Essentials of Teaching Conversation TESOL 2010, Boston Kitty Purgason, Ph.D.  Department of Applied Linguistics and TESOL,...
Overview of the PCI <ul><li>Topics and prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Language and background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Class...
Topics <ul><li>1.  What do your students like to talk about? </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Group discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Topics <ul><li>3.  With your partner, think of as many specific questions related to your topic as possible. </li></ul><ul...
Topics <ul><li>Example:  money </li></ul><ul><li>How important is money to you?  Is your view similar to or different from...
Topics <ul><li>Do you think rich people should engage in philanthropy?  If so, what causes should they support or how shou...
Topics <ul><li>What are some important things that we need money for?  What are some important things that money can’t buy...
Topics <ul><li>Respond to this cartoon: </li></ul>
Topics <ul><li>With your partner, go to one of the topics around the room. </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Rate the topic in terms o...
<ul><li>Compare three ways of doing conversation: </li></ul><ul><li>T asks whole class a question. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss di...
Topics, prompts <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Interest: Intellectual, emotional, cultural, political considerations </l...
Language and Conversation <ul><li>How can we help students improve their language in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy?...
Example: Conversation Cards (Gifts) <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>give / bring a gift to someone  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Example: Conversation Cards (Gifts) <ul><li>Mingle with people, walking around the room. Find someone to talk to.  </li></...
Language and Conversation <ul><li>Debrief: </li></ul><ul><li>What was the effect of repetition? </li></ul><ul><li>Did the ...
<ul><li>Example of lexical and collocations preview: </li></ul><ul><li>Philanthropy, philanthropic, engage in philanthropy...
Language and Conversation <ul><li>Example of implicit language instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>A checklist or rating sheet ...
Language and Other Background <ul><li>Note:  </li></ul><ul><li>May need to teach not only lexical and grammatical features...
Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Experience #1 -  Talk Tokens </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone in the group should contribu...
Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Experience #1 </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss: </li></ul><ul><li>What problems with conver...
Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Experience #2 – Think, Pair, Share </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1 – each person gets a pie...
Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Experience #3 – Conversation Ball </li></ul><ul><li>Get in a circle. </li></ul><ul><...
Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Various formats </li></ul><ul><li>Small group </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation cards <...
Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Various types of activity or task </li></ul><ul><li>Share an opinion or experience <...
Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Choosing a format and task type </li></ul><ul><li>Does it match your objectives? </l...
Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Getting students to do more </li></ul><ul><li>Roles within the group </li></ul><ul><...
Feedback in a Conversation Class <ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Small groups </li></ul><ul><li>Why do students use t...
Feedback in a Conversation Class
Student autonomy <ul><li>Help students manage the conversation so you can focus on feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Train them t...
Student autonomy
Conversation with beginners <ul><li>Oral drills – familiarize Ss with structure and vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Charts – ...
Simple present to describe everyday activities: drill <ul><li>Alma is a nurse.  She has a strange schedule. </li></ul><ul>...
Simple present to describe everyday activities: charts <ul><li>Take out a piece of paper and copy this: </li></ul><ul><li>...
Simple present to describe everyday activities: question cards
Question cards: double line <ul><li>Row 1: turn around to face the row behind you. </li></ul><ul><li>Row 2: stay facing fo...
Question cards: double line <ul><li>People in even-numbered rows have a question card.  Read it to your partner opposite y...
Question cards: double line <ul><li>People in even-numbered rows with cards (facing forwards): When you hear the time sign...
Question cards: double line <ul><li>When you hear the double-time signal, give your card to the person in  front  of you. ...
Simple present to describe everyday activities: small group discussion <ul><li>What is something you rarely do? </li></ul>...
Other Issues, Troubleshooting, Questions
[email_address] For handouts and ppt slides, go to: http://tesolresourcesfromkitty.pbworks.com
 
Group Discussion Squares <ul><li>Work in groups of 4 </li></ul><ul><li>x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x </li></ul><ul><li>x  x...
Group Discussion Squares <ul><li>Fold a piece of paper into quarters.  Write your name in one quarter.  Write the names of...
