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Originally part of the the OWL (Ohio Writing Lab) English Language Learning Project - this slide show has been expanded and altered to fit the needs of our students and syllabus.

Originally part of the the OWL (Ohio Writing Lab) English Language Learning Project - this slide show has been expanded and altered to fit the needs of our students and syllabus.

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  • Rationale: Welcome to “Finding Your Focus: The Writing Process.” This presentation is designed to introduce your students to the steps that constitute the writing process, including strategies for brainstorming, drafting, revising, and proofreading. The fifteen slides presented here are designed to aid the facilitator in an interactive presentation of the elements of the writing process. This presentation is ideal for the beginning of a composition course and the assignment of a writing project. This presentation may be supplemented by OWL handouts, including “Starting to Write” (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/general/gl_plan2.html), “Planning (Invention)” (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/general/gl_plan1.html), “Developing an Outline” (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/general/gl_outlin.html), and “Higher Order Concerns and Later Order Concerns (HOCs and LOCs)” (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/general/gl_hocloc.html). Directions: Each slide is activated by a single mouse click, unless otherwise noted in bold at the bottom of each notes page. Writer and Designer: Jennifer Liethen Kunka Contributors: Muriel Harris, Karen Bishop, Bryan Kopp, Matthew Mooney, David Neyhart, and Andrew Kunka Developed with resources courtesy of the Purdue University Writing Lab Grant funding courtesy of the Multimedia Instructional Development Center at Purdue University © Copyright Purdue University, 2000.
  • Rationale: When students spend time thinking about the writing process, they will be able to plan their writing strategies more effectively. Activity: The facilitator may ask students about their own writing processes and invite them to share with the group. While students may follow a “process” for writing, they may not be able to identify all of the steps they go through to write a paper.
  • Rationale: Though students engage in a writing process, they may not be conscious of the steps it entails. Some students who have trouble organizing their thoughts struggle because they do not follow a consistent writing process or they skip steps within the process. This slide presents some important reasons to identify the steps in the writing process. By thinking about the writing process, students may be able to make the process more effective and efficient for themselves. Activity: The facilitator may choose to invite participation by asking students why they need a writing process. Each reason is activated with a mouse click.
  • Rationale: This slide previews the six steps of the writing process. Each element forms a part of a successful writing experience. Key Concept: The facilitator may explain that the writing process is not necessarily sequential--a linear path from invention to proofreading. Writers may generate a topic, collect some information, organize their notes, go back and collect more information, invent subtopics for their work, go back to organization, etc. The writing process is recursive --it often requires going back and forth between steps to create the strongest work possible. Knowing these steps and strategies, however, can be a great help to writers who struggle with their work.
  • Key Concept: The first step in the writing process is invention --developing a topic. Students often make the mistake of latching onto the first idea that comes their way. However, by doing some invention exercises, students can give themselves some options for their writing assignments and allow themselves to consider the ideas that are the most manageable, appropriate to the assignment, and, above all, interesting to the writer. If the writer is bored with the topic, it will show through in the final product.
  • Key Concept: Brainstorming is a method for coming up with ideas for a project. The key to brainstorming is to write down everything that pops into your head--the idea you are the least certain about may be the one you use for your paper! Brainstorming is a way writers can provide themselves with topic options. One brainstorming technique is called listing . This strategy involves a simple list of every idea that pops into the writer’s mind. From this list, writers might choose to narrow down their topics or branch into a related topic. The important thing is that all of these ideas are down on paper so they won’t be forgotten and potentially useful ideas are not lost in the process. Activity: To involve students, the facilitator might ask students the definitions of “brainstorming” and “listing.” Ask students about the writing situations in which they have found listing to be a useful technique. These experiences may inspire other students to give it a try. Click the mouse after “Listing:” to reveal the brainstormed list.
  • Key Concept: Clustering is another terrific brainstorming idea. Visual learners may find this technique more effective than listing because of the manner in which ideas are spatially arranged. To start, write the word “ME” in the center of your paper and draw a circle around it. Then branch out from the center circle with any ideas that interest you. If more ideas pop into your head, draw branches stemming from your outer circle. Again, the key is to write down as many ideas as possible. Students may find that two smaller branched ideas may work together well to form one solid topic. Or, students may find that their branch circles form supporting ideas or arguments for their main ideas. It is important not only to find a topic, but to find an angle about that topic that can be argued within an essay. Once students find an idea they like, they might form a new cluster by putting their main idea in the center, and then build supporting claims in branched circles. Activity: If the class is about to work on a new writing assignment, it might be a good idea to pause here and have them do some brainstorming by creating their own lists or clusters. The facilitator might ask students to share the results of their lists or come around the room and hold up examples of good clusters. Click the mouse after the “ME” circle to see additional branches.
