Performance appraisals examplesPerformance appraisal is the measurement of employee performance. Before we look attechniques for performance appraisal, lets consider, why performance should beappraised in the first place.Why Appraise Performance?There are many reasons for measuring how well employees are performing. First, manyadministrative decisions, such as those dealing with promotions, salary increases, andlayoffs, depend on performance appraisals. Second, if employees are to do their jobsbetter in the future, they need to know how well they have done them in the past so thatthey can make adjustments in their work patterns as necessary. Finally, performanceappraisal is necessary as a check on new policies and programs. For example, if a newpay system has been implemented, it would be useful to see whether it has had a positiveeffect on employee performance.Pitfalls in Performance AppraisalPerformance appraisal is a difficult process. Problems may occur because of the nature ofthe job, the rater, or the situation. For instance, accurate appraisal is particularly difficultwhen work is non routine, when the rate and raters have differing perspectives, and whenthe appraisal system is incompatible with organization structure or technology. Further,many of the perceptual problems plague the performance-appraisal process. Clearly, greatcare needs to be exercised in selection, use, and refinement of performance-appraisalsystems.Types of Performance MeasuresThere are three major ways by which performance may be appraised. Appraisal can focuson traits, behaviors, or accomplishments.TRAIT APPROACHESUnder trait approaches, a manager or performance appraiser rates an employee on suchtraits as friendliness, efficiency, and reliability. Presumably, these traits are related toperformance. One such approach asks the appraiser to check the word or phrase (such as"outstanding," "average," or "poor") that best describes how an employee rates on eachtrait. These trait approaches are very popular, but they suffer from a number of problems.For instance, words such as "superior" and "average" may mean different things todifferent people. The people appraising performance may feel uncomfortable givingsomeone a low score on such traits as efficiency, decisiveness, or supervisory ability,especially if their ratings will be shown to the person being rated. Appraisers may also beprone to various biases and rating errors.
BEHAVIORAL APPROACHESBehavioral approaches involve the recording of specific employee actions. With thecritical incidents method, for example, the performance appraiser keeps a list of all thethings the employee did that were especially good or bad. Sometimes, such incidents aregathered from job incumbents and/or supervisors, and a list of incidents discriminatingbetween high and low performers is developed.A newer and somewhat related approach, the behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS),presents a list of possible employee actions, ranging from very desirable to veryundesirable. An example of good performance for a grocery checker might be "Byknowing the price of items, this checker would be expected to look for mismarked andunmarked items." An example of poor performance might be "In order to take a break,this checker can be expected to block off the check stand with people in line." The raterchecks the action on the scale that the employee would be most likely to engage in.By focusing on specific actions, behavioral approaches are an improvement on the earliertrait approaches because they consider things under the control of the employee ratherthan things which might be heavily influenced by other factors. They specify exactlywhat the employee needs to do to get a good rating, and they provide the basis forconcrete feedback. Sometimes, however, they give employees the uncomfortable feelingthat there is always a rater looking over their shoulders.OUTCOME APPROACHESRather than consider traits or actions, some appraisal techniques rate what the employeeis supposed to accomplish on the job. One of these approaches is management byobjectives. Such approaches may be time-consuming, and they may also cause appraisersto focus only on objectives that can be easily expressed in numbers. They do, however,get directly at the things that the company cares most about, and they let the employeeknow specifically which outcomes are most important.Who Appraises Performance?Our discussion of performance appraisal has focused on the evaluation of employeesperformance by their superiors. However, employees may also be rated by peers orsubordinates. Peer assessment has been widely used, and it is generally considered to behighly valid and reliable. There is also growing use of ratings by subordinates. GeneralElectric, Libby-Owens-Ford Co., and Southern California Edison are among thecompanies in which workers rate their bosses. It is argued that subordinates may be inideal positions to evaluate their bosses for leadership, organization, and crisis-management skills. Subordinates tend to be tougher raters of their supervisor than is thesupervisors boss. Unfortunately, many managers find it hard to deal with criticisms fromtheir subordinates, and they may ignore the appraisals.Can a University grade your performance?
Judging academic rather than professional qualities is one shaky bridge that has created arift between academics and professionals. Even in todays academic environment, therehas not been a common agreement between all Universities and Colleges on how apersons professional experience, can be assessed academically.http://performanceappraisalebooks.info/ : Over 200 ebooks, templates, forms forperformance appraisal.