Group Discussion Squares <ul><li>Think of a  meal which had special significance  to you and prepare to tell your group ab...
Group Discussion Squares <ul><li>Make the sure the question is a good one for your students:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intere...
 
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Essentials Of Conversation

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This powerpoint is for a post-convention institute at TESOL 2010, Boston. The four-hour session was very interactive, so the ppt will give only a limited sense of what was included.

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  • A post-convention institute on 3/27/2010
  • Experience three different ways of running a conversation class, while talking about “topics and prompts.”
  • See the handout on “conversation cards—gifts”
  • See the handout on “friendship.”
  • These instructions are a way of doing question cards in a large class with fixed seats. In the PCI, we did it a little differently.
  • Role of writing Contests and competition? Time limits Conversation in the community with EIL users Giving instructions (first explain, then put into groups? Demo up front) Grouping: random? Purposeful? Timing? Grading Report phase
  • We didn’t have time to do this, but someone asked about at the end of the PCI.
  • Essentials Of Conversation

    1. 1. Essentials of Teaching Conversation TESOL 2010, Boston Kitty Purgason, Ph.D. Department of Applied Linguistics and TESOL, Cook School of Intercultural Studies, Biola University, California
    2. 2. Overview of the PCI <ul><li>Topics and prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Language and background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Class management </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Other issues, including teaching beginners </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
    3. 3. Topics <ul><li>1. What do your students like to talk about? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Group discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which topics have been especially successful with your students? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which topics have been failures? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What factors should we consider when we choose topics? </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Topics <ul><li>3. With your partner, think of as many specific questions related to your topic as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Topics posted around the room are: friendship, success, men & women, parents & children, young & old, health, learning a language, appearance & beauty, cross-cultural communication, crime & punishment, food, jobs & work, environment, heroes, faith & religion, personality, dreams, news, technology, regrets, making decisions </li></ul>
    5. 5. Topics <ul><li>Example: money </li></ul><ul><li>How important is money to you? Is your view similar to or different from other people in your community? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the top three things you spend money on? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it important for you to save money? If so, what are you saving for? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you borrow money? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you lend money? Why or why not? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Topics <ul><li>Do you think rich people should engage in philanthropy? If so, what causes should they support or how should they do it? (Think, for example, of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, or the Aga Khan Foundation.) </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think everyone should engage in charitable giving? If you give away money, how do you do it (for example, within your extended family, to a religious institution, to an international organization like UNICEF or the Red Cross/Crescent)? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you define “rich”? “poor”? Do these definitions vary according to the place or time we’re considering? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Topics <ul><li>What are some important things that we need money for? What are some important things that money can’t buy? </li></ul><ul><li>In your family, who makes decisions about money? Who pays the bills? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some common things people waste money on? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a common proverb or saying about money in your culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to this quotation, “The love of money is the root of all evil.” </li></ul>
    8. 8. Topics <ul><li>Respond to this cartoon: </li></ul>
    9. 9. Topics <ul><li>With your partner, go to one of the topics around the room. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Rate the topic in terms of general suitability for your students. 1 = good topic, 2 = it depends, </li></ul><ul><li>3 = would probably not use </li></ul><ul><li>2. Think of as many specific questions as you can to prompt good conversation about this topic. Cluster the questions or identify them as good for young people/adults and easy/hard. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Compare three ways of doing conversation: </li></ul><ul><li>T asks whole class a question. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss discuss questions in small groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Class does a conversation-based task. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Topics, prompts <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Interest: Intellectual, emotional, cultural, political considerations </li></ul><ul><li>What the students bring—cognitive development, background knowledge, linguistic proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Variety over the course of the week, term </li></ul><ul><li>Element of student choice </li></ul><ul><li>Details in the prompt </li></ul>
