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Perception

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 Perception is important for understanding individual differences because how people perceived a situation determines how people behave. Perception is part of that personal dimension that makes …

 Perception is important for understanding individual differences because how people perceived a situation determines how people behave. Perception is part of that personal dimension that makes people see situations differently as well as shapes their attitude in terms of their work environment. This lesson seeks to help students:
1. describe the major elements of the perceptual process;
2. identify the main factors that influence what individual perceive; and
3. Identify factors that determine how one person perceives another.


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  • 1. Understanding individual differences
    Perception
  • 2. Perception
    Overview
    Perception is important for understanding individual differences because how people perceived a situation determines how people behave. Perception is part of that personal dimension that makes people see situations differently as well as shapes their attitude in terms of their work environment. This lesson seeks to help students:
    describe the major elements of the perceptual process;
    identify the main factors that influence what individual perceive; and
    identify factors that determine how one person perceives another.
  • 3. Perception
    Definition
    Perception is the process by which people select, organize, interpret, and respond to information from the world around them.
    Perception is the selection and organization of environmental stimuli to provide meaningful experiences for the perceiver.
    The perceptual process consists of the following elements:
    Environmental stimuli
    Observation
    Perceptual selection
    Perceptual organization
    Interpretation
    response
  • 4. Environmental Stimuli
    Observation
    P
    E
    R
    C
    E
    P
    T
    U
    A
    L
    P
    R
    O
    C
    E
    S
    S
    Perceptual Organization
    Perceptual selection
    Interpretation
    Response
  • Perception
    Environmental stimuli
    People receive stimuli from the environment through their senses when they observe their environment:
  • 15. Perception
    Perceptual Selection
    When the stimuli are received a person might pay attention to some of the aspects in the environment and ignore others. This filtering out of most information to deal with the most important matter is referred to as selective screening.
    The influencing factors are due mainly to external and internal factors.
    External factors are:
    Size
    Intensity
    Contrast
    Motion
    Repetition
    Novelty and familiarity
    A combination of the above may be operating at any time to affect perception.
  • 16. Perception
    Internal factors
    • Personality – personality is a strong influencing factor in determining how an individual perceive other people.
    • 17. Learning affects perception by the development of perceptual sets. A perceptual set is an expectation of a particular interpretation based on past experience with the same or similar objects.
    • 18. Motivation – the urgent needs and desires at any particular time can influence perception.
    What do you see in this picture?
    Which white circle is larger?
    How would you describe these potato chips?
  • 19. Perceptual organization
    The process by which people group environmental stimuli into recognizable patterns
    Perceptual grouping is the tendency to form perceive objects as a continuous pattern.
  • 20. Perception
    • Closure is the tendency to complete an object and perceive it as a constant.
  • Personal perception
    Personal perception is the process by which individuals attribute characteristics or traits to other people. One imagines that in the workplace personal perception plays an important role in shaping our behaviour in context of our work relationships with our colleagues. The factors that influence personal perception are:
    • Characteristics of the perceived
    • 21. Characteristics of the perceiver, and
    • 22. The situation or context within which the perception takes place.
  • Person perception
    The perceived
    The person being perceived gives us information relative to:
  • Person perception
    The perceiver
    • Factors internal to the perceiver determine how a person perceives someone. These factors are listed as:
    Personality
    Learning
    motivation
  • 31. Person perception
    The situation
    • Situation does not only mean a place. Situation is inclusive of an event or an occasion when people interact. A situation may be important in understanding first impressions.
  • Perceptual errors
    The perceptual process may result in a person making errors in judgement or understanding of another person. The most common types of perceptual errors are:
  • Perceptual errors
    Accuracy in judgment
    Similarity error – assuming that people who are similar to us ( in terms of background, interests and hobbies) will behave like us.
    Contrast error – comparing people to others rather than to some absolute standard.
    Overweighting of negative information – a tendency to overreact to something negative.
    Race, age, and gender bias – tendency to be more or less positive based on one’s race, age, of sex.
    First-impression error – forming first impressions that are resistant to change.
  • 37. Perceptual error
    Perceptual defence
    • The tendency for people to protect themselves against ideas, objects, or situations that are threatening.
    • 38. Stereotyping
    • 39. The belief that all members of a specific group share similar traits and behaviours.
    • 40. Halo effect
    • 41. A tendency to colour everything we know about a person because of one recognizable favourable or unfavourable trait.
    • 42. Projection
    • 43. tendency to see one’s traits in others.
    • 44. The role of culture –
    • 45. Culture influence our perception in selecting information and exhibiting a behavioural pattern in situations
  • Learning
    Learning is a relative permanent change in behaviour based on practice or experience. There are two categories of learning:
    Classical learning
    Operant learning
  • 46. Learning
    Classical learning ( workplace hospital)
    Unconditioned stimulus
    Patient
    Reflex action
    Nervous behaviour of a nurse
    Condition stimulus
    Emergency light
    A patient who needs treatment arrives at the hospital. As the patient enters the casualty a red light goes off to indicate an emergency. Nurses seeing the light become nervous about their tasks.
  • 47. Learning
    Operant conditioning
    A process by which individuals learn voluntary behaviour, that is perform deliberate actions. This concept in reference to the workplace suggests that the individual influences the environment to produce a consequence and as a result the individual learns voluntary behaviour.
    Managers can influence the frequency of behaviour by changing the consequences of the behaviour through reinforcement and rewards.
  • 48. Reinforcement
    Contingency of reinforcement
    The relationship between the preceding and following environmental events and the behaviour, which results in a change in behaviour.
    Reinforcement contingent on consequences
    Employee task behaviour
    Antecedent
    Consequence
    Manager and employee set goals
    The employee may or may not reach the target
    Is the consequence negative or positive?
    Action of the manager – reprimand or compliment based of the consequence
  • 49. Positive reinforcement
    Positive reinforcement is the presentation of a pleasant consequence after the occurrence of a desired goal.
    Principles of positive reinforcement:
    Contingent reinforcement – the reinforcer must be administered only if the desired behaviour is performed.
    Immediate reinforcement – the reinforcer will be most effective if given immediately when the desired behaviour has occurred
    Reinforcement size – the larger the amount, the more effective on the frequency of desired behaviour.
    Reinforcement deprivation – the more a person is deprived, the greater the effect on future occurrence
  • 50. Negative reinforcement
    Punishment
    • Punishment occurs when an unpleasant event follows and decreases its frequency.
    Punishment can be effective by doing the following:
    With oral reprimand, “Praise in public, punish in private.”
    Oral reprimand should pinpoint the undesirable behaviour to be avoided.
    Develop an alternative desired behaviour to replace the undesired behaviour.
    Use positive discipline to change employee behaviour by reasoning rather than by imposing increasingly severe punishment.
  • 51. Contingencies of reinforcement
    Guidelines:
    Do not reward all employee in the same way.
    Carefully examine the consequences of nonactions as well as action.
    Let employees know which behaviours will be reinforced.
    Let employees know what they are doing wrong.
    Do not punish employees in front of others.
    Make the response equal to the behaviour by not cheating workers out of their just reward.