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Defining Propaganda There are different versions and explanations and is not easy to define Propaganda. Propaganda has plenty explanations and different techniques and many characteristics. Propaganda use : Word Substitutes, stereotypes hidden into posters, drawings, songs and many other devices. Propaganda tries to achieve things that are not easily acceptable to the people to be accepted. It can used also for promotion purposes, Political campaigns etc..
Propaganda Propaganda is the manipulation of public opinion, basically it's been carried through the Media because Media can influence masses of people in very short time persuading them for or against a cause. Successful author David Miller which has worked a lot in matters of propaganda argues that any kind of communication is not Propaganda. “A succession of scandals in the US has revealed widespread government funding of PR agencies to produce "fake news". (David Miller,2006)
Propaganda in Early History Propaganda was not often used in the English Language before World War One, except from some certain social activists and close observers of the Vatican. Pope Gregory XV (1622) The congregatio de Propaganda Fide ( The office of Propagation of Faith) was going to supervise the missionary efforts of the Church in the New World and Elsewhere.
The Propaganda Model Propaganda Model firstly appeared in 1988 in Herman's and Chomsky's Book : Manufacturing consent : The political economy of the mass media. The private Media in their book presents as clearly business who want to sell their product that focuses primarily on government, corporate information and Propaganda.
5 filters involved before anything will be distribute from the Media as “News”. This 5 factors are : Anticommunist ideology Ownership Advertising Sourcing Flak (David Cromwell: The Propaganda Model: An overview).
Explaining the 5 filters These 5 filters can work independently by individuals and also different organizations. From time to time they have common views of issues and similar interests. They explain (Herman and Chomsky) in their book that the media mostly broadcast unnecessary material and thy(Media) don't cover topics that are important because everything is been filtered before coming out to the public and that's because there is an economic matter that is involved from the private Media.
Ownership and Advertising Many of the Media consists large groups, which belong into other parent corporations. It's like a chain of corporations which every one includes an other. For example : CBS is merged with Westing House, Turner Broadcasting merged with Time Warner, General Electric Owns NBC, etc. Behind those are wealthy people, who control everything that goes in or out from the Media stations for profit matters because they have to run out their business.
The BIG Six!
1st and 2nd : Ownership and Advertising That is the reason why they put more advertisements, entertainment and less News(Information). They have to advertise their own products first and then we have entertainment and then News will be third in importance.“We don't have news on TV we have entertainment”(Altschull, J(1995) Agents of power). The refusing of public broadcasting, the increase in corporate power and global reach. The competition for advertisers has become more intense. Newsrooms have been more throughincorporated with shrunken resources and making the Media weaker. Journalists have been reduced, and ignorance for exploration for the news became more obvious.
3rd and 4thSourcing and Flak “The mass media are started into concerted relationship with powerful sources of information by economic necessity and benefit of interest “.(Noam Chomsky 1989) Reducing the sources, dividing journalism means that those who subsidize the media by providing sources for copy gain greater influence. Some people on behalf of the America corporate, Show us ways for the public relations, now they take advantage over press coverage for some issues that have been a problem. However, the PR industry gets the meaning of using Journalistic conventions.
3rd and 4thSourcing and Flak A significant proportion of news have been reveled from studies of news sources, they have been counted about 20,000 (conservative count) PR agents and most of them are working on the news instead of Journalists. The media are not doing the right coverage that it should be. Most of times not to mention all the times, what it's been broad casted most in TV is entertainment, such as : Music shows, Talent Shows ,Fashion Shows, TV series and etc. Is it coincidence ? Is it because the media cant have enough staff that is needed to covered an important event ? Or because can't afford the payments?.
3rd and 4thSourcing and Flak Media considers that is more important subject entertainment for the spectators than news. They (media) try to develop an ignorance for the spectators. In a case of a war coverage and an Academic Award coverage let's say media will send more Journalists to cover the Academic Award than for the war coverage. That's because the media could be able to show more advertisements during the Awards, and also the ignorance that they produced to the spectators who is going to care about the War ?.
3rd and 4thSourcing and Flak The spectators care about an X factor if he is or if he is not going to win the Awards than the 1000 people who are dying each day. “The relation between power and sourcing extends beyond official and corporate provision of day to day to shaping the supply of experts. In this way bias may be structured, and the supply of experts may be skewed in the direction desired by the government and the market.” (Herman and Chomsky,1999 : 174)
5th filter : Anti communist ideology “The final filter is the ideology of anti-Communism, Communism as the ultimate evil has always been specter haunting property owners, as it threatens the very root of the class position and superior status.”(Herman and Chomsky,1999 : 176). “Anti-Communism” identified by Herman and Chomsky, during the cold war when manufacturing consent was written”. Another version of this fifth filter is the customary Western identification of the “Enemy” or an “Evil Dictator”. For example the way of how it was presented by US and British Newspapers in a certain way to create a bad image for a person.
5th filter : Anti communist ideology Saddam Hussein in the example Recall the British Tabloid Headlines like “Smash-UP- Saddam”, and also the on line game which you could burn or shoot Saddam, which was world wide famous, a powerful way of Propaganda. The Game : http://swf.lovey8.com/Smash_Up_Saddam.swf
5th filter : Anti communist ideology “Propaganda is mainly perceived in the West as an aspect of communism, Fascist or totalitarian regimes where the media is controlled by the state”. (Saeed and Laverty 2006). It is assumed that in the West, where much of the media is in hands of private enterprise, the formal Propaganda is absent The dominant firms are controlling every content of news and entertainment. Everything before and after the delivery to the spectators. There is a systematic brainwashing that they do to the spectators, they want them uniform, so they can have everything under control. In US most of the citizens have no clue what's happening outside the US because of the ignorance they have created them.