    12. 12. Language and Conversation <ul><li>How can we help students improve their language in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency, automaticity? </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity, depth? </li></ul><ul><li> Language instruction, scaffolding, focus on form </li></ul>
    13. 13. Example: Conversation Cards (Gifts) <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>give / bring a gift to someone </li></ul><ul><li>give / bring someone a gift </li></ul><ul><li>people give each other gifts </li></ul><ul><li>people exchange gifts with each other </li></ul><ul><li>receive a gift from someone </li></ul>
    14. 14. Example: Conversation Cards (Gifts) <ul><li>Mingle with people, walking around the room. Find someone to talk to. </li></ul><ul><li>Take turns. First, A looks at her question card, reads it out loud, and answers it. Then, it’s B’s turn to read her question and answer it. Feel free to ask each other for more details. </li></ul><ul><li>When you’re finished, walk around and find someone else to talk to. Try to talk to at least three people. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Language and Conversation <ul><li>Debrief: </li></ul><ul><li>What was the effect of repetition? </li></ul><ul><li>Did the language-focused preparation at the beginning help? </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Example of lexical and collocations preview: </li></ul><ul><li>Philanthropy, philanthropic, engage in philanthropy </li></ul><ul><li>Charity, charitable, charitable giving, accept charity, live on charity </li></ul><ul><li>Give money away to ___ </li></ul><ul><li>Lend (give) money to ___ </li></ul><ul><li>Borrow (take) money from ___ </li></ul><ul><li>Spend money on ___ </li></ul><ul><li>Save money for ___ </li></ul><ul><li>Owe money to ___ </li></ul><ul><li>Make/earn money (by ____ing) </li></ul><ul><li>Live on $500 a month </li></ul><ul><li>Waste money on ___; ____ is a waste of money </li></ul>
    17. 17. Language and Conversation <ul><li>Example of implicit language instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>A checklist or rating sheet that prompts conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Ss look at it for homework and learn new words </li></ul>
    18. 18. Language and Other Background <ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>May need to teach not only lexical and grammatical features, but also conversational functions and cultural moves. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t overwhelm Ss with too much language. </li></ul><ul><li>Building background knowledge, providing ideas to talk about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read an article and then talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to a lecture and then talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch a movie and then talk </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Experience #1 - Talk Tokens </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone in the group should contribute ideas. The Token Manager will reward participation by giving students a coin (or chip) when they speak. If someone has a lot of coins, they should wait and let other people speak. If someone doesn’t have any coins, encourage them to speak. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Experience #1 </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss: </li></ul><ul><li>What problems with conversation do my Ss have? </li></ul><ul><li>What keeps them from being able to converse well in English? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some linguistic problems? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some problems based on culture ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some problems due to personality ? </li></ul>
    21. 21. Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Experience #2 – Think, Pair, Share </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1 – each person gets a piece of colored paper. Your paper has a problem teachers of conversation face. Think of some solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 – Find a partner with a different color of paper. Share your problem and solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3 – Get in a group of 6 (different colors) and share your problems and solutions. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Experience #3 – Conversation Ball </li></ul><ul><li>Get in a circle. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of a question you want to ask someone in the circle. Throw the ball to them. Ask your question. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of the questions: about our experience at the TESOL conference </li></ul><ul><li>For example, “Is this your first convention?” “What was the best session you attended?” etc. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Various formats </li></ul><ul><li>Small group </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double line or circle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mingle (cocktail party) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Think – pair – share </li></ul><ul><li>Debate </li></ul><ul><li>Hot seat, interview, press conference </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation ball </li></ul><ul><li>Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion squares </li></ul>
    24. 24. Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Various types of activity or task </li></ul><ul><li>Share an opinion or experience </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize a list </li></ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Choose </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Solve a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Agree or disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to quote, picture, cartoon </li></ul>
