Media Education within the Socio-Cultural Ecology at the example of at-risk learners
Media Education within the Socio-CulturalEcology at the example of at-risk learners Klaus Rummler London Mobile learning Group University of BremenEducational Media Ecologies: International PerspectivesUniversity of Paderborn27 March 2012
ConcretelySocio-Cultural Ecology and its backgrounds atthe example of some of the at-risk learnersusage patters of mobile technologies.– Why use „ecology“?– How are ecologies defined?
Socio-Cultural Ecology as a basic framework● triangular relation between – individuals agency, – socio-cultural and technological structures – and relating cultural practices (Pachler, Bachmair, Cook 2010)
Agenda● Common principles of (media) ecologies and their● meaning and relation to education (Bildung)
Traditional concepts of ecologies● Media Ecology (McLuhan, 1964; Postman, 1985)● Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of child development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979)
Not to be mentioned● Human and Social Ecology (Human- und Sozialökologie) – Interface between sociology and natural sciences to describe society as also depending from biological and physical determinants. (Becker et al., 2000)● Cultural Ecology (Kulturökologie) – General relationship between human beings / cultures / society and the environment (physical nature as biology, geology or meteorology) (Steward, 1955; Naess, 1973; Odum, 1994)● Semiotic Ecology – Conceptual, systematic method for analysis of rooms as environments […] to understand ecological systems, in particular person-culture- systems (Lang, 1997; Kull, 1998; Sonesson, 2001)
Media Ecology● Toronto-School (McLuhan, 1964; Postman, 1985) – The communicative environment of individuals or society is the ecology itself – Ecological environment is communication lead, dominated or mediated by media resp. technology – Communication as (a primal state of the) ecosystem which is spoiled by technology – Relationships between humans / nature (+ communication) & media to the relationships between humans, things (cultural objects) – Mediatization: modification of communication as the basic practice of how people construct the social and cultural world – ecocinema, ecomedia, green film: nature being remixed, resurfaced, revisualized or sonified through media environments
Ecological model of child development(Bronfenbrenner, 1979)– Ecosystem as the whole material and social environment of humans– Systematic entanglement of family, home, school, community and society
Younger models of ecologiesEcology as a relation between learners andtheir surrounding physical and structural world,e.g.:– The classroom as an ecological system (Bowers & Flinders, 1990)– Ecology of resources (Luckin, 2008)
Classroom as an ecological system(Bowers & Flinders, 1990)– Impact on schools particular climate and culture– Semiotic ecology + Media ecology– Information ecology (Nardi & ODay, 1999) ● system of people, practices, values, and technologies in a particular local environment– Learning ecology (Brown, 2000) ● „An ecology is basically an open, complex, adaptive system of comprising elements that are dynamic and interdependent.“
Ecology of resources(Luckin, 2008)Learner Centric Ecology of Resources– „a set of inter-related resource elements, the interactions between which provide a particular context“ ● Static dimension; through which the resources can be identified and categorized, ● Dynamic dimension; that describes the organizing activities that activate the resources.
Recent concepts of ecology● Digital Media Ecology (Hug, Lindner & Bruck, 2006) – „relationships between new forms of education, mediated communication and cultural production as constitutive of a unitary media ecology“● New cultural and media ecology (Gieseke, 2002)● Media & Social Ecology (Medienökologie) (Ganguin & Sander, 2006; Lange & Lüscher, 1998)
Media & Social Ecology (Medienökologie) (Lange & Lüscher, 1998)● Ecology is used in two different meanings: – Description for life-worlds that are meaningful for the development of people as biological, physical and social beings – Used for analysis of the relationships relevant for the development between organisms and their life-worlds.● Human ecology: life-worlds that are relevant for the development of individuals, communities and societies● Social ecology: relationships of individual people to their influencing wider social networks and systems. Incl. material, symbolic resources, restrictions● Media & technology still intruders and not part of the ecology
Baackes Media Ecology● Relationship between individuals and media in their respective spacial life-worlds and zones – four-concentric onion skin scheme ● ecologic centre ● ecological nearby space ● ecological cutout ● ecological periphery (Ganguin & Sander, 2006)● Question where to put virtual spaces.
Side notes / essentials● The system - The natural – Its not so much about *nature* – Ecologiess nature is to be stable – Ecologies as *systems that are about to change* – Ecologies are (if we want to speak of anything natural) subject to change by nature ● In contrast to Mediatization● Vocabulary to grasp the „relation between materiality and information“ (Fuller, 2005) – Triangle: processes and objects, beings and things, patterns and matter
Ecologies are ...● Ecology as technical, social, cultural or spacial system – Components of the ecology cannot be deconstructed or be taken apart● Interdependant and inter-related factors, components, relationships – Provision of rich, versatile, open, experiencable media environments and opportunities to children for their development and critical reflection in all zones (Zacharias; Baacke)● Organisation of balance and correspondence of experiences with the phenomena and structures in the real world as central task for pedagogy (ecology of experiences or ecology of play and learning) – Mutually correspondent triangular relationship between individuals – media – contemporary (environment) (Zacharias, 1999)● Responsibility (Bachmair, 2008; Zacharias, 1999) – Commitment to protect e.g. from economic exploitation – Sustainability in the use of resources, providing spaces and options to renounce
Bridging the gaps...● Results: – Cultural practices of school learning and cultural practices of media acquisition take place in different worlds or in different ecological zones / spheres. – The cultural definitions of media in the context of entertainment and formal learning in the context of school have led to contradictory forms of learning. (Bachmair)● Tasks: – Identify structural relations between school and everyday- life (Bachmair, 2008) – Break the strict barriers between the socio ecological zones in relation to school and media
At-risk learners● Lifestyle with distance to school – Marginalised groups, digital divide, socio-economic inequality – PISA: boys, migration backgrounds, ISCED 2A● Drawing an even stricter line between school and leisure time – Spaces of uncertainty (Unbestimmtheitsräume) (Jörissen & Marotzki, 2009) – Disempowered sites (Brabazon, 2000) – Alternative spaces beyond assiduous school learning
Usage pattern: online video● Online video platforms like YouTube and their archived, user-generated & shared videos do provide meaning and have impact and implications for at-risk learners formal and informal learning.● Teachers encourage the use of videos for preparation● Teachers foster the bridging of everyday-life and school
Video genres for school learning● Subjects: Biology, Physics, Economy, Politics, English, Geography, Chemistry and Maths● 62% of the pupils use videos to prepare for exams, presentations and papers● Subject-matters: photosynthesis, nitrogen cycle, chromosomes, immunology, atom power, … (Rummler & Wolf, 2012)
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