Design of Work Systems
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Design of Work Systems

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  • Allowances can be based on either job time or time worked.

Design of Work Systems Design of Work Systems Presentation Transcript

  • Design of Work Systems CHAPTER SEVEN Kit Laserna
  • OPERATIONS STRATEGY
  • JOB DESIGN
  • JOB DESIGN The act of specifying the contents of and methods of jobs. What? Who? How? Where? Ergonomics – Incorporation of human factors in the design of the workplace (design of equipment, work methods and overall design of the work environment)
  • Factors that Affect Job Design Workers and managers consultation Managerial support Written record establishment Elements Efficiency school – systematic and logical Behavioral school- satisfaction of wants and needs
  • SPECIALIZATION  Work that concentrates on some aspect of product or service AdvantagesFor management: For labor1. Simplifies training 1. Low education and skill requirements2. High productivity 2. Minimum responsibilities3. Low wage cost 3. Little mental effort Disadvatanges1. Difficult 1. Monotonous work2. Worker dissatisfaction, possibly 2. Limited opportunities for advancementresulting in absenteeism, high turnover, 3. Little control over workdisruptive tactics, poor attention to 4. Little opportunity for sel-fulfillmentquality
  • BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES TO JOB DESIGN Job Enlargement – Giving a worker a larger position of the total task Job Rotation – Workers periodically exchange jobs Job Enrichment – Increasing responsibility for planning and coordination tasks, by vertical loading. Increase the motivational power of jobs by increasing worker satisfaction through improvement in the quality of work life
  • MOTIVATION Key factor in many aspects of work life Influence quality and productivity Contributes to the work environment Trust – influences motivation, productivity and employee- management relations
  • Why do people work? Compensation Socialization Self-actualization Status Physiological aspects of work Sense of purpose and accomplishment
  • TEAMS Short-term team Long-term team  Self-directed teams (self-managed teams)- designed to achieve higher level of teamwork and employee involvement. Althoug
  • Successful Team Building Requirements1. Clearly stated and commonly held vision and goals2. Talent and skills required to meet goals3. Clear understanding of team members’ roles and functions4. Efficient and shared understanding of procedures and norms5. Effective and skilled interpersonal relations6. A system of reinforcement and celebration7. Clear understanding of the team’s relationship to the greater organization
  • METHODS ANALYSIS
  • METHOD ANALYSIS Analyzing how a job is done Can be a good source of productivity improvements DIFFERENT SOURCES 1. Changes in tools and equipment. 2. Changes in product design or introduction of new products 3. Changes in materials or procedures 4. Government regulations or contractual agreements 5. Other factors (e.g., accidents, quality problems)
  •  New job – establish a method Existing job – analysts observe and improve
  • Procedure in Method Analysis1. Identify the operation to be studied and gather facts about tools, equipment, materials etc.2. (existing jobs) job discussion with operator and supervisor for input3. (existing jobs) Study and document the present method using process charts. (new jobs) develop charts based on info about activities involved.
  • Procedure in Method Analysis1. Analyze the job2. Propose new methods3. Install new methods4. Follow up implementation to assure that improvements have been achieved
  • Selecting an Operation to Study GUIDELINES FOR SELECTING A JOB; Jobs that… 1. Have a high labor content 2. Are done frequently 3. Are unsafe, tiring, unpleasant and/ore noisy 4. Are designated as problems
  • Documenting the Current Method Charts, graphs and verbal descriptions of the way job is being performed  Will provide good understanding of the job and serve as a basis of comparison against which revisions can be judged.
  • Analyzing th Job andProposing New Methods Facilitated by the use of various charts such as;  flow process charts  worker-machine charts
  • Flow Process Charts Used to examine the overall sequence of an operation by focusing on movements of the operator or flow of materials. Helpful in identifying non-productive part of the process Used to study the flow od material through a department Used to study the sequence that documents or forms take. Used in analyzing movement and care of surgical patients Layout of department and grocery stores Mail handling
  • 1. Why is there delay or storage at this point?2. How can travel distances be shortened or avoided?3. Can materials handling be reduced?4. Would a rearrangement of the workplace result in greater efficiency?5. Can similar activities be grouped?6. Would the use of additional or improved equipments?
  • Process Chart Symbols
  • Flow Process Chart
  • Worker-machine chart Used to determine portions of a work cycle during which an operator and equipment are busy or idle.
  • Installing the Improved Method Convinced manager + cooperating workersNOTE: If the proposed method constitutes a major change from the way the job has been performed in the past, workers may have to undergo a certain amount of retraining and full implementation may take time to achieve.
