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Teaching Students with  Autism Spectrum Disorder EDU 5101 Kevin Neuenswander
What is Sensory/Integration Processing? <ul><li>We receive information about the world around us through our senses.  We h...
5 Steps  of Sensory Processing/Integration <ul><li>Registration -awareness that we have touched, seen. </li></ul><ul><li>O...
What is Sensory/Integration Processing? <ul><li>Most people take in sensory information & process it without even thinking...
Sensory & ASD Students <ul><li>High incidence of sensory processing challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Can be hypersensitive/ove...
We all have Sensory Needs There are seven  different kinds of    Sensory Needs.
<ul><li>Variation in light </li></ul><ul><li>Variation in color </li></ul><ul><li>Visual distractions </li></ul>Visual
Olfactory <ul><li>Variations in types of odors </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in intensity of odors </li></ul>
Tactile <ul><li>Variations in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in touch pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in a...
Oral/Gustatory <ul><li>Variations in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in textures (crunchy, chewy) </li></ul><ul><...
Auditory <ul><li>Variations in noise level. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in auditory distractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Varia...
Proprioception <ul><li>This is the sense that gives us awareness of body position. </li></ul><ul><li>Proprioception inform...
Vestibular <ul><li>This is the sense of movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Information comes to us from changes in head position....
   Take the Sensory-Motor  Preference Checklist (for  Adults)    Share results with the people  at your table.
Regulation of Sensory System <ul><li>In order for students to be ready to learn, they need to be at an  optimal level of a...
Signs of Sensory Processing Difficulties <ul><li>Sensory processing is considered a problem  if it interferes with the chi...
What you  might see:
Visual <ul><li>Stares at visual objects </li></ul><ul><li>Can not handle many visual distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Bother...
Olfactory <ul><li>Seeks out certain smells </li></ul><ul><li>Agitated by certain smells </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly sniff...
Tactile <ul><li>Irritability or withdrawal to touch </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of certain types of textures </li></ul><ul...
Oral <ul><li>Constantly putting things in their mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Licking objects </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of cer...
Auditory <ul><li>Covers ears to certain noises that do not bother other children </li></ul><ul><li>Can not filter out othe...
Proprioception <ul><li>Craves or gives “bear” type of hugs </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a great deal of pressure on objects </li...
Vestibular <ul><li>Avoids playground equipment or any movement type activity </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly is moving </li><...
Sensory Diet <ul><li>Providing activities which will help the child reach an optimal level of arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>T...
<ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Modification </li></ul>Vs.
Stop thinking about  “removing the child” as  the “REAL” answer to  the problem. <ul><li>If the inappropriate behavior is ...
Structure, Order, Routines <ul><li>Use a visual schedule before & after every activity </li></ul><ul><li>Review rules dail...
Structure, Order, Routines  (cont.) <ul><li>Provide structured breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize down time </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Visual supports-used daily & consistently </li></ul><ul><li>Social-understand the rules, know what he/she is suppo...
Form vs. Function <ul><li>Any challenging behavior that persists over time is “working” for the child. </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Functions of Behavior Most behaviors occur for one or more of the following reasons: 1. Escape/Avoidance 2. Attention 3. T...
Escape Strategies <ul><li>Increase use of visual supports </li></ul><ul><li>Shorten activities </li></ul><ul><li>Slow down...
Attention Strategies <ul><li>Verbal vs. Physical Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce (R+) them for being good </li></ul>...
Tangible Suggestions <ul><li>Clarify rules </li></ul><ul><li>Build in opportunities for the item into class schedule </li>...
Sensory Suggestions <ul><li>Fill environment with interesting & stimulating activities that provide similar reinforcement....
Control Suggestions <ul><li>Does the behavior occur when told “No” or “Stop”? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the behavior occur wh...
Communication Strategies <ul><li>Receptive-Input/Task demands </li></ul><ul><li>  - Visual supports-aided language input <...