5th filter : Anti communist ideology The images of terror and fear including all the countries outside the US on the eyes of all Americans creating an “Evil Empire” encouraging with this way more Americans to defend and fight for their country against the “Evil”. This is also an easy way for the weapons manufactures to massively product weapons which has a big profit.
Video Example of Disney’s Propaganda http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ASW3UCc17AI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fZcs1SHVbz0&feature=related
Walt Disney’s Propaganda Most of Disney’s characters such as: Donald Duck and Mickey Mouse weren't just for entertainment, Those characters were for propaganda purposes and for the education of the Americans about the enemies they had. The animators were hired to make hidden symbols for military units and equipment.
Walt Disney’s Propaganda Disney was asked to create animation for a series of pictures produced by Colonel Frank Capra for the US Army for persuading to influence more people to get involved in case to succeed their purpose. "This was accomplished through the use of animated graphics by means of expediting the intelligent mobilization of servicemen and civilians for the cause of the war. “
Walt Disney’s Propaganda The Fuehrer’s Face was a short time movie which Donald Duck was the main character and won an Oscar in 1942 for best short film.” (Esther Leslie,p212, 2001). It was released on January 1, 1943 from the director Jack Kinney as an anti-Nazi propaganda movie for the American war effort.
Walt Disney’s Propaganda “When der Fuehrer says, "We is t der master race, "We HEIL! (honk!) HEIL! (honk!) right in der Fuehrer's face! Not to love der Fuehrer is a great disgrace, So we HEIL! (honk!) HEIL! (honk!) right in der Fuehrer's face! This Lyrics from above were from the introduction song that was dropped into the scene when, Donald Duck’s nightmare finds himself part of the German Nazi force.
Walt Disney’s Propaganda The band plays a song of Mein Kampfin front of him for a moment of reading, then he goes into his house, carrying the bass drum, and escorts him to a factory which he is forced to work, he was forced to work 48-hour shifts, getting a couple of seconds 'vacation' (with a backdrop background of the Alp mountains) by having a salute to the Hitler's portrait every time it goes by. He shouts loud out of cry "Heil Hitler!" As he put’s up his right arm in the Nazi salute by wearing a swastika armband like everybody else in Hitler's "Nazi Land."
Walt Disney’s Propaganda Donald Duck is hiding some supplements because there is nothing to eat and and he is hiding to have secretly a breakfast by the moment that he wakes up from his bed because is very strictly in such Nazi Policy. Imagine that the rooster outside his house greets the day with a hearty crow of "Heil Hitler” trying to make you obey in the Nazi Forces. When Donald Duck suddenly wakes because it was only a dream because he discovers that it was just a nightmare , he is actually lying in his bed wearing his pajamas. His Slogan that follows was : "Oh boy, am I glad to be a citizen of the United States of America!”. Then the movie ends with a tomato splash in Hitler’s face!.
Conclusion According to my beliefs The Propaganda model of Herman and Chomsky there is still active. The major link of this chain is the Ownership in my opinion because the big companies are been controlled for their own purposes and only. Propaganda existed from the ancient times and took many forms and shapes. But is been successful and that’s the reason that is unstoppable.
References Media Control : The Spectacular Achievements Of Propaganda by Noam Chomsky (Paperback - 1 Sep 2002) Public Resistance Vol 2:1 Fall 2006,Western Propaganda & the War on Terrorism, The Dangers of American ignorance, Amir Saeed & Terrence Laverty Herman and Chomsky, 1999: 166) In Tumber, H (1999) News: A Reader London : Oxford The propaganda model: An Overview, David Cromwell, Excerpted from Private Planet,2002,- The Propaganda Model,Volume 1: 1-14 ~ 9 December 2003,Original Article, The propaganda model : A Retrospective, By Edward S. Herman University of Pennsylvania) Techniques of persuasion : from propaganda to brainwashing / J. A. C. Brown Published September 30th 1963 by Penguin Books Ltd
References http://www.mediaowners.com/company/generalelectric.html Saturday 19.February,2011,18:24 GMT) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N9YgK39B8nYMonday 21,February,2011,15:55 GMT http://swf.lovey8.com/Smash_Up_Saddam.swf Monday 21,February,2011,15:55 GMT http://www.freepress.net/ownership/chart/main Saturday19.February,2011,11:00 GMT http://www.diasmedia.com/newspapers/cityfree.html Sunday 20.Fevruary,2011,19:26 GMT Agents of power the media and public policy 2nd ed. J. Herbert Altschull,Published 1995 by Longman in White Plains, N.Y, London .
References Noam Chomsky analyzes some of these criticisms in his Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies (Boston: South End Press, 1989), appendix 1. The propaganda we pass off as news around the world A British government-funded fake TV news service allows mild criticism of the US - all the better to support it, David Miller, The Guardian, Wednesday 15 February 2006 02.04 GMT http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/propaganda,Friday 11 February 2011,21:29GMT http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/propaganda,Friday 11 February 2011,21:29GMT