  • The follow-up To ensure that changes has been made To ensure that the proposed method is functioning as expected
  • MOTION STUDY Systematic study of the human motions used to perform an operation. Purpose:  To eliminate unnecessary motions  To identify the best sequence of motions for maximum efficiency.
  • Motion study techniques1. Motion study principles2. Analysis of therbligs3. Micromotion study4. charts
  • Motion study principles Guidelines for designing motion-efficient work procedure1. Eliminate unnecessary motions2. Combine Activities3. Reduce Fatigue4. Improve the arrangement of the workplace5. Improve the design of tools and equipment
  • Therbligs Basic elemental motions that make up a job NATURE:  Search- hunting for an item with hands and/or eyes  Select – means to choose from a group of objects  Grasp – to take hold of an object  Hold – retention of an object after being grasp  Transport load – movement of an object after hold  Release – deposit the object
  • Micromotion study Use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze.
  • WORKING CONDITIONS Temperature and Humidity Ventilation Illumination Noise and vibrations Work Breaks Safety  **Causes of Accidents – carelessness and Accident Hazards
  • WORK MEASUREMENTDetermining how long it should take to do the job
  • Standard time The amount of time it should take a qualified worker to complete a specified task, working at a sustainable rate, using given methods, tools and equipment, raw materials, and workplace arrangement Periodic time studies may be used to update the standards The most commonly used method of time elements are;  Stopwatch time study  Standard elemental times  Predetermined time standards  Work sampling
  • STOPWATCH TIME STUDY Introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor – late 19th century Most widely used method of work instrument Especially appropriate for short, repetitive tasks Used to develop a time standard based on observations of one worker taken over a number of cycles.
  • Steps in time study1. Define the task to be studied, and inform the worker who will be studied2. Determine the number of cycles to be observe3. Time the job, and rate the worker’s performance4. Compute the standard time
  • Number of Cycles Function1. Variability of Observed times2. Desired Accuracy3. Desire Level of Confidence
  • Formula (sample size needed) Where Z = # of normal standard deviations 2 (SD) needed for desired confidence zs S = sample SD a= Desired accuracy (%)n = Sample mean x ax
  • Alternative: 2 **when the desired accuracy zs is stated as an amount instead of percentagen Where: e e = Maximum acceptable error
  • Example 1 A time study analyst wants to estimate the time required to perform a certain job. A preliminary study yieldes a mean of 6.4 minutes and a standard deviation of 2.1minutes. The desired confidence is 95%. How many observations will he need if the desired maximum error isa. + or – 10% of the sample mean?b. One-half minute?
  • Solutiona. s= 2.1minutes z= 1.96 x = 6.4mins a= 10% 2 2 zs 1.96(2.1) n n 41.36 42 ax 0.10(6.4) 2 2b. e= 0.5 zs 1.96(2.1) n 67.77 68 e 0.5
  • Development of Time Standard Observed Time Normal Time Standard Time
  • Observed Time Average of recorded times Where: xi OT = Observed time x i = Sum of recorded timesOT n = number or observations n
  • Normal Time Observed time adjusted for worker performance Computed by multiplying Observed time by performance rating NT = OT X PR Where: NT= Normal time PR = Performance rating
  • Normal Time If ratings are made on an element-by-element basis, the normal time is obtained by multiplying each element’s average time by its performance rating and summing those values: NT = xj PRj Where xj = Ave time for element j PRj = Perfomance rating for element j
  • Standard Time Normal time multiplied by an allowance factor (personal, unavoidable delays or rest breaks)ST = NT × AFWhere ST = Standard time AF = Allowance factor
  • Allowance factorAFjob 1 A = Allowance percentage based on job time 1AFday = Allowance percentage based on 1 A workday
  • Sample Problem Compute the allowance factor for these two cases:a. The allowance is 20 percent of job timeb. The allowance is 20 percent of work time
  • SolutionA = .20a. AF = 1 + A = 1.20, or 120% 1 1b. AF = = 1.25, or 125% 1 A 1 0.20
  • Typical Allowance Percentage for Working ConditionsA. Constant Allowances:1. Personal allowance 52. Basic fatigue allowances 4
  • B. Variable Allowance1. Standing Allowance 22. Abnormal Position Allowance a. Slightly awkward………………………………………………………………… 0 b. Awkward (bending) ……………………………………………………………. 2 c. Very awkward (lying, stretching) …………………………………………… 73. Use of force or muscular energy: Weight lifted (lbs) 5…………………………………………………………………………………………. 0 10……………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 15……………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 20……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 25……………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 30……………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 35……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 40……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 45……………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 50………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