Tips <ul><li>Never suggest a child to do something. (Let’s put the toys away) </li></ul><ul><li>Directions are positive & ...
Tips  (continued) <ul><li>Visual cue card-wait card, walk, sit </li></ul><ul><li>Count down 5-4-3-2-1  </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Tips  (continued) <ul><li>1, 2, 3 strikes your out </li></ul><ul><li>First work, then break </li></ul><ul><li>Develop comm...
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Teaching Students With Asd

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Strategies for working with students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

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  1. 1. Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder EDU 5101 Kevin Neuenswander
  2. 2. What is Sensory/Integration Processing? <ul><li>We receive information about the world around us through our senses. We have a constant flow of information coming into our nervous system every second of every day. </li></ul><ul><li>All this information is received in our brain & organized & sorted in an efficient manner. The brain then uses this information to help us form our behaviors, emotions, & readiness to perform learning tasks. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 5 Steps of Sensory Processing/Integration <ul><li>Registration -awareness that we have touched, seen. </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation -Focusing on or regarding the input. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation -relating emotions & past experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization -determine if a response is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Execution of response -which may be ignoring. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Sensory/Integration Processing? <ul><li>Most people take in sensory information & process it without even thinking about it. </li></ul><ul><li>-Optimal state-all seven areas of sensory processing work effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people take in sensory information & recognize it immediately & are very aware of the sensation. </li></ul><ul><li>-Sensory defensiveness-high alert or arousal level </li></ul><ul><li>Some people take in sensory information & difficulty registering the sensation. </li></ul><ul><li>-Low arousal. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sensory & ASD Students <ul><li>High incidence of sensory processing challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Can be hypersensitive/over reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Can be hyposensitive/under reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Result in behavioral/social/emotional & academic difficulties </li></ul>
  6. 6. We all have Sensory Needs There are seven different kinds of Sensory Needs.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Variation in light </li></ul><ul><li>Variation in color </li></ul><ul><li>Visual distractions </li></ul>Visual
  8. 8. Olfactory <ul><li>Variations in types of odors </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in intensity of odors </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tactile <ul><li>Variations in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in touch pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in amount of touch </li></ul><ul><li>Types of clothing </li></ul>
  10. 10. Oral/Gustatory <ul><li>Variations in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in textures (crunchy, chewy) </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in taste (sweet, sour, etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral motor movement (blowing, biting, sucking, licking, etc…) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Auditory <ul><li>Variations in noise level. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in auditory distractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in the types of noise. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in the rhythm. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Proprioception <ul><li>This is the sense that gives us awareness of body position. </li></ul><ul><li>Proprioception information comes to us from our muscles and joints. </li></ul><ul><li>When working effectively, this sense helps us to use appropriate pressure on objects, guide our movements & generally give us a sense of what our body is doing. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Vestibular <ul><li>This is the sense of movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Information comes to us from changes in head position. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the foundation for the orientation of our body. </li></ul><ul><li>Under active or overactive vestibular systems systems affective a person’s ability to play, interact with the environment & learn. </li></ul>
  14. 14.  Take the Sensory-Motor Preference Checklist (for Adults)  Share results with the people at your table.
