Keys To Poverty Presentation


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Strategies for working with students of poverty

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Keys To Poverty Presentation

  1. 1. Learning Structures <ul><li>Children of Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Ruby K. Payne, Ph.D </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories 5101 </li></ul><ul><li>Kevin Neuenswander </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Structures </li></ul>
  2. 2. Resources <ul><li>Financial: Having money to buy goods & services. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional: Being able to choose & control emotional responses, particularly to negative situations, without engaging in self-destructive behavior. This is an internal resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental: Having the mental abilities & learned skills (reading, writing, computing) to deal with daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual: Believing in divine purpose & guidance (provides hope). </li></ul><ul><li>Physical: Having physical health & mobility (being healthy). </li></ul><ul><li>Support Systems: Having family, friends & backup resources available in times of need. These are external resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships/Role Models: Having frequent access to adult(s) who are appropriate, who are nurturing to the child, & who do not engage in self- destructive behavior(s). </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Hidden Rules: Knowing the unspoken cues & habits of a group. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Points <ul><li>1. Poverty is relative. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Poverty occurs in all races - it’s about class, not race: </li></ul><ul><li>40% African American </li></ul><ul><li>38% Latin American </li></ul><ul><li>38%Native American </li></ul><ul><li>17% Asian </li></ul><ul><li>12% White non-Hispanic </li></ul>
  4. 4. Key Points <ul><li>3. Generational and situational poverty are different- generational poverty is 2 or more generations. </li></ul><ul><li>4. THE KEY POINT-This work is based on &quot;patterns&quot;. All patterns have exceptions! </li></ul><ul><li>5. Schools operate from middle class norms and values as well as most of society-and we don’t apologize for that. What is normal? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Individuals bring with them the &quot;Hidden Rules&quot; of the class in which they were raised. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Middle Class <ul><li>We make decisions based on the following 3 things: </li></ul><ul><li>Work, Achievement, Material security, (Things, Children) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Poverty <ul><li>Make decisions based on the following things: </li></ul><ul><li>survival, relationships (you own them), entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Noise level-high </li></ul><ul><li>Information-non-verbal </li></ul>
  7. 7. Middle Class vs. Poverty <ul><li>Middle Class Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Self-sufficient Shared </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and save Immediately spent Never get ahead </li></ul><ul><li>Always emergencies </li></ul>
  8. 8. Key Points <ul><li>7. There are cultural differences in poverty. Focus: Cross Culture Economics. </li></ul><ul><li>(&quot;There is nothing sexual about a burp&quot; a kind of hug/pat. Entertainment is more important than the bills – in other countries sex is the entertainment, that is why so many people are dying of STDs. </li></ul><ul><li>8. We must never excuse them nor scold them when they break the middle class rules. </li></ul><ul><li>9. We must teach them there are &quot;TWO SETS&quot; of rules. The concept of two sets of rules. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Key Points <ul><li>10. To move from poverty to middle class... One must give up, for a period of time,, relationships for achievement. One must give up, for a period of time, relationships for achievement. = focus </li></ul><ul><li>11. Two things which help one move out of poverty are: a. educations & b. relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Four reasons one leaves poverty include: </li></ul><ul><li>* Too painful to stay </li></ul><ul><li>* Vision or goal </li></ul><ul><li>* Key relationship </li></ul><ul><li>* Special talent/skill </li></ul>
  10. 10. For Children of Poverty &quot;No significant learning occurs without a significant relationship&quot;, Dr. James Comer
  11. 11. Phrases to help build relationships: (these are the doors to enter) <ul><li>&quot; more often....&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;.....not cheated......&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; you'll be smarter...&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; control...&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; be safe...&quot;(to verify) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;...mind is a tool/weapon...&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;...does it hurt you...&quot; </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cognitive Strategies <ul><li>Use planning behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Focus perception on specific stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Control impulsivity </li></ul><ul><li>Explore data systematically </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate and accurate labels </li></ul><ul><li>Organize space using stable systems of reference </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cognitive Strategies (cont.) <ul><li>Orient data in time </li></ul><ul><li>Identify constancies across variations </li></ul><ul><li>Gather precise and accurate data </li></ul><ul><li>Consider two sources of information at once </li></ul><ul><li>Organize data (parts of a whole) </li></ul><ul><li>Visually transport data </li></ul>
  14. 14. Does not hve a method for checking work, for getting all the work done, and for finding complete answers. Explore data systematically… Cannot plan. Control impulsivity… Misses parts of the task; cannot find the information on the page. Focus perceptions on a specific stimulus… Does not get his/her work done, is impulsive. Use planning behaviors… One will often see this: When a student cannot:
  15. 15. Cannot make judgments or generalizations; cannot identify patterns. Identify constancies across variations… Cannot sequence or plan; cannot follow directions. Orient data in time… Cannot read a map; cannot use the procedures in math. Organize space with stable systems of reference Does not have the words to explain; cannot label processes; uses generic words, e.g., “Get that thing.” Use appropriate and accurate labels (vocab.) One will often see this: When a student cannot:
  16. 16. Cannot cheat because he/she cannot copy. Visually transport data… Cannot explain why; does not recognize when something is missing. Organize data (parts of a whole)… Cannot compare and contrast; does a different assignment the way the first one was done, whether appropriate or not. Consider two sources of information at once…. Cannot tell specifically when, where, and how something happened. Gather precise and accurate data… One will often see this: When a student cannot:
  17. 17. How does the teacher embed these processes and develop minds? <ul><li>One way is to teach these processes with all content to all students. Use five simple process – sorting , code-switching , question making , planning to control impulsivity , and planning and labeling tasks – because these processes embed into all content, use all the input strategies, and are quick and easy. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sorting, Using Patterns <ul><li>Information must be sorted of “chunked” in order to be remembered. Details are not remembered over time, but patterns are. </li></ul><ul><li>In problem solving at school, it’s very important that the student is able to sort through a large amount of information quickly through patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>So when teaching content, teach the patterns and mental models of the content. That will help students sort what is and not important in the learning. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Code-switching <ul><li>Code-switching build cognitive flexibility, a skill that plays a significant role in successful literacy learning. </li></ul><ul><li>When students write, I have two sister and two brother, My dad jeep is out of gas, or My mom deserve a good job, students using their vernacular language are not making errors but instead are speaking a writing correctly following the language patterns of their community. </li></ul><ul><li>With this in mind, there are three strategies a teacher can use to lead students through a critical-thinking process to help them understand and apply the rules of Standard English. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Code-switching <ul><li>Scientific Inquiry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A teacher can notice some of the following errors in their students’ writing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Subject – verb agreement ( Mama walk the dog every day.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Showing past time ( Mama walk the dog yesterday, or I seen the movie.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Possessive ( My sister friend came over.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Showing plurality ( It take 24 hour to rotate.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*”A” verses “An” ( A elephant, an rabbit.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examine sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Seek patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Define the pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Test the hypothesis </li></ul>
  21. 21. Code-switching Possessive Patterns Informal English Formal English Taylor cat is black. Taylor’s cat is black The boy coat is torn. The boy’s coat is torn. A giraffe neck is long. A giraffe’s neck is long Did you see the teacher pen ? Did you see the teacher’s pen ? The Patterns The Patterns Owner + what is owned Owner + ‘s + what is owned Noun + noun noun + ‘s + noun
  22. 22. Code-switching <ul><li>Next, the teacher uses a comparison and contrast strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher leads students how to in contrasting Informal English with the grammatical patterns of Formal English on the right-hand side of the code switching chart. The teacher can use a T-chart. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal English Formal English </li></ul><ul><li>The boy coat is torn. The boy’s coat is torn. </li></ul><ul><li>A elephant, an rabbit. An elephant, a rabbit </li></ul><ul><li>Mama walk the dog Mama walked the dog </li></ul><ul><li>yesterday yesterday. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Code-switching <ul><li>Code-Switching as Metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>After using scientific inquiry and contrasting analysis to identify the grammar patterns of Informal and Formal English, the teacher leads students in putting their knowledge to work. </li></ul><ul><li>When the teacher asks, “In your writing, which one of these patterns do you think you need to use: Owner + what is owned? Or owner + ‘s + what is owned? </li></ul><ul><li>This can be done in individual writing conferences and/or read alouds. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Question Making <ul><li>A quick approach is to give students the questions stems and then have them use the rules to develop a multiple-choice question. Developing multiple-choice questions develops critical-thinking skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading-Objective Question Stems </li></ul><ul><li>Objective 1: Word Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>In this story the word _______________ means… </li></ul><ul><li>The word ______________ in this passage means… </li></ul><ul><li>Objective 2: Supporting Ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>What did __________ do after …? </li></ul><ul><li>What happened just before ___________…? </li></ul><ul><li>What did _______ do first? Last? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Question Making (cont.) <ul><li>Reading-Objective Question Stems </li></ul><ul><li>Objective 3: Summarizing Written Texts </li></ul><ul><li>Which sentence tells the main idea of the story? </li></ul><ul><li>The story is mainly about… </li></ul><ul><li>Objective 4: Perceiving Relationships and Recognizing Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>What did __(name)___ do ____(action)___ ? </li></ul><ul><li>What will happen as a result of ___________…? </li></ul><ul><li>What will happen to _______ in this story? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Question Making (cont.) <ul><li>Reading-Objective Question Stems </li></ul><ul><li>Objective 5: Analyzing Information to Make Inferences and Generalizations </li></ul><ul><li>How did ________ feel about _________? </li></ul><ul><li>How does _______feel at the beginning (end) of the story? </li></ul><ul><li>Which word best describes _______’s feelings in this passage? </li></ul><ul><li>Objective 6: Analyzing Information to Make Inferences and Generalizations </li></ul><ul><li>Which of these is a fact expressed in the passage? </li></ul><ul><li>Which of these is an opinion expressed in the passage? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Planning to Control Impulsivity <ul><li>Planning is the key to the tasks that get finished and to the control of impulsivity. Brain research shows that when there is no planning there are no goals. </li></ul><ul><li>To teach planning it’s important to teach students to plan backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s also very important in the planning process that abstract time (minutes, hours, days, weeks) gets assigned to the task. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Planning and Labeling Tasks <ul><li>In addition to controlling impulsivity, planning helps a person to finish tasks. To complete tasks, both labels (vocabulary) and procedures must be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need a method for addressing each part of the task, i.e., having a systematic method for getting it all done and checking to see that it has been done. </li></ul><ul><li>The following example shows how to make a battery. The left side shows the steps (the process) that were followed and the right side shows the why (the concept) </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>The student fills a bowl with vinegar. </li></ul><ul><li>The student puts pieces of cloth in the vinegar and squeezes them out. </li></ul><ul><li>The student takes a piece of copper and a piece of zinc and puts the squeezed-out cloth between the copper and zinc. </li></ul><ul><li>The student makes four of the items identified in Step 3. </li></ul><ul><li>A piece of aluminum foil is put on the bottom of the stack of four and curved to the top of the stack. </li></ul><ul><li>A small light connects the foil pieces and the stack of four. If the light goes on, the battery is completed. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Planning and Labeling example:
  31. 32. On the right-hand side is the label, or the why… <ul><li>Why do we need the vinegar? Because it provides electrons and ions. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need the cloth dipped in vinegar? Because it provides a conductor and insulator. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need the copper and zinc? Because they give and take electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need the stack of four? Because it makes a current. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need the aluminum foil? Because it makes a circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need the light? To close the circuit. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Hidden Rules Sees world in terms of international view. Sees world in terms of national setting. Sees world in terms of local setting. World View Depends on who has money. Tends to be patriarchal. Tends to be matriarchal. Family Structure Formal register. Language is about networking. Formal register. Language is about negotiation. Casual register. Language is about survival. Language Noblesse oblige. Believes in choice. Can change future with good choices now. Believes in fate. Cannot do much to change it. Destiny Necessary tradition for making & maintaining connections Crucial for climbing success ladder & making money Valued and revered as abstract but not as reality Education Traditions and history most important. Decision on decorum. Future most important. Decision made against future ramifications. Present most important Decisions based on feelings, survival Time Wealth Middle Class Poverty
  33. 34. Hidden Rules Clothing valued for its artistic sense and expression. Designer important. Clothing valued for its quality and acceptance into norm of middle class. Label important. Clothing valued for and. style and expression of personality Clothing Key question: Was it presented well? Presentation important. Key question: Did you like it? Quality important. Key question: Did you have enough? Quantity important Food Emphasis is on social exclusion. Emphasis is one self- governance and self-sufficiency. Social inclusion of people he/she likes Social emphasis Is for connections. Financial, political, social connections are valued Is for acquisition and stability, Achievement is highly valued Is for entertainment, Sense of humor is highly valued Personality To be conserved To be managed To be used, spent Money One-of-a-kind-objects, legacies Things People Possessions Wealth Middle Class Poverty
  34. 35. Numbered Heads Together <ul><li>Directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Structure teams of 4-5 participants. (Meeting Partners) </li></ul><ul><li>Assign each participant on the team a different number from 1-5. </li></ul><ul><li>Pose a question(s) to the teams. These should be well-crafted questions that require some thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Teams put their “heads together” and collaboratively generate an appropriate answer. Teams make sure every member knows the answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Call out a number at random. All participants with that number raise their hands and are called on either at random or in some designated order. </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a subject area and grade level. </li></ul><ul><li>“ What are some accommodations for low SES students?” </li></ul>