  • 4. Bad light a. Slightly below recommended 0 b. Well below 2 c. Very inadequate 55. Atmospheric conditions (heat and humidity)- variable 0-106. Close attention: a. Fairly fine work 0 b. Fine or extracting 2 c. Very fine or very extracting 57. Noise level a. continuous 0 b. intermittent – loud 2 c. intermittent – very loud 5 d. High-pitched- loud 58. Mental strain: a. Fairly complex process 1 b. Complex or wide span of attention 4 c. Very complex 8
  • 9. Monotony: a. low 0 b. Medium 1 c. High 410. Trediousness: a. Rather tredious 0 b. Tredious 2 c. Very tredious 5
  • Sample ProblemA time study of an assembly operation yielded the following observed times forone element of the job, for which the analyst gave a performance rating of 1.13 Using an allowance of 20 percent of job time, determine the appropriate standard time for this operation. i Time, x i Time, x Observation (minutes) observation (minutes1 1.12 6 1.182 1.15 7 1.143 1.16 8 1.144 1.12 9 1.195 1.15 Total 10.35 N=9 PR = 1.13 A = 0.20
  • SolutionOT = xi 10.35 = 1.15 minutes n 9NT = OT × PR = 1.15 (1.13) = 1.30minutesST = NT × (1 + A) = 1.30(1.20) = 1.56 minutes
  • STANDARD ELEMENTAL TIME Derived from a firm’s own historical time study data Procedure for using Standard Elemental times 1. Analyze the job to identify the standard elements 2. Check the file for elements that have historical times, and record them. Use time study to obtain others, if necessary 3. Modify the file times of necessary 4. Sum the elemental times to obtain the normal time, and factor in allowances to obtain the standard time.
  • Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages1. Potential savings in cost and 1. Times may not exist for effort enough standard elements to make it worthwhile2. Less disruption of work 2. File times ma be biased or3. Performance ratings do not inaccurate have to be done
  • PREDETERMINED TIME STANDARDS Published data based on extensive research to determine standard elemental times. Methods-time measurement  Commonly used system  MTM tables are based on extensive research of basic elemental motions and times
  • Advantages1. Based on large numbers of workers under controlled conditions2. The analyst is not required to rate performance in developing the standard.3. There is no disruption of the operation4. Standards can be established even before a job is done.
  • WORK SAMPLING Technique for estimating the proportion of time that a worker or machine spends on various activities and the idle time. Does not require timing an activity NOR involve continuous observation of the activity Observer makes brief observations of a worker or machine at a random intervals Primary uses 1. ratio-delay studies 2. Analysis of non-repetitive jobs
  • COMPENSATION
  • Two Basic Systems forCompensating Employees
  • Time-based system  Compensate employees for the time the employee has worked during a pay period Management WorkerADVANTAGES 1. Stable labor cost 1. Stable pay 2. Easy to administer 2. Less pressure to produce than under output system 3. Simple to compute pay 4. Stable OutputDISADVANTAGES 1.. No incentive to workers 1. Extra efforts not to increase output rewarded
  • Output-based  According to the amount of output they produce during a pay period  Tying pay directly to performance Management WorkerADVANTAGE 1. Lower cost per unit 1. Pay related to efforts 2. Greater output 2. Opportunity to earn moreDISADVANTAGES 1. Wage computation more 1. Pay related to efforts difficult 2.Need to measure output 2. Workers may be penalized because of factors beyond their control 3. Quality may suffer 4. Difficult to incorporate wage increase 5. Increase problems with scheduling
  •  Accurate Easy to Apply Consistent Easy to understand Fair
  • INDIVIDUAL INCENTIVE PLANS Straight piecework-worker’s pay is direct linear function of his or her output Protects the worker from pay loss due to delays, breakdowns and similar probems
  • GROUP INCENTIVE PLANS Team approach Some exclusively focus on output, while others reward employees for output and for reductions in material and other costs
  • KNOWLEDGE-BASED PAY SYSTEMS A pay system used by organizations to reward workers who undergo training that increase their skills Three dimensions:  Horizontal skills – reflect the variety of tasks the worker is capable of performing  Vertical skills – reflect managerial tasks the worker is capable of  Depth skills – reflect quality and productivity results
  • MANAGEMENT COMPENSATION Tied to the success of the company or division that executive is responsible for