  15. 15. Regulation of Sensory System <ul><li>In order for students to be ready to learn, they need to be at an optimal level of arousal . </li></ul><ul><li>Low arousal students may appear lethargic, inattentive & sometimes be difficult to motivate. Sometimes they can display hyperactive behaviors in an attempt to avoid a stat of lower arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>High arousal students are usually considered antsy, quick to emotional reactions & may have behavioral outbursts. May enter a flight, fright or fight reaction to everyday sensory stimulation. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Signs of Sensory Processing Difficulties <ul><li>Sensory processing is considered a problem if it interferes with the child’s ability to function normally within the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be manifested either by behavior challenges, emotional outburst, unwillingness to participate in activities. </li></ul>
  17. 17. What you might see:
  18. 18. Visual <ul><li>Stares at visual objects </li></ul><ul><li>Can not handle many visual distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Bothered by lights or certain colors </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in only certain colors </li></ul>
  19. 19. Olfactory <ul><li>Seeks out certain smells </li></ul><ul><li>Agitated by certain smells </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly sniffs things </li></ul>
  20. 20. Tactile <ul><li>Irritability or withdrawal to touch </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of certain types of textures </li></ul><ul><li>May not enjoy playing with messy materials </li></ul><ul><li>Does not enjoy touching tactile materials </li></ul><ul><li>Always touching objects or other people </li></ul><ul><li>Oblivious to pain </li></ul>
  21. 21. Oral <ul><li>Constantly putting things in their mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Licking objects </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of certain types of food textures, or on the contrary, craves certain types of food </li></ul><ul><li>Will only eat food at a certain temperature </li></ul>
  22. 22. Auditory <ul><li>Covers ears to certain noises that do not bother other children </li></ul><ul><li>Can not filter out other background noises </li></ul><ul><li>Tunes in to certain noises, like the ticking of a clock </li></ul><ul><li>Oblivious to noises that bother </li></ul><ul><li>other people </li></ul>
  23. 23. Proprioception <ul><li>Craves or gives “bear” type of hugs </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a great deal of pressure on objects </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly bumping or pushing into other objects or people </li></ul><ul><li>Likes to carry around very heavy objects </li></ul><ul><li>Does not seem to be aware of </li></ul><ul><li>where their body is in space </li></ul>
  24. 24. Vestibular <ul><li>Avoids playground equipment or any movement type activity </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly is moving </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys spinning (self or objects) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Sensory Diet <ul><li>Providing activities which will help the child reach an optimal level of arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>The diet is based on the needs of the child , & what activities help the child to cope with his/her environment . </li></ul><ul><li>It is individual for each child , what works for one child may not work for another child. </li></ul><ul><li>The diet can be provided in sensory breaks throughout the day or given continuously in the child’s day. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory breaks should be given before an anticipated problem or certain times of the day to avoid any challenging behavior. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Modification </li></ul>Vs.
  27. 27. Stop thinking about “removing the child” as the “REAL” answer to the problem. <ul><li>If the inappropriate behavior is </li></ul><ul><li>occurring… what has to change? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If what you are doing was going to eliminate the problem behavior…it would already have worked. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Structure, Order, Routines <ul><li>Use a visual schedule before & after every activity </li></ul><ul><li>Review rules daily </li></ul><ul><li>Break large tasks/activities into 3 steps </li></ul><ul><li>Use timers </li></ul><ul><li>Activities should be no more than 20-30 min. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide advanced notice prior to changing activities </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for short planned transitions </li></ul>
  29. 29. Structure, Order, Routines (cont.) <ul><li>Provide structured breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize down time </li></ul><ul><li>Build sensory opportunities into the daily classroom schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease fine motor tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Hands on materials </li></ul><ul><li>Pair new activities with favorite items-sandwich </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on strengths & weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Data driven </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Visual supports-used daily & consistently </li></ul><ul><li>Social-understand the rules, know what he/she is supposed to do </li></ul><ul><li>Communication-Receptive, Expressive (Stranger Test), given choices, directions are in simple language </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive level-is work too difficult, do they understand the task? </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement-4 positive to 1 negative </li></ul><ul><li>Ga State Project </li></ul><ul><li>http://education.gsu.edu/autism/ </li></ul>Structure, Order, Routines (cont.)
