EDWARD HERMAN & NOAM CHOMSKY Avram Noam Chomsky was born on the December 7th , in 1928) he is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, and activist. Edward S. Herman was born on April 7th, in 1925. He is an American economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media.
DEFINING PROPAGANDA Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view: he was charged with distributing enemy propaganda. The dissemination of propaganda as a political strategy: the party’s leaders believed that a long period of education and propaganda would be necessary.
PROPAGANDA EARLY HISTORY It came up in 1622 when the spread of Protestantism frightened Pope Gregory XV. He then urgently proposed an addition to the Roman Curia. The congregatio de Propaganda Fide (The office of Propagation of Faith) was going to supervise the missionary efforts of the Church in the New World and Elsewhere :
PROPAGANDA MODEL (1988) Introducing the Propaganda Model: firstly appeared in 1988 in Hermans and Chomskys Book: Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the mass media. The private Media in their book presents as clearly business, who want to sell their product that focuses primarily on government, corporate information and Propaganda.
DESCRIBING THE 5 FILTERS Ownership/Advertising(Who is under the Media umbrella, emphasizing on advertising and less on other issues) Sourcing/Flak(The exact source of the information, The lack of information misleads the spectators) Anti-communist ideology(The projection of the Evil force )
OWNERSHIP Walt Disney Viacom News Corporation General CBS Time Warner Electric
OWNERSHIP UMBRELLA News Corporation’s media: holdings include: the Fox Broadcasting Company; television and cable networks such as Fox, Fox Business Channel, National Geographic and FX; print publications including the Wall Street Journal, the New York Post and TV Guide…. The dominant media firms are quiet large business, they are controlled by very wealthy people or by managers who are subject to sharp constraints by owners another market profit oriented forces ( Herman and Chomsky,1999:170).
ADVERTISING An average American by the age of 65 years has seen at least 2 million advertisements. I have attached an abstract from this statistics. The title is TV promotes excessive commercialism.(Nielsen, 1998). “In addition to discrimination against unfriendly media institutions, advertisers also choose selectively among programs on the basis of their own principles. With rare exceptions these are the culturally and politically concentrate.”(Herman and Chomsky, 1999:172).
ADVERTISING EXAMPLE X-Men First Class • 20th Fox Century • News Corporation Prison Break Series • Universal Pictures • General Electric The dark Knight • Warner Bros • Time Waner
SOURCING & FLAK “Yet attention to other subject areas has fallen. Front- page coverage of health and medicine has been de- emphasized the past few years. Education issues have virtually disappeared from the front pages as has— ironically enough, given the current state of affairs— attention to the media industry”. (Journalism.org)
SOURCING AND FLAK “The relation between power and sourcing extends beyond official and corporate provision of day to day to shaping the supply of experts. In this way bias may be structured, and the supply of experts may be skewed in the direction desired by the government and the market.”(Herman and Chomsky, 1999 : 174).
ANTI-COMMUNIST IDEOLOGY “The final filter is the ideology of anti-Communism, Communism as the ultimate evil has always been specter haunting property owners, as it threatens the very root of the class position and superior status.” (Herman and Chomsky, 1999 : 176).
ANTI-COMMUNIST IDEOLOGY EXAMPLE Captain America wears a costume that bears an American flag motif, and is armed with an indestructible shield that can be thrown as a weapon. “A pure American Soldier carrying the emblems of his country.” ( Captain America VS “That is, not only are media capable of shaping public opinion, but these agenda-setters habitually use this power to intentionally create a desired sense of reality in viewers minds”. (Jamieson, 2009)
CONCLUSION Propaganda is the manipulation of public opinion. Public opinion is been manipulate for economic purposes concerning among the other Media tools. If I had to choose between Media control and wealth definitely my choice would be the first. Who can have the controlled of Media can succeed in many areas and according to many studies the role of Media is been hesitated for some specific actions and it will closely examined to clarify evidence that even can predict somehow the future causes.