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  • 1. Chapter 2 Foundations of Individual Behavior ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS PowerPoint PresentationAll rights reserved. by Charlie Cook
  • 2. Biographical CharacteristicsBiographical CharacteristicsBiographical CharacteristicsPersonal characteristics—such as age, gender, andmarital status—that are objective and easily obtainedfrom personnel records.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 2–2
  • 3. Ability, Intellect, and IntelligenceAbility, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 2–3
  • 4. Physical AbilitiesPhysical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 2–4
  • 5. LearningLearning Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Learning Learning ••Involves change Involves change ••Is relatively permanent Is relatively permanent ••Is acquired through experience Is acquired through experience© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 2–5
  • 6. Theories of LearningTheories of Learning Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Key Concepts Key Concepts ••Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus ••Unconditioned response Unconditioned response ••Conditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus ••Conditioned response© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. Conditioned responseAll rights reserved. 2–6
  • 7. Theories of Learning (cont’d)Theories of Learning (cont’d) Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Key Concepts Key Concepts ••Reflexive (unlearned) behavior Reflexive (unlearned) behavior ••Conditioned (learned) behavior Conditioned (learned) behavior ••Reinforcement Reinforcement© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 2–7
  • 8. Theories of Learning (cont’d)Theories of Learning (cont’d) Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience. Key Concepts Key Concepts ••Attentional processes Attentional processes ••Retention processes Retention processes ••Motor reproduction processes Motor reproduction processes ••Reinforcement processes Reinforcement processes© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 2–8
  • 9. Theories of Learning (cont’d)Theories of Learning (cont’d) Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. Key Concepts Key Concepts ••Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Reinforcement is required to change behavior. ••Some rewards are more effective than others. Some rewards are more effective than others. ••The timing of reinforcement affects learning The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. speed and permanence.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 2–9
  • 10. Types of ReinforcementTypes of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement – Providing a reward for a desired behavior. Negative reinforcement – Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs. Punishment – Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior. Extinction – Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 2–All rights reserved. 10
  • 11. Schedules of ReinforcementSchedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 2–All rights reserved. 11
  • 12. Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 2–All rights reserved. 12
  • 13. Behavior ModificationBehavior Modification OB Mod The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting. Five Step Problem-Solving Model Five Step Problem-Solving Model 1. Identify critical behaviors 1. Identify critical behaviors 2. Develop baseline data 2. Develop baseline data 3. Identify behavioral consequences 3. Identify behavioral consequences 4. Develop and apply intervention 4. Develop and apply intervention 5. Evaluate performance improvement© 2005 5. Evaluate Inc. Prentice Hall performance improvement 2–All rights reserved. 13
  • 14. OB MOD Organizational ApplicationsOB MOD Organizational Applications Well Pay versus Sick Pay – Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence. Employee Discipline – The use of punishment can be counter-productive. Developing Training Programs – OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness. Self-management – Reduces the need for external management control.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 2–All rights reserved. 14