  31. 31. Form vs. Function <ul><li>Any challenging behavior that persists over time is “working” for the child. </li></ul><ul><li>The students is being reinforced for the inappropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The student has little to no incentive to change. </li></ul><ul><li>The student needs to get what he’s getting or he wouldn’t be doing the inappropriate behavior in the first place. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t “punish” the behavior out of existence, if you could have it would already have eliminated the problem behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that for every year a behavior has been “working” 1 month of consistent intervention is needed to change the behavior. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Functions of Behavior Most behaviors occur for one or more of the following reasons: 1. Escape/Avoidance 2. Attention 3. Tangible 4. Sensory 5. Control 6. Communications These are the main functions of behavior Why does he do this?
  33. 33. Escape Strategies <ul><li>Increase use of visual supports </li></ul><ul><li>Shorten activities </li></ul><ul><li>Slow down lesson/change task difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Teach to request for a break/help </li></ul><ul><li>Use hands on activities-areas of interests </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor/remediate </li></ul><ul><li>Build in choices-give them the power-control </li></ul><ul><li>Increase student Preference/Interest-incorporate student hobbies/interests into activities </li></ul><ul><li>Increase predictability-Provide cues for upcoming change in activities. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Attention Strategies <ul><li>Verbal vs. Physical Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce (R+) them for being good </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the child an appropriate way to get attention- switch calling teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Only reinforce the method being taught not inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore & redirect silently-get them on task for 20 seconds then R+ </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduled Attention-Adult or peer attention is made available on some type of schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>Change location-Place student in close proximity </li></ul><ul><li>to staff </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Preferred Activities during time when you </li></ul><ul><li>can not provide attention. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Tangible Suggestions <ul><li>Clarify rules </li></ul><ul><li>Build in opportunities for the item into class schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Develop routines </li></ul><ul><li>First work, then break </li></ul><ul><li>Teach appropriate requesting skills for the desired item. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce appropriate requesting skills for the desired item. </li></ul><ul><li>Use desired items to assist with instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a warning-indicate that activity is about to end…5 minutes, 3 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule a transitional activity-schedule a moderately preferred activity between highly preferred & highly non-preferred activities </li></ul>
  36. 36. Sensory Suggestions <ul><li>Fill environment with interesting & stimulating activities that provide similar reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- back rubs, vibrating tube, tickle game </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured, scheduled sensory diet </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for breaks to move-put up items, sharpen pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for instruction/work in different settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on the floor, sitting standing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t wait until they are demanding it, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do it ahead of time. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Control Suggestions <ul><li>Does the behavior occur when told “No” or “Stop”? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the behavior occur when teacher is delivering an instruction to the student? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Like things the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t like change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristic of ASD: </li></ul><ul><li>Build in choices-give them the power-control </li></ul><ul><li>The rule is… </li></ul><ul><li>Routines/Advance organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Slight differences </li></ul>
  38. 38. Communication Strategies <ul><li>Receptive-Input/Task demands </li></ul><ul><li> - Visual supports-aided language input </li></ul><ul><li> - Teach the skill </li></ul><ul><li> - Be aware of developmental level </li></ul><ul><li> - Clear, simple Language </li></ul><ul><li> - Systematic Prompting (Tell, Show, Do) </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive-No output system in place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a way to communicated with SLP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model system for the child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct teaching of how to use the system </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Tips <ul><li>Never suggest a child to do something. (Let’s put the toys away) </li></ul><ul><li>Directions are positive & clear </li></ul><ul><li>Tell, show, Do Prompting </li></ul><ul><li>Close proximity when giving directions-no more than 3 feet away </li></ul><ul><li>Two directions only-keep it simple </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce teacher talk </li></ul>
  40. 40. Tips (continued) <ul><li>Visual cue card-wait card, walk, sit </li></ul><ul><li>Count down 5-4-3-2-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Clear Rules Review </li></ul><ul><li>Video taping/tape recorder </li></ul><ul><li>Chip system </li></ul>
  41. 41. Tips (continued) <ul><li>1, 2, 3 strikes your out </li></ul><ul><li>First work, then break </li></ul><ul><li>Develop communication </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency with team- same language </li></ul><ul><li>Parental input </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory diet </li></ul>
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