    25. 25. Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Choosing a format and task type </li></ul><ul><li>Does it match your objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it fit the Ss’ proficiency? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it feasible within your constraints? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you included enough variety? </li></ul>
    26. 26. Managing a Conversation Class <ul><li>Getting students to do more </li></ul><ul><li>Roles within the group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-keeper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials person/runner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk token person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More student autonomy (later) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Feedback in a Conversation Class <ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Small groups </li></ul><ul><li>Why do students use their first language? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some ways we can encourage them to use English only? </li></ul>
    28. 28. Feedback in a Conversation Class
    29. 29. Student autonomy <ul><li>Help students manage the conversation so you can focus on feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Train them to lead the group with phrases to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce a comment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control excess talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elicit comments from quiet students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct the flow of talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Student autonomy
    31. 31. Conversation with beginners <ul><li>Oral drills – familiarize Ss with structure and vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Charts – familiarize Ss with Q-A routines </li></ul><ul><li>Question cards – more Q-A routines </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussion + report </li></ul>
    32. 32. Simple present to describe everyday activities: drill <ul><li>Alma is a nurse. She has a strange schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>She _________ late. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: verb+ s </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    33. 33. Simple present to describe everyday activities: charts <ul><li>Take out a piece of paper and copy this: </li></ul><ul><li>Turn to people nearby and ask them “What time do you get up?” etc. Write their name and answer on your chart. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Simple present to describe everyday activities: question cards
    35. 35. Question cards: double line <ul><li>Row 1: turn around to face the row behind you. </li></ul><ul><li>Row 2: stay facing forward. </li></ul><ul><li>Odd numbered rows: turn around </li></ul><ul><li>Even numbered rows: face forward </li></ul><ul><li>You should look like this: </li></ul><ul><li>∨∨∨∨∨∨∨∨∨∨ </li></ul><ul><li>∧∧∧∧∧∧∧∧∧∧ </li></ul><ul><li>∨∨∨∨∨∨∨∨∨∨ </li></ul><ul><li>∧∧∧∧∧∧∧∧∧∧ </li></ul>
    36. 36. Question cards: double line <ul><li>People in even-numbered rows have a question card. Read it to your partner opposite you. </li></ul><ul><li>Partner, answer it. </li></ul><ul><li>∨ </li></ul><ul><li>∧ </li></ul>Never. I drive. How often do you walk to work?
    37. 37. Question cards: double line <ul><li>People in even-numbered rows with cards (facing forwards): When you hear the time signal, give your card to the person on your right. </li></ul><ul><li>Person at the end: give your card to the runner who will take it to the other side. </li></ul><ul><li>∧  ∧  ∧  ∧  ∧  ∧  ∧  ∧ </li></ul>
    38. 38. Question cards: double line <ul><li>When you hear the double-time signal, give your card to the person in front of you. Now you can switch roles for asking and answering. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Simple present to describe everyday activities: small group discussion <ul><li>What is something you rarely do? </li></ul><ul><li>What is something you often do? </li></ul><ul><li>If you can, talk about why. </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready to tell the class something about a classmate in your group. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Other Issues, Troubleshooting, Questions
    41. 41. [email_address] For handouts and ppt slides, go to: http://tesolresourcesfromkitty.pbworks.com
    42. 43. Group Discussion Squares <ul><li>Work in groups of 4 </li></ul><ul><li>x x x x x x x x x x </li></ul><ul><li>x x x x x x x x x x </li></ul><ul><li>x x x x x x x x x x </li></ul><ul><li>x x x x x x x x x x </li></ul>
    43. 44. Group Discussion Squares <ul><li>Fold a piece of paper into quarters. Write your name in one quarter. Write the names of the other people in your group in the other quarters. </li></ul>name name name name
    44. 45. Group Discussion Squares <ul><li>Think of a meal which had special significance to you and prepare to tell your group about it. </li></ul><ul><li>In your square, you can write three or four words to help you remember what to say. </li></ul><ul><li>After you listen to your group </li></ul><ul><li>members, be prepared to tell </li></ul><ul><li>the whole class what you heard. </li></ul><ul><li>You may write no more than </li></ul><ul><li>four words for each person to </li></ul><ul><li>help you remember what to say. </li></ul>Ari baby relatives feast
    45. 46. Group Discussion Squares <ul><li>Make the sure the question is a good one for your students: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why use the squares? Why </li></ul><ul><li>write cues? </li></ul><ul><li>Why not allow more writing? </li></ul><ul><li>Why have a “report” phase? </li></ul>Ari baby relatives feast

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