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  • Muscle

    1. 1. The Muscular System
    2. 2. Muscle Tissue Characteristics <ul><li>Is made up of contractile fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Provides movement </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by the nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary- consciously controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary- not under conscious control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul></ul>Cardiac Skeletal Smooth
    3. 3. Types of Muscle Tissue <ul><li>There are three main types of muscle tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal (striated) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac (heart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth (visceral) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Comparison of Muscle Types Muscle Type Cardiac Function Movement of bone Walls of internal organs + in skin Location Attached to bone Heart Smooth Skeletal Striated- light and dark bands Many nuclei Striated One or two nuclei Characteristics Non-striated One nucleus (visceral) Shape Control Mode Beating of heart Involuntary Involuntary Movement of internal organs Voluntary Long + slender Branching Spindle shape
    5. 5. Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Provides voluntary movement of body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables speaking, blinking, and smiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to hop, skip, jump, or do push-ups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintains posture </li></ul><ul><li>Produces heat </li></ul>
    6. 6. Examples… <ul><li>Biceps </li></ul><ul><li>Triceps </li></ul><ul><li>ABS! </li></ul>
    7. 7. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Causes heart beat </li></ul><ul><li>Directs circulation of blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sends blood to different areas of the body </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Smooth Muscles <ul><li>Provides movement of internal organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves food through digestive tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables bladder control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes involuntary actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflex actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusts opening of pupils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes hair to stand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>breathing </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Location of Muscles <ul><li>Involuntary Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrector pili </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles around blood vessels </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Muscle Tissue Anatomy bundle of muscle fibers – fascicle
    11. 11. M u s c l e <ul><li>Muscles are made up of bundles of muscle fibers, called fascicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fascicle is a bundle of muscle fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A muscle fiber is a muscle cell….made up of many small myofibrils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myofibrils contain filaments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two types of protein filaments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>T I s s u e A n a t o m y Muscle Filaments Myofibrils Muscle Fibers Fascicle
    12. 12. Myofibril <ul><li>Contain two types of protein filaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actin- thin protein filaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myosin- thick protein filaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Z disc- point of anchor of actin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarcomere- functional unit of a myofibril, region between Z discs, </li></ul></ul>Thin Filaments Actin Molecule Thick Filaments Myosin Molecule Z Disc Sarcomere Sarcomere
    13. 13. Muscle Tissue Anatomy <ul><li>What parts do you remember? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Fascicle (bundle of fibers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Muscle fiber (muscle cell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Myofibrils </li></ul></ul>3 4 2 1 D C B A
    14. 14. Muscle Tissue Anatomy Continued <ul><li>Muscle cell </li></ul><ul><li>Myofibrils </li></ul><ul><li>Myosin </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcomere </li></ul><ul><li>Z Disc </li></ul><ul><li>Actin </li></ul><ul><li>Fascicle </li></ul><ul><li>Filaments </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul>F E G D C B A <ul><li>What parts do you remember?....continued </li></ul>H I C B A F G D E I H Myofibril
    15. 15. Mechanics of a Muscle Contraction <ul><li>What stimulates a muscle to contract? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What cells are involved? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cells and a motor neuron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor neuron sends impulse to muscle cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One neuron will form synapses with many muscle cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is this called? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A motor unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let’s take a look under the microscope.… </li></ul></ul>A motor unit
    16. 16. Mechanics of a Muscle Contraction <ul><li>What do calcium ions do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause interaction between actin and myosin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do actin and myosin interact? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actin filaments slide over the myosin filaments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What model explains this? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sliding Filament Model </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Mechanics of a Muscle Contraction <ul><li>What causes actin to slide over myosin? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The head of myosin connects to actin and pivots. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is this connection called? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cross-bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The binding of the myosin heads throughout the sarcomere occur asynchronously… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some myosin heads are binding while other heads are releasing the actin filaments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This process must be performed repeatedly during a single muscle contraction so that the muscle is able to generate a smooth force </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Mechanics of a Muscle Contraction <ul><li>What provides the energy to swivel the head of myosin? _____ </li></ul><ul><li>How exactly does the sliding filament model work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the sliding filament model of muscle contraction, the (thin) actin filaments [red] (that are attached to the Z-line) slide (are actually pulled) inward along the (thick) myosin filaments [blue], and the sarcomere (measured from one Z line to the next) is shortened. </li></ul></ul>ATP
    19. 19.           Hey, folks, this thing will run much smoother if you reload it after it runs through once!!
