise is that in a changing world, effective leaders would exhibit development-oriented behavior.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 11–8
    • Contingency TheoriesContingency Theories Fiedler’s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 11–9
    • Fiedler’s Model: Defining the SituationFiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. Position Power Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire,© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. and give salary increases. 11– fire, discipline, promote,All rights reserved. 10
    • Cognitive Resource TheoryCognitive Resource Theory Cognitive Resource Theory A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably affect a situation and that intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader. Research Support: : Research Support • • Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. individuals. • • Less experienced people perform better in leadership Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people. roles under low stress than do more experienced people.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 11–All rights reserved. 11
    • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational LeadershipHersey and Blanchard’s Situational LeadershipTheoryTheory Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. Unable and Unable but Able and Able and Unwilling Willing Unwilling Willing Follower readiness: ability and willingness Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision Directive High Task and Relationship Supportive Monitoring© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. Orientations Participative 11–All rights reserved. 12
    • Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness(Hersey and Blanchard) (Hersey and Blanchard) Follower Unwilling Willing Readiness Able Supportive Monitoring Participative Leadership Styles High Task Unable Directive and Relationship Orientations© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 11–All rights reserved. 13
    • Leader–Member Exchange TheoryLeader–Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leaders create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 11–All rights reserved. 14
    • Path-Goal TheoryPath-Goal Theory Path-Goal Theory The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 11–All rights reserved. 15
    • Leader-Participation ModelLeader-Participation Model Leader-Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton) A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 11–All rights reserved. 16