  • Key Concept: Once students decide on a topic, their next step is to collect information. Activity: The facilitator may ask students where they might go to collect research. Answers will likely include such things as books, magazines, and the Internet. Examples: The facilitator might suggest other forms of research, including indexes for periodicals, newspapers, and academic journals (these can be located through the index link on ThorPlus). In particular, the INSPIRE database and the Academic FullText Search Elite database will provide students with a number of printable periodical sources. Interviews can also be useful, whether by phone, through e-mail, or in person. Often, web authors can be contacted through e-mail links on their web pages and may agree to be interviewed through e-mail. Activity: If students are engaged in a particular research assignment, the facilitator may choose to offer guidance on the best places to locate research for the project. For more information on collection strategies, see the presentation titled “Research and the Internet,” located on this CD-ROM.
  • Key Concepts: After writers collect information pertaining to their topics, a useful next step is to organize it--decide where to place information in the argument, as well as which information to omit. One easy way to do this is outlining . Argumentative and narrative papers generally have three main sections. The introduction is used to grab the readers’ attention and introduce the main idea or claim, often in the form of a thesis statement. The body consists of several supporting paragraphs that help to elaborate upon the main claim. Finally, the conclusion serves to wrap up the argument and reemphasize the writer’s main ideas. After gathering information in the collection stage, the writer should think about where each piece of information belongs in the course of an argument. By taking time to organize and plan the paper, writers save time and frustration in the drafting stage; they find that they can follow the pattern they have established for themselves in their outlines.
  • Key Concepts: After writers collect information pertaining to their topics, a useful next step is to organize it--decide where to place information in the argument, as well as which information to omit. One easy way to do this is outlining . Argumentative and narrative papers generally have three main sections. The introduction is used to grab the readers’ attention and introduce the main idea or claim, often in the form of a thesis statement. The body consists of several supporting paragraphs that help to elaborate upon the main claim. Finally, the conclusion serves to wrap up the argument and reemphasize the writer’s main ideas. After gathering information in the collection stage, the writer should think about where each piece of information belongs in the course of an argument. By taking time to organize and plan the paper, writers save time and frustration in the drafting stage; they find that they can follow the pattern they have established for themselves in their outlines.
  • Rationale: Many students struggle with drafting because they make it the second component of their writing process--right after coming up with a topic-- instead of the fourth, after collecting and organizing. Students also struggle because they do not give themselves enough time to complete the drafting process. Key Concepts: With a little bit of pre-planning and organization, the drafting stage can be both a rewarding and efficient experience. First of all, students can avoid the dreaded procrastination by beginning their projects early. A comfortable place to write--whether with a keyboard or a pencil--also aids concentration. Avoiding distractions, such as television, noisy friends, or computer solitaire, will keep writers focused on their projects. Finally, writers should take breaks, preferably leaving off at a place where they know what comes next. This will make it easier to pick up again after the break. Sometimes completing a draft and coming back to it the next day helps students to look at their work with a fresh pair of eyes and a rejuvenated attitude. Writers should not feel compelled to write chronologically. Sometimes the conclusion can be an easier place to begin than with the thesis statement. With each writing assignment, students will be able to find a personal system that works best for them. Activity: The facilitator may ask students to share tips that they have learned about their own successful drafting habits.
  • Rationale: Students tend to view revising as a process of altering word choices and correcting spelling errors. Rather, this presentation separates revising--the revaluation of higher-order concerns --from proofreading--the correction of later-order concerns . Key Concepts: Revising is a process of reviewing the paper on the idea-level. It is a process of re-vision --literally re-seeing the argument of the paper. The revising process may involve changes such as the clarification of the thesis, the reorganization of paragraphs, the omission of unneeded information, the addition of supplemental information to back a claim, or the strengthening the introduction or conclusion. The key to revising is the clear communication of ideas from the writer to the intended audience. This is an important step to take following the drafting stage. Following the completion of an entire draft, students may have a stronger conception of their purpose, intended audience, and thesis statement. Feedback from other readers may also contribute toward the need to re-vision (or re-see) the project. Rather than feeling chained to every printed word, students should be encouraged to look at their writing as an evolving piece of work, subject to change. Sometimes a first draft is just that--a first draft. Again, students must be sure to allow themselves enough time to complete the revising process.
