Through the roles of PUBLIC SERVICE…<br />Serving the community by enforcing the laws, nursing the sick back to health, providing a sensible form of entertainment with skill and proficiency, fighting for what the public in their community desired through politics, or introducing society to life and history through poetry.<br />These women made an impact…<br />
MARY ELIZA MAHONEY<br />ANNE BRADSTREET<br />HILLARY CLINTON<br />BESSIE COLEMAN<br />ALICE STEBBINS WELLS<br />
Anne Bradstreet<br />(1612-1672)<br />The first female American poet to be published<br />Puritan woman who defied the norms of the time to follow her passion <br />
<ul><li>The Puritans began emigrating to New England beginning in the 1930s
Puritans did not celebrate Christmas during this time, and did not have overly strict rules.
However, drunkenness and sexual relations outside of marriage were publicly punished </li></ul>Context<br />
<ul><li>Women were expected to be housewives and mothers
Mostly, women did not attend school, unless they came from a wealthy family
Many women would go to school to learn things like cooking, knitting, sewing, and stitch work. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Unlike many Puritan women, Anne Bradstreet received an education because she was born into a wealthy family
She became a wife and mother, as was expected of women
Anne Bradstreet is significant because she defied the social norm of women being only wives and mothers
Instead she made a name for herself too. </li></ul>Significance<br />
<ul><li> Her first poems were published sometime after emigrating to America
She is one of only four women to have works published during this time period.
Upon returning to England, her brother had her poems published there as well. </li></ul>Public Service<br />
Her motivation and dedication as a professional nurse had a significant impact on the field, which opened the doors to new possibilities and opportunities for African-American women everywhere. <br />Mary Eliza Mahoney<br />1878 :First African American woman admitted into a nursing program <br />First African American Nurse in the United States in 1879<br />
<ul><li>In 1831:William Lloyd Garrison, a prominent founder of the American Anti-Slavery Society created an abolitionist newsletter in Boston called The Liberator. This event advocated "immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves" in the United States·</li></ul>Context<br />
<ul><li>April 12, 1861: Civil War officially begins·
With the outbreak of Civil War in 1861this increased the possibility of young African-American women entering the nursing profession.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>In 1855: Mahoney attended 1st to 4thgrades at The Phillips Street School, the first desegregated school in the region.·
In 1908: The National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses is founded by Martha Minerva Franklin and other African-American nursing professionals including Mary Eliza Mahoney. </li></ul>Significance<br />
<ul><li>In 1920: after the passage of the nineteenth amendment, Mahoney was among the first women in Boston to register to vote.
It is unknown as to what inspired Mahoney to pursue a career in nursing
many speculate that she was attracted to the nursing due to the Civil War. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>From 1878-1879: Mahoney enrolled at the rigorous nursing program at the New England Hospital for Women and Children
Mahoney graduated became the nation’s first African-American professional nurse. </li></ul>Public Service<br />Only three of the forty women who were accepted graduated. <br />
<ul><li> After graduating, Mahoney registered to work as a private-duty nurse.
Her professionalism helped raise the status of all nurses. As her reputation spread, Mahoney received requests from patients as far away as New Jersey, Washington, D.C., and North Carolina.</li></ul>In 1930 the number of African American women in nursing had more than doubled, four years after Mahoney’s death. <br />
Since her appointment, policewomen have been assigned to duties in patrol, delinquency prevention, investigations, and many other areas.<br />Alice Stebbins Wells<br />Became the United States first female to be designated a policewoman with arrest powers on September 12, 1910<br />
Progressive Era 20th century:<br /><ul><li>American women expanding on more active, public, individualized, and expansive lives
Large amount of women moved into the workforce in male-dominated areas such as clerical work, politics, and medicine</li></ul>Context<br />
Women’s Trade Union League (1903):<br /><ul><li>Addressed the need of improving wages and working conditions through a labor organization consisting purely of gender, not class</li></ul>Goal designed “to develop leadership among the women workers, inspiring them with a sense of personal responsibility for the conditions under which they work.”<br />
Women’s suffrage (Nineteenth amendment 1920)<br /><ul><li>Female leaders determined for women to have equal political rights and voting.
By 1910’s women had gathered the right compilations of energy, male support, and political will to formulate the constitutional amendment.
Women’s roles had expanded immensely</li></ul>First matrons were hired in New York City in order to care for female prisoners<br /> <br />
<ul><li>Through church-based social work, she became familiar with dismal treatment received by women and children.
Petitioned the mayor, police commissioner, and city council to allow her to join and address the issues.
She “felt that social workers engaged in preventive and protective work for women and children would achieve better results if they had police powers available to them.”</li></ul>Significance<br />
<ul><li>Sept. 1910: On the day of appointment, she was given a Gamewell key, a rule book, a first-aid book, and a “policeman’s badge.”
No formal training or a uniform identified her as a policewoman
Stebbins Wells was accused of using her husband’s identity when she utilized the free trolley rides privileged to law enforcement. </li></ul>Public Service<br />Then she was given “Policewoman’s Badge Number One.”<br />
Stebbins Wells’ INFLUNENCE on others<br /><ul><li>October of 1911: three more policewomen and three police matrons were added to the department.
