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This slide presentation is for A level students taking the Cambridge business studies examination.

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  1. 1. Management & Leadership<br />People in Organizations<br />
  2. 2. Objectives<br />After viewing this series of slides, students should be able to:<br />define the concept of management<br />understand the main functions of a manager<br />Understand the role of a manager.<br />Explain the importance of good management to the success of a business<br />Analyse the differences between McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y<br />Explain the different leadership styles and emotional intelligence.<br />
  3. 3. Management<br />Definition<br />Management is defined as a process of attaining goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading and controlling organizational resources.<br />A manager is responsible for setting objectives, organizing resources and motivating staff so that the organizational goals are achieved.<br />
  4. 4. The functions of management<br />Functions:<br />Planning and setting objectives<br />Organizing resources <br />Directing and motivating staff<br />Coordinating activities<br />Controlling and measuring performance<br />
  5. 5. Planning<br />Planning is a management function concerned with defining goals, objectives, and strategies and resources use needed to attain the organizational goals.<br />Planning is a function which is the largely the responsibility of top managers. They set the strategic objectives, which are then translated into tactical plans and objectives by the middle managers.<br />
  6. 6. Organizing<br />Organizing is that management function concerned with assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments and allocating resources to departments.<br />Top managers in performing the function of organizing determine the structure the organization should take to work towards the organization’s objectives.<br />
  7. 7. Directing<br />Directing is a management function which involves leadership skills. In performing this function managers influence and motivate employees to achieve the organizational objectives.<br />
  8. 8. Coordinating<br />Coordinating is ensuring that all departments in the organization are working towards the same objectives, that is creating a synergy which says that every one is focused in the same direction.<br />
  9. 9. Controlling<br />Controlling speaks to the monitoring of employees’ activities and making corrections as the employees deviate. The basic functions of control are:<br />establishing standards<br />Measuring performance against standards<br />Taking corrective actions where appropriate<br />
  10. 10. Henry Mintzberg (1973)<br />Management roles<br />
  11. 11. Managerial roles<br />Henry Mintzberg identified ten managerial roles managers perform in executing their duties. He divided these ten roles into three groups, namely:<br />Interpersonal roles - pertain to relationship with staff and motivating them.<br />Informational – acting as a source of information, receiving and transmitting information, developing information networks.<br />Decisional roles – making decisions and allocating resources to meet the organizational objectives<br />
  12. 12. Interpersonal role<br />
  13. 13. Informational role<br />
  14. 14. Decisional role<br />
  15. 15. Leadership<br />The art of influencing and motivation people towards achieving an common objective<br />
  16. 16. Qualities of a good leader<br />desire to succeed and natural self confidence<br />ability to think, to be creative and to encourage other to do the same.<br />Incisive mind <br />
  17. 17. Leadership styles<br />Theorists believe that effective leadership depends on the way in which people are lead.<br />There are different ways of leadership or leadership styles:<br />Autocratic <br />Democratic<br />Paternalistic<br />Laissez-faire<br />
  18. 18. Leadership styles<br />Autocratic leadership – keeps all decision-making at the centre of the organization<br />Democratic leadership – allow workforce participation in the decision-making process.<br />Paternalistic leadership – the managers knows what is best for the organization<br />Laissez-faire leadership – decision-making is left to the workforce.<br />
  19. 19. Autocratic leaders<br />Main features<br />Drawbacks<br />Leader take all decisions<br />Gives little information to staff<br />Supervise workers closely<br />One-way communication<br />Demotivates staff<br />Decisions do not benefit from staff<br />
  20. 20. Democratic leadership style<br />Main features<br />Drawbacks<br />Participation encourage<br />Two-way communication, which allows feedback<br />Consultation with staff can be time consuming<br />Some issues too sensitive for staff involvement<br />
  21. 21. Paternalistic<br />Main features<br />Drawbacks<br />Managers do what they think is best for workers<br />Managers want workers to enjoy their jobs<br />Likelihood of managers emphasizing ‘ I know best’ and not allowing for employee initiative.<br />
  22. 22. Laissez-faire leadership style<br />Main features<br />Drawbacks<br />Managers delegate all authority and decision-making powers<br />Not all workers can perform on their own initiative<br />Lack of feedback can lead to demotivation<br />
  23. 23. Leadership styles<br />The best leadership style depends on:<br />Attitude and skills of the employees<br />Employee training<br />the nature of the tasks<br />The degree of risk involved<br />The group norms<br />The supervisor’s tolerance for ambiguity<br />The time horizon<br />
  24. 24. Douglas McGregor<br />McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y<br />
  25. 25. McGregor’s theory X and Theory Y<br />Theory X managers believe that workers<br />Theory Y manager believe that workers<br />Dislike work and avoid it if they can<br />Avoid responsibility<br />Employee prefer to be directed<br />Employees must be coerced, controlled and threatened<br />Think work is as natural as play<br />Employees will accept responsibility<br />Employee will exercise self-direction and self-control<br />Employees are generally quite creative<br />
  26. 26. Daniel Goleman<br />Emotional intelligence<br />
  27. 27. Emotional intelligence (EI)<br />The ability of managers to understand their own emotions, and those of the people they work with, to achieve better business performance.<br />Daniel Goleman component of EI :<br />Self-awareness<br />Self-management<br />Social awareness<br />Social skills<br />
  28. 28. Components of emotional intelligence<br />Self-awareness - being aware of what one is feeling<br />Self-management – the ability to control disruptive or harmful emotions and balance one’s mood so that stress does not hinder one’s thinking.<br />Social awareness – sensing how others are feeling.<br />Social skills –handing emotions in relationships well and understand the various social situations; using social skills to persuade, negotiate and lead. <br />