DNA TechnologyThe Human Genome MOLECULAR Gene Diversity Therapy Project GENETICS The Human Genome Project
Genetics is the study of genes and their effects. Genomics is the study not just of single genes but of the functions and interactions of many genes in the genome. Medical genetics is any application of genetic principles to medical practice. This includes studies of inheritance, mapping disease genes, diagnosis and treatment, and genetic counseling. Pharmacogenetics is the study of how drugs affect the body with respect to specific genetic backgrounds. Knowledge of these effects can improve effectiveness of drugs and minimize side effects on an individual –patient basis.
It has emerged as a basic biological sciences forunderstanding the endogenous factors in health and disease and the complex interaction between nature and nurture..
Analysis of the specific sequences that are known and also unknown. Identification of mutation that arise the disease. Amplifying known DNA sequences. Techniques for synthesis of DNA. Cloning strategies.
It is the introduction of the gene sequence into a cell. Aim is to modifying the cell’s behaviour in a clinically relevant fashion. Gene therapy should take its place alongside other forms of medical treatments.
The human genome project Is an attempt to synthesis the research on mapping and isolating human genes. Agencies with a role in co-ordination human genome data include UNESCO,HUGO ,etc.. The human genome diversity project Is the part of a work HUGO. Its aim is to increasing understanding of human population. Differences in distribution between population may often be accounted for by “FOUNDER EFFECTS”.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international research effort to read and map all of the genes in the human body, which together are known as the human genome. The HGP, completed in April of 2003, gave scientists the ability, for the first time, to read the complete genetic blueprint for building a human being (National Human Genome Research Institute [NHGRI], 2008b). As a result of human genome discoveries, it is now known that genetic factors play a role in nine of the ten leading causes of death in the United States, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Human genome research is also leading to a better understanding of the interactions between genes and the environment and helping to find better ways to improve health and prevent disease
The completion of the HGP, by opening new doors for understanding the underlying causes of rare and common diseases, is leading to a new type of medicine, called personalized medicine. Learning about the influence of genetic and genomic factors on health and disease is leading towards earlier diagnosis, Genetic medicine EFFECTIVE AND as primary care INDIVIDUALISED PREVENTION INDIVIDUALISED TREATMENT BETTER RESPONSE TO Personalized medicine is TREATMENTS, transforming healthcare IMPROVED HEALTH OUTCOMES
Prenatal diagnosis Pre-implantation and preconception diagnosis Genetic screening programmes – selective mass screening for congenital and hereditary diseases among newborns; biochemical screening - common congenital abnormalities of the fetus . Ultrasound screening for congenital abnormalities of the fetus. Genetic monitoring – population and high-risk monitoring; Basic group methods used in genetic monitoring; Therapy of genetic diseases – conventional therapy of genetic diseases, gene therapy of monogenic diseases, Personalized Medicine Moral, ethical and legal issues in genetic counselling, genetic screening, gene therapy and the creation of DNA banks.
BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANT OF HEALTH EFFECT OF GENES ON HEALTH STATUS HORMONE BODYSEX PRODUCTI TYPE ON PREDISPO AGE SITION TO DISEASE
UNDERWEIGHT OVER WEIGHTCOMPROMISED IMMUNE CVD FUNCTION DIABETES RIGHT WEIGHTRESPIRATORY DISEASE SOME TYPE OF CANCERS DIGESTIVE DISEASE OSTEOARTHRITIS OSTEOPOROSIS GALL BLADDER DISEASE
SEX/ HORMONESCHEMICAL MESSAGE TO CELLSTHAT CAUSE CHANGES IN BODY TESTOSTERONE INC METABOLISM,DECREASES RISK OF FAT DEPOSITION OESTROGEN DECREASES RISK OF HEART DISEASE MAINTAINS BONE DENSITY REGULETES FAT DEPOSITION
BURDEN OF DISEASE WAS HIGHEST AT MIDDLE ADULTHOOD MENTAL ILLNESS DIABETESCVD • INCREASES • INCREASES • THE BURDEN OF • HIGH BLOOD WITH AGE WITH AGE DISEASE WAS PRESSURE/HIGH • PREDOMINANT • OREDOMINANT GREATER IN LEVEL OF AT 60YRS AND AT 55 YRS TO 75 BOTH SEXES AT CHOLESTROL ABOVE YRS EARLY TO • PROPORTION MIDDLE OF CASES ADULTHOOD INCREASES WITH AGE IN BOTH MALES AND FEMALES
GENETIC PREDISPOSITIONPERSON MAY BE AT GREATER RISK OF ACQUIRING A DISEASE OR A CONDITION IF THEY HAVE A BIOLOGICAL PARENT WHO HAS HAD THE DISEASE. EXAMPLES ALZIMERS DISEASE IF YOUR PARENT HAS HIGH CVD CHOLESTROL THEN U HAVE A HIGH DIABETES TYPE 1 & 2RISH OF DEVELOPING HIGH LEVEL OF CHOLESTROL MIGRAINE CERTAIN CANCERS (BREAST PROSTRATE)