This introduced the concept that women are regular members of the municipal police departments, and are particularly well-qualified to perform protective and preventive work among juveniles and female criminals</li></ul>.<br />
Her determination, accomplishments inspired many African Americans toward aviation. 1940s: Tuskegee Airmen of Alabama- black men who trained and fought against race “to become one of the best fighter squadrons of World War II. <br />BessieColeman<br />First African American female pilot <br />1921:First African American to obtain a international pilot license<br /> Public Service of Entertainment -Joined the “Flying Circus” in 1922<br />
<ul><li>1865: U.S. Civil War ends</li></ul>Emancipation Proclamation- black slaves were freed<br /><ul><li>1865 to early 20th century: Sharecropping, Laundress, domestic work were the only jobs available for black women during this time</li></ul>Context<br />
<ul><li>1915 to 1920: The Great Migration- Blacks migrated to the North and Midwest States to find better opportunities </li></ul>“Chicago’s black population increased by 150 percent, Detroit by 600 percent and New York City by 66 percent.”<br />
<ul><li>1917: World War I- many black men join the Army and were sent to France</li></ul>“During World War I, many black troops were eager to fight but most provided support services. Only a small percentage were actually involved in combat. Yet, the African American presence in France--helping in any capacity--often elicited overwhelming gratitude from the French.”<br />
Significance<br /><ul><li>Until 18 years old Coleman worked on a sharecropping farm with family
She attended eight grades available to her at an all black one room school
1910: she attended The Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma for one term, but ran out of money and returned home</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>1915: “Bessie Coleman left for Chicago…Like most of her fellow pilgrims seeking the promised land of Chicago, she was dressed in her “Sunday best…” and worked as a manicurist </li></ul>Bessie Coleman was determined to “amount to something.” <br />
What inspired her to become a pilot: <br /><ul><li>Coleman’s brothers returned from France after World War I. Began to brag about French woman having occupations in aviation.
John ( her brother) joked to Coleman that black women would never be pilots like the French women. That was the day Coleman decided she was to become a pilot.</li></li></ul><li>Public Service<br /><ul><li>All white pilots in Chicago refused to train her. </li></ul>There were no black pilots at the time<br /><ul><li>1920-1921: Coleman trained in France to become a pilot and received an </li></ul>Fédération Aéronautique Internationale License in Sept. 1921<br /><ul><li>The only opportunity for her was in the flying circus, so she returned to France for more training, to learn tricks in Feb. of 1922</li></li></ul><li>Sept. 3: Coleman - “first public flight of a black woman in this country” There was a range from 1,000 to 3,000 spectators, during her first exhibition, although she did no tricks, she simply flew the plane. <br />After two successful appearance she was said to be “the world’s greatest woman flyer.”<br />
She did countless exhibition, proving she had mastered flying and most aviation tricks all over the U.S. including Chicago, Texas, and California<br /><ul><li>“She died during a routine test flight in April 1926 before she could realize that dream.”</li></li></ul><li>Hillary Clinton<br /> 67th U.S. Secretary of State<br />Arkansas' Woman of the Year in 1983<br />Named one of the top 100 lawyers by the "National Law Journal" in 1988 and 1991. <br />The only First Lady to compete for a Senate seat and to win in the state of NY<br />
<ul><li>1968:Assassinations of Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert Kennedy
She changed the lives of many children by providing programs such as the Children’s Defense fund.
1993-2001: As First Lady she advocated for children’s health insurance and health care in general
In 2008: Ran for a Presidential campaign</li></ul>Public Service <br />
In conclusion, these women overcame discrimination through their respective public services, whether it was, as a policewoman, pilot, nurse, politician, or poet. Furthering the possibilities, and creating a common association between women and such professions of public service.<br />
Works Cited<br />Susan MuaddiDarraj, Mary Eliza Mahoney and the Legacy of African American Nurses (Chelsea Home Publishers, 2005)<br /> Joyce Ann Elmore, Nurses in American History: Black Nurses: Their Service and Their Struggle (Willams and Wilkins, 1976) <br /> Historic Black Women (Empack Enterprises, 1984)<br />DuBois, Ellen Carol. Through the Eyes of Women. Bedford/St. Martins. New York: 2009. pp. 488<br />African American Odyssey: World War I and Post-War society. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart7.html<br />Rich, Doris L.Queen Bess: daredevil avaitor.Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.Pg. 10, 15, 51<br />Dubois, Ellen and Dumenil, L. 2009. Through Women’s Eyes: An American History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins. P. 454.<br />Jesilow, Paul and Parsons, Deborah. 2001. In the Same Voice: Women and Men in Law Enforcement. Santa Ana: Seven Locks Press. P. 34-35.<br />Heidensohn, Frances. 1992. Women in Control? : The Role of Women in Law Enforcement. New York: Oxford University Press Inc. P. 45<br />Horne, Peter. 1975. Women in Law Enforcement. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas. P. 18-19<br />Schulz, Dorothy. 2004. Breaking the Brass Ceiling. Westport: Praeger Publishers. P. 47<br />Hillary Clinton’s Accomplishments. 2000. <br />http://www.buzzle.com/articles/hillary-clinton-accomplishments.html <br />http://www.wic.org/bio/hclinton.htm<br />Pictures from google<br />
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