    20. 20. Mechanics of a Muscle Contraction <ul><li>When each sarcomere becomes shorter it causes each myofibril to become shorter. </li></ul><ul><li>When each myofibril becomes shorter it causes the muscle fibers to become shorter </li></ul><ul><li>When each muscle fiber shortens the overall muscle contracts. </li></ul> Sarcomere
    21. 21. Macroscopic Structure of Muscle <ul><li>_________- attaches muscle to bone </li></ul><ul><li>_______- attachment of muscle to immovable (fixed) bone (anchors muscle) </li></ul><ul><li>________- attachment to bone that moves when muscle contracts </li></ul><ul><li>_____- bulging middle part of the muscle </li></ul>Tendon Origin Insertion Belly Belly of Biceps
    22. 22. Muscle Movement <ul><li>Muscles originate on a _______bone in our body, cross over a ______, and insert onto a _________ bone. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to understand that all muscles move from the _____________ point going toward the ______________ point. </li></ul><ul><li>It is because of the placement of the muscles that we can move. </li></ul>joint fixed moving insertion origination
    23. 23. Muscle Movement <ul><li>Tendons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attach _________ to bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are inelastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>don’t stretch when the force of the muscle acts on them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When muscle contracts, it pulls on the _______ </li></ul><ul><li>Individual muscles can only ____ in ____ direction </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles work in opposing ______ </li></ul>muscle bone pull one pairs
    24. 24. Muscle Movement <ul><li>______- Muscle that bends the joint when contracted. </li></ul><ul><li>________- Muscle that straightens the joint when contracted. </li></ul><ul><li>__________ muscle is short, firm, tight and thicker around. </li></ul><ul><li>_______ muscle is stretched, long, loose and thinner around. </li></ul>Flexor Extensor Relaxed Contracted
    25. 25. Muscle Movement <ul><li>When the biceps in the arm contracts the triceps ________ causing ________ of the arm. </li></ul><ul><li>When the triceps in the arm _________ the biceps relaxes causing ____________ of the arm. </li></ul><ul><li>______ of muscles are needed because the only active _________ of a muscle is to _______, to lengthen it must be _________ by the action of an opposing _______. </li></ul>relaxes bending contracts straightening Pairs movement contract stretched muscle
    26. 26. Location of Muscles <ul><li>Skeletal Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior view </li></ul></ul>Quadriceps group Rectus abdominis Quadriceps Group External Obliques Frontalis Masseter Tibialis Anterior Deltoid Pectoralis Major biceps brachii Brachioradialis
    27. 27. Location of Muscles <ul><li>Skeletal Muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior view </li></ul></ul>Hamstring group Trapezius Hamstring group Gastrocnemius Latissimus dorsi Gluteus maximus Triceps brachii
    28. 28. Muscles You Need to Know <ul><li>1. brachioradialis </li></ul><ul><li>2. biceps brachii </li></ul><ul><li>3. deltoid </li></ul><ul><li>4. external oblique </li></ul><ul><li>5. frontalis </li></ul><ul><li>6. gastrocnemius </li></ul><ul><li>7. gluteus maximus </li></ul><ul><li>8. hamstring group </li></ul><ul><li>9. latissimus dorsi </li></ul><ul><li>10. masseter </li></ul><ul><li>11. pectoralis major </li></ul><ul><li>12. quadriceps group </li></ul><ul><li>13. rectus abdominis </li></ul><ul><li>14. tibialis anterior </li></ul><ul><li>15. trapezius </li></ul><ul><li>16. triceps brachii </li></ul>9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 F A D C B E L K J H G P O N M I
    29. 29. <ul><li>APPLICATION </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs are often used to relax muscles during surgery. Which of the following two chemicals do you think would make the best relaxant and why? Chemical A: blocks acetylcholine receptors on muscle cells. Chemical B: floods the cytoplasm of muscle cells with calcium. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a person dies, muscles often become rigid and fixed in position – a condition known as rigor mortis, which often figures importantly in mystery novels. Rigor mortis occurs because muscle cells use up their supply of ATP as they die. The rigor disappears several hours after death because the biological molecules break down. Explain in terms of the mechanism of contraction why the lack of ATP would cause muscles to become rigid, rather than limp after death. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. ASSIGNMENT <ul><li>1. Describe the following diseases/disorders of the muscular system: </li></ul><ul><li>A. muscle cramps/spasm </li></ul><ul><li>B. Myasthenia Gravis </li></ul><ul><li>C. Strain </li></ul><ul><li>D. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fill in the information on the table </li></ul>
    31. 31. TYPE OF NUTRIENT USES SOURCES 1. Proteins 2. Carbohydrates 3. Fats and Oils 4. Minerals 5. Vitamins 6. Water
    32. 32. <ul><li>3. On an oslo paper, make a collage of the food pyramid showing the different food groups. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Items 1-3 will be checked on Monday. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Bring food on Monday. </li></ul>
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