Objectives At the end of this lesson students should be able to: Discuss the role of leadership in an organization Assess the impact of different styles of leadership on organizational behaviour.
Leadership Traits model
Trait model The trait model is based on the observed characteristics of leaders. The model identify four traits that are shared by most successful leaders. Intelligence Maturity and breadth Inner motivation and achievement drive Employee-centred
Traits Model Intelligence – leaders tend to have somewhat higher intelligence than their subordinates. Maturity and breadth – leaders tend to be emotionally mature and have a broad range of interests. Inner motivation – leader want to accomplish things. Employee-centred leaders are able to work effectively with employees in a variety of ways.
Criticism of the traits model Traits model does not identify consistent patterns among successful leaders. It relates physical characteristics to effective leadership. Most of which are related to the situational demands that significantly affect a leader’s effectiveness. e.g. leaders in the military.
Behavioural model leadership
Behavioural models Behavioural models focus on what leader actually do and how they do it. These model show the leaders achieve their goals in two ways: By having task-centred relationships with members which are focused on the quality and quantity of work accomplished. By being considerate and supportive of members’ attempts to achieve personal goals.
Ohio State University leadership model This research was conducted in the 1940s with the objective of identifying leadership behaviours that are important for attaining team and organizational goals. The findings highlighted two important dimensions of leadership behaviour: Consideration Initiating structures
Consideration dimension The extent to which leaders have job relationship characterized by: mutual trust two-way communication respect for employees’ ideas Respect for employees’ feeling High consideration – psychological closeness between leader and subordinate Low consideration – greater psychological distance and a more impersonal leader
Initiating structure dimension (1) The extent to which a leader define and structure their roles and their subordinates’ to accomplish the organizational goals. Leaders concern with this dimension emphasize the following: Planning to give direction Communicate information Use schedules Maintain standards of performance
Initiating structure dimension (2) High degree of initiating structure is concerned with accomplishing tasks by giving directions and expecting them to be followed. Leaders who emphasize initiating structure generally improve productivity in the short-term. The study shows that leaders who rank high in initiating structure and low in consideration generally have large numbers of grievances, absenteeism, and high turnover rates.
Contingency Model Hersey and Blanchard’s situational model
Hersey and Blanchard’s situational model Hersey and Blanchard’s situational model is based on the relationship (supportive) and the task (directive) behaviour that a leader provides in a given situation. Relationship behaviour is the extent to which the leaders listen, provide support and encouragement and involve workers in decision-making. Task behaviour is the extent to which leaders give instructions, direction and closely supervise their subordinates
Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory high Participating Followers able, unwilling, insecure Selling Followers unable, willing, confident This model suggests that leaders adjust their styles. They do so contingently and relative to the task readiness of the follower. Readiness refers to how able and willing or confident followers are to perform tasks Participating behaviours Delegating Followers able, willing, confident Telling Followers unable, unwilling insecure low Task behaviours low high
Telling – providing specific instructions and closely supervise performance
Selling – explain your decisions and provide opportunities for clarification
Participating – share ideas and facilitate in making decisions
Delegating – turn over responsibilities for decision and implementation
Implications of Hersey and Blanchard’s model The readiness level of employees must the checked in order for the leader to determine which style is suitable.
Criticism It is possible in a team situation to have members at different readiness levels. How does a leader adequately adjust to the readiness level of each member.