Ch 9 ppt final
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    Ch 9 ppt final Ch 9 ppt final Presentation Transcript

    • ARF: Acute Renal Failure
    • What is ARF?
      Acute renal failure is also known as (acute kidney injury)
      this failure means Kidney is not functioning anymore
      Main function of kidneys is to remove waste products and help balance water, salt and other minerals in your blood(electrolytes).
      As a result of this failure these electrolytes build up in your body causing serious life threat.
    • Three main causes
      A sudden, serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys.
      Damage from some medicines, poisons, or infections(Antibiotics, such as gentamicin and streptomycin. Pain medicines, such as aspirin and iboprufen.
      A sudden blockage that stops urine from flowing out of the kidneys. Kidney stones, a tumor, an injury, or an enlarged prostate gland can cause a blockage.
    • Symptoms
      Little or no urine when you urinate.
      Swelling, especially in your legs and feet.
      Nausea and vomiting.
      Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy.
      Pain in the back just below the rib cage. This is called flank pain.
    • UTI(Urinary tract infection)
      the system that makes urine and carries it out of your body.
      has bladder and kidneys and the tubes that connect them. When germs get into this system, they can cause an infection.
      Most UTI are bladder infection
      If not treated on time, can cause problems to kidney
    • Causes and fun-facts
      germs get into our system through urethra, the tube that carries urine from your bladder to the outside of your body.
      The germs that usually cause these infections live in your large intestine and are found in your stool.
      If these germs get inside your urethra, they can travel up into your bladder and kidneys and cause an infection.
    • Continued…fun facts
      Women tend to get more bladder infections than men
      women have shorter urethras, so it is easier for the germs to move up to their bladders.
      sex can make it easier for germs to get into your urethra.
    • Symptoms
      You feel pain or burning when you urinate.
      You feel like you have to urinate often, but not much urine comes out when you do.
      Your belly feels tender or heavy.
      Your urine is cloudy or smells bad.
      You have pain on one side of your back under your ribs. This is where your kidneys are.
      You have fever, nausea or vomiting.
    • BUN(Blood Urea Nitrogen)
      test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea
      Test done to see how well your kidneys are working.
      If kidneys are not able to remove urea from the blood normally, your BUN level rises.
      Liver disease or damage can lower your BUN level.
    • Test Procedure
      Wrap an elastic band around your upper arm to stop the flow of blood. This makes the veins below the band larger so it is easier to put a needle into the vein.
      Clean the needle site with alcohol.
      Put the needle into the vein. More than one needle stick may be needed.
      Attach a tube to the needle to fill it with blood.
      Remove the band from your arm when enough blood is collected.
      Put a gauze pad or cotton ball over the needle site as the needle is removed.
      Put pressure to the site and then a bandage.
    • Normal BUN
      Normal values may vary from lab to lab.
      Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Normal: 10-20 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or 3.6-7.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L)
      BUN-to-creatinine ratio Over 12 months of age: 10:1 to 20:1
      Babies less than 12 months of age: Up to 30:1
    • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for kidney stones
      uses shock waves to break a kidney stone into small pieces that can more easily travel through the Urinary tract and pass from the body.
      Next is the image of ESWL…
    • ESWL
    • Purpose
      ESWL may be used on people with a kidney stone that is causing pain or blocking the urine flow.
      Stones that are between 4mm and 2cm in diameter are most likely to be treated with ESWL.
      After ESWL, stone fragments usually pass in the urine for a few days and cause mild pain. If you have a larger stone, you may need more ESWL or other treatments
    • RT(Retrograde pyelogram for kidney stones)
      uses a dye to determine whether a Kidney stone or something else is blocking your urinary tract.
      Why It Is Don
      You may have a retrograde pyelogram if:
      The IVP does not show a reason for your urinary symptoms.
      The IVP cannot be done because of kidney problems such as Chronic kidney disease.
    • Results
      Findings of the retrograde pyelogram may include the following.
      The kidneys, ureters, and bladder appear normal.
      The flow of the dye (contrast material) is blocked, either by a stone or another urinary problem.