  • Rationale: Students tend to view revising as a process of altering word choices and correcting spelling errors. Rather, this presentation separates revising--the revaluation of higher-order concerns --from proofreading--the correction of later-order concerns . Key Concepts: Revising is a process of reviewing the paper on the idea-level. It is a process of re-vision --literally re-seeing the argument of the paper. The revising process may involve changes such as the clarification of the thesis, the reorganization of paragraphs, the omission of unneeded information, the addition of supplemental information to back a claim, or the strengthening the introduction or conclusion. The key to revising is the clear communication of ideas from the writer to the intended audience. This is an important step to take following the drafting stage. Following the completion of an entire draft, students may have a stronger conception of their purpose, intended audience, and thesis statement. Feedback from other readers may also contribute toward the need to re-vision (or re-see) the project. Rather than feeling chained to every printed word, students should be encouraged to look at their writing as an evolving piece of work, subject to change. Sometimes a first draft is just that--a first draft. Again, students must be sure to allow themselves enough time to complete the revising process.
  • Rationale: Students tend to view revising as a process of altering word choices and correcting spelling errors. Rather, this presentation separates revising--the revaluation of higher-order concerns --from proofreading--the correction of later-order concerns . Key Concepts: Revising is a process of reviewing the paper on the idea-level. It is a process of re-vision --literally re-seeing the argument of the paper. The revising process may involve changes such as the clarification of the thesis, the reorganization of paragraphs, the omission of unneeded information, the addition of supplemental information to back a claim, or the strengthening the introduction or conclusion. The key to revising is the clear communication of ideas from the writer to the intended audience. This is an important step to take following the drafting stage. Following the completion of an entire draft, students may have a stronger conception of their purpose, intended audience, and thesis statement. Feedback from other readers may also contribute toward the need to re-vision (or re-see) the project. Rather than feeling chained to every printed word, students should be encouraged to look at their writing as an evolving piece of work, subject to change. Sometimes a first draft is just that--a first draft. Again, students must be sure to allow themselves enough time to complete the revising process.
  • Key Concepts: After improving the quality of the content in the revising stage, writers then need to take care of mechanics, including corrections of spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, and documentation style. For more information on sentence structure and punctuation, see “Sentence Clarity and Combining” and “Conquering the Comma,” included on this CD-ROM. For presentations on documentation styles, see “Cross-referencing: Using MLA Format” and “Documenting Sources: Using MLA Format,” also on this CD-ROM.
  • Examples: Here are a few tips students can use to proofread their papers: The best tip is to read your paper out loud. Reading aloud forces the writer to engage each word verbally. Often typos, spelling errors, and sentence structure problems can be caught this way. If spelling is a big problem, checking through the paper backwards can also help writers to correct errors. Again, checking backwards will help writers to engage every word. Exchanging papers with a friend can also be a good way to check for errors. Sometimes a fresh pair of eyes helps. However, writers need to remember that the paper belongs to them and they are responsible for their work. If a friend corrects something that you don’t think is correct, double check with a grammar book, the OWL web site, or the Writing Lab Grammar Hotline. Sometimes students can develop an overreliance upon technology to correct spelling and grammar errors. However, if you meant to type “Good spelling is important in college” and instead type “Good smelling is important in college,” spell check will not catch the error because “smelling” is a correctly spelled word. Also, many grammar checks function on computer-programmed patterns of words. Often, they cannot process long or complicated sentences. Just because sentences are long or complicated does not mean they are wrong. Having an understanding of grammar yourself is the best way to check over your work.
  • Examples: Here are a few tips students can use to proofread their papers: The best tip is to read your paper out loud. Reading aloud forces the writer to engage each word verbally. Often typos, spelling errors, and sentence structure problems can be caught this way. If spelling is a big problem, checking through the paper backwards can also help writers to correct errors. Again, checking backwards will help writers to engage every word. Exchanging papers with a friend can also be a good way to check for errors. Sometimes a fresh pair of eyes helps. However, writers need to remember that the paper belongs to them and they are responsible for their work. If a friend corrects something that you don’t think is correct, double check with a grammar book, the OWL web site, or the Writing Lab Grammar Hotline. Sometimes students can develop an overreliance upon technology to correct spelling and grammar errors. However, if you meant to type “Good spelling is important in college” and instead type “Good smelling is important in college,” spell check will not catch the error because “smelling” is a correctly spelled word. Also, many grammar checks function on computer-programmed patterns of words. Often, they cannot process long or complicated sentences. Just because sentences are long or complicated does not mean they are wrong. Having an understanding of grammar yourself is the best way to check over your work.
  • Rationale: This slide reviews the six components to the writing process. Activity: The facilitator may choose at this time to answer questions or get feedback from students about their own writing processes. Students may share strategies about their own successful writing process tips.
  • Rationale: This slide reviews the six components to the writing process. Activity: The facilitator may choose at this time to answer questions or get feedback from students about their own writing processes. Students may share strategies about their own successful writing process tips.
  • Key Concept: If your students are struggling with developing a writing process, they can find help at the Purdue University Writing Lab. By making a half-hour appointment with a tutor, students can receive help with any area of the writing process, from invention to proofreading. Click mouse after the title question.

The Writing Process 2A Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Finding Your Focus: The Writing Process A presentation brought to you by the Purdue University Writing Lab
  • 2. Everyone has a writing process. What is yours?
  • 3. Why do you need a writing process?
    • It can help writers to organize their thoughts.
    • It can help writers to avoid frustration and procrastination.
    • It can help writers to use their time productively and efficiently.
  • 4. What is writing?
    • Writing is thinking in ink.
  • 5. Process for Writing Success Understand goals Write 1 st Draft Find the topic Write complete essay Edit Revise Correct Evaluate Assess/ Reflect Perform/ Publish Process for Success Edit Revise Correct Collect info / ideas Organize
  • 6. The   Writing process
    • Invention  1.
    • Collection  2.
    • Organization  3.
    • Drafting  4.
    • Revising  5.
    • Proofreading  6.
    • Publishing   7.
  • 7. 1. Invention: coming up with your topic
    • Brainstorming:
      • Getting your ideas on paper so you can give yourself the widest range of topics possible
  • 8. Brainstorming: coming up with ideas that interest you Listing: Political apathy Animal abuse NFL instant replay Air pollution Telemarketing scams Internet censorship NBA salary caps Paper Topics Brainstorming
  • 9. Clustering: mapping out ideas ME Internet censorship telemar- keting scams NFL instant replay NBA political apathy three-party system salary caps sportsmanship animal abuse First Amendment Flag Burning Amend-ment animal experiments
  • 10. 2. Collection
    • Gathering ideas
    • Locating and evaluating research sources (library and Internet)
    • Conducting interviews/ surveys
    • Talk with somebody
  • 11. 3. Organizing: putting information in a structure (form) I. II. III. Outline Research Data, Information
  • 12. Poster Talk and Essay Schedule of the process for your Poster Talk IMPORTANT INFO: Poster Talk ( 展覧会発表) : 11 月 6 日 (P 木 ), 11 月 10 日 (A 月 ), 11 日 (N 火 ) , 12 日 (VE 水 ) Essay Draft Due: 11 月 19 日 (VE 水 ) , 20 日 (P 木 ) , 17 日 -26 日 (A 月 ), 25 日 (N 火 ) Final ESSAY Due: 11 月 26 日 (VE 水 ) 11 月 27 日 (P 木 ), 12 月 1 日 (A 月 ), 2 日 (N 火 ) , Oct 6-9  Nov13-18  Developing the topic: Writing Skills Research Focus: Key Questions 1 st Draft of Essay Due Review Draft Turn in Essay Intro to Project / Find Topic Oct 21-27  Poster Design and Talk Prep Getting Info: Reading Strategies  Oct 28-30 11 月 26 日 -12 月 2 日 Oct 14-20 Nov 6-12 Poster Talk Performance   Essay 2; Body/Conclu Essay Writing 1; Thesis Nov19-25 Intro Group Perf Introduce Final Group Project
  • 13. Use KEY Questions
    • Write 4-6 Key Questions that focus on the main
    • points or issues about your topic:
    • What is _________ ? Who is _____? Where does it come from? When/where does it exist/happen?
    • How does it work ? / What did he/she do?
    • What are its important features ? Contributions?
    • What effect(s) does it have? Why is it important?
    • What needs to be done ?
    • What can or should we do to change this or protect it?
  • 14. Conceptual Topic
    • Start with your concept (topic)
    • Add MAIN IDEAS
    • Break down each Main Idea into key elements (details)
  • 15. Problem/Solution
    • You can use a graphic organizer to help you understand the STRUCTURE (outline) of your topic
  • 16. 3. Organizing: putting information in an outline OUTLINE I. Introduction A. Grab attention B. State thesis II. Body A. Build points B. Develop ideas C. Support main claim III. Ending A. Reemphasize main idea I. II. III. Outline
  • 17. 3. Organizing your Essay: Structure
    • 5 paragraphs
    • Main Idea is stated clearly in the Thesis Statement ( 持論 )
    • Develop supporting ideas (Key points) in EACH PARAGRAPH
    • Introduction “Tell them what you’re going to say and why, and Conclusion ( “Tell them what you told them and challenge to think/act/understand.)
    Introduction Thesis Statement 1 st Key Point 2nd Key Point 3rd Key Point Conclusion B O D Y Transitions
  • 18. Japanese Style English Style Justification, background info and explanation (specific) Main Point (general) Main Point (general) Justification, background info and explanation (specific) INDUCTIVE DEDUCTIVE Writing (rhetoric) Styles
  • 19. Essay Editing Checklist
    • Can you point to a Thesis Statement in the essay? Is it clearly stated? Does the essay carry out the purpose of the thesis statement?
    • Are the ideas in the essay clearly ordered? Does the Outline reveal the order of development in your argument
    • Are there enough SUPPORTING ideas? Normally there are THREE paragraphs and each paragraphs adequately developed .
    • Are there clear Transitions from one idea to the next? Both WITHIN the sentences and BETWEEN paragraphs?
    • Is the Introduction clear and adequately developed? Does the Conclusion do what you want it to?
    • Is the Language and Tone consistent and appropriate for the audience you want to reach and the subject you're treating? Is this your own work (not copied directly from another resource?
  • 20. 4. Drafting: Composing your Essay
    • Give yourself ample time to work on your project.
    • Find a comfortable place to do your writing.
    • Avoid distractions.
    • Take breaks.
  • 21. Organizing A Paragraph: 段落構造  Structure
    • Three Part Form
    • Main Idea is stated clearly in the Topic Sentence
    • Develop supporting ideas (facts, examples, supported reasons, etc)
    Topic Sentence 1 st Supporting Point 2nd Supporting Point (3rd Point) B O D Y Examples / Facts/ Reasons Examples / Facts/ Reasons
  • 22. Organizing A Paragraph: 段落構造  Structure
    • Three Part Form
    • Main Idea is stated clearly in the Topic Sentence
    • Develop supporting ideas (facts, examples, supported reasons, etc)
    • First sentence ( option ) may link (connect) the previous paragraph or give background or introductory info
    • Concluding sentence ( option ) may summarize, re-state main idea, draw a conclusion or link to next idea (or the THESIS of the whole essay)
    Topic Sentence 1 st Supporting Point 2nd Supporting Point (3rd Point) Concluding Sentence B O D Y Examples / Facts/ Reasons (Linking or Intro) Topic Sentence 1 st Supporting Point 2nd Supporting Point B O D Y Examples / Facts/ Reasons (Linking or Intro)
  • 23. Reading a paragraph, noting its structure
      • As we enter the 21 st century, the threat of infectious disease remains a growing problem. Some 30 previously unknown diseases have appeared since 1973, including AIDS, hepatitis C, Ebola fever, and West Nile virus. Many are still incurable. At least twenty well-known infectious diseases such at tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and cholera have reemerged or spread since 1973. Some are reappearing in deadlier, drug-resistant forms. More than 400 million people fall ill with malaria annually. Of these, up to 3 million die each year, most of them children. Some strains of the disease have evolved and become resistant to today’s drugs. Global and local action is needed so that modern medicine, governments, and drug producers can battle these killer diseases.
  • 24. Reading a paragraph, noting its structure
      • As we enter the 21 st century, the threat of infectious disease remains a growing problem . Some 30 previously unknown diseases have appeared since 1973, including AIDS, hepatitis C, Ebola fever, and West Nile virus. Many are still incurable. At least twenty well-known infectious diseases such at tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and cholera have reemerged or spread since 1973. Some are reappearing in deadlier, drug-resistant forms. More than 400 million people fall ill with malaria annually. Of these, up to 3 million die each year, most of them children. Some strains of the disease have evolved and become resistant to today’s drugs. Global and local action is needed so that modern medicine, governments, and drug producers can battle these killer diseases.
    TOPIC SENTENCE
  • 25. Reading a paragraph, noting its structure
      • As we enter the 21 st century, the threat of infectious disease remains a growing problem. Some 30 previously unknown diseases have appeared since 1973, including AIDS, hepatitis C, Ebola fever, and West Nile virus. Many are still incurable. At least twenty well-known infectious diseases such at tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and cholera have reemerged or spread since 1973. Some are reappearing in deadlier, drug-resistant forms. More than 400 million people fall ill with malaria annually . Of these, up to 3 million die each year, most of them children. Some strains of the disease have evolved and become resistant to today’s drugs. Global and local action is needed so that modern medicine, governments, and drug producers can battle these killer diseases.
    Supporting Sentences Supporting Sentences
  • 26. Reading a paragraph, noting its structure
      • As we enter the 21 st century, the threat of infectious disease remains a growing problem. Some 30 previously unknown diseases have appeared since 1973, including AIDS, hepatitis C, Ebola fever, and West Nile virus. Many are still incurable. At least twenty well-known infectious diseases such at tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and cholera have reemerged or spread since 1973. Some are reappearing in deadlier, drug-resistant forms. More than 400 million people fall ill with malaria annually. Of these, up to 3 million die each year, most of them children. Some strains of the disease have evolved and become resistant to today’s drugs. Global and local action is needed so that modern medicine, governments, and drug producers can battle these killer diseases.
    Concluding Sentence
  • 27. Reading a paragraph, KEY WORDS
      • As we enter the 21 st century, the threat of infectious disease remains a growing problem . Some 30 previously unknown diseases have appeared since 1973, including AIDS, hepatitis C, Ebola fever, and West Nile virus. Many are still incurable . At least twenty well-known infectious diseases such at tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and cholera have reemerged or spread since 1973. Some are reappearing in deadlier , drug-resistant forms. More than 400 million people fall ill with malaria annually. Of these, up to 3 million die each year, most of them children. Some strains of the disease have evolved and become resistant to today’s drugs. Global and local action is needed so that modern medicine, governments, and drug producers can battle these killer diseases.
  • 28. Reading a paragraph, noting LINKING or CONDITION words
      • As we enter the 21 st century , the threat of infectious disease remains a growing problem. Some 30 previously unknown diseases have appeared since 1973 , including AIDS, hepatitis C, Ebola fever, and West Nile virus. Many are still incurable. At least twenty well-known infectious diseases such at tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and cholera have reemerged or spread since 1973 . Some are reappearing in deadlier, drug-resistant forms. More than 400 million people fall ill with malaria annually . Of these , up to 3 million die each year , most of them children. Some strains of the disease have evolved and become resistant to today’s drugs. Global and local action is needed so that modern medicine, governments, and drug producers can battle these killer diseases.
  • 29. Writing a paragraph
    • Paragraph is 5-7 sentences on one idea:
    • It needs: A Topic Sentence, Key Points (Supporting sentences) and (sometimes a concluding sentence)
      • Main Idea of paragraph is usually at the beginning in a Topic Sentence (main idea sentence)
      • Support the TS by: explaining logically, giving examples, facts, and supported opinions
      • Use illustrates, anecdotes (stories), images to describe and explain detail
      • Sometimes a concluding sentence will summarize, draw a conclusion, or tie in with next point (transition to next paragraph )
  • 30. Writing a paragraph
    • Paragraphs are units of thought with one idea developed adequately. Listed here are some rules of thumb to use when paragraphing. As your writing improves, you'll be able to break these "rules" to meet your own needs. Until then, these suggestions can be helpful:
    • Put only one main idea per paragraph.
    • The main idea of a paragraph is found (usually) in the Topic Sentence.
    • Aim for five to seven or more sentences per paragraph.
    • Include on each page about two handwritten or three typed paragraphs.
    • If you have a few very short paragraphs, think about whether they are really parts of a larger paragraph--and can be combined--or whether you can add details to support each point and thus make each into a more fully developed paragraph.
  • 31. Writing a paragraph (samples) Not only is the food in Europe different from Japanese food, but so are the meal customs and table manners . There are some important differences between what Europeans do at mealtime and what we usually do . Here are some useful tips for what Japanese visitors to France and Italy should and should not do when eating meals with the local people. In France, arrive on time because this is a sign of politeness. But in Italy, it is a good idea to arrive just a little late. In both countries it is polite to bring a gift, for example a bottle of wine or some sweets. Flowers are also a good gift, but don’t give people red roses because they express love – the romantic kind. In addition, table manners are important customs to observe while traveling there . For example, keep the fork in your left hand and the knife in your right. Remember that it’s not polite to put your elbows on the table. People in France do not like to see a person take a bit from a large piece of bread. Instead, you should tear off a smaller piece of bread and bring that to your mouth to bite. While Italian sometimes hang the napkin from the neck to keep off sauce stains, the French people keep their napkins in their laps. So you can see that it helps to know a bit about meal customs before you travel to Europe. Topic Sentence Topic Sentence Concluding Sentence Connecting to Paragraph before
  • 32. Kotodama University is very crowded and narrow. It is located in an urban area. It has too many students. It is inevitable. (Re)-Writing is the PROCESS What’s wrong with this beginning (first TRY) paragraph?
  • 33. Kotodama University has a very small campus with too many students . It is located in an urban area. It has too many students. It is inevitable. (Re)-Writing is the PROCESS The first sentence is now more concrete – real information and combined together.
  • 34. Kotodama University has a very small campus with too many students . It is located in an urban area. It has too many students. It is inevitable. (Re)-Writing is the PROCESS This sentence TRIES to explain the reason (for the problem -- but it does not really make the meaning clear.
  • 35. Kotodama University has a very small campus with too many students. The university’s small campus is located in Tokyo, a city with little open space and high land prices. It has too many students. It is inevitable. (Re)-Writing is the PROCESS We changed it to explain more fully and clearly WHY the university has a small campus.
  • 36. Kotodama University has a very small campus with too many students. The university’s small campus is located in Tokyo, a city with little open space and high land prices. It has too many students. It is inevitable. (Re)-Writing is the PROCESS It mentions only one problem (or condition) and is very short.
  • 37. Kotodama University has a very small campus with too many students. The university’s small campus is located in Tokyo, a city with little open space and high land prices. The university enrolls many students to earn more money and to keep tuition competitive with other universities in Tokyo. It is inevitable. (Re)-Writing is the PROCESS Now it gives two reasons for the university’s crowed condition and use a more SPECIFIC choice of vocabulary words.
  • 38. Kotodama University has a very small campus with too many students. The university’s small campus is located in Tokyo, a city with little open space and high land prices. The university enrolls many students to earn more money and to keep tuition competitive with other universities in Tokyo. It is inevitable . (Re)-Writing is the PROCESS This sentence gives a conclusion WITHOUT ENOUGH information for the readers to follow the reasoning.
  • 39. Kotodama University has a very small campus with too many students. The university’s small campus is located in Tokyo, a city with little open space and high land prices. The university enrolls many students to earn more money and to keep tuition competitive with other universities in Tokyo. Until the university decides to have fewer students or to purchase more land, the situation will probably not change. (Re)-Writing is the PROCESS Now the sentence concludes the paragraph better because it follows the paragraph’s argument more closely .
  • 40. Kotodama University is very crowded and narrow. It is located in an urban area. It has too many students. It is inevitable. Compare the two versions Old
  • 41. Kotodama University has a very small campus with too many students. The university’s small campus is located in Tokyo, a city with little open space and high land prices. The university enrolls many students to earn more money and to keep tuition competitive with other universities in Tokyo. Until the university decides to have fewer students or to purchase more land, the situation will probably not change. (Re)-Writing is the PROCESS Something IMPORTANT is still missing – the PURPOSE clear? New
  • 42. Kotodama University has a very small campus with many students, but it needs to cope with the crowded conditions . The university’s small campus is located in Tokyo, a city with little open space and high land prices. The university enrolls many students to earn more money and to keep tuition competitive with other universities in Tokyo. Until the university decides to have fewer students or to purchase more land, the situation will probably not change. [ NEXT PARAGRAPH is related to this] ( Re)-Writing is the PROCESS Now the topic sentence has been strengthened into a THESIS ( 持論)
  • 43. 5. Revising: reviewing ideas
    • Review higher-order concerns:
      • Clear communication of ideas
      • Organization of paper
      • Paragraph structure
      • Strong introduction and conclusion
    Using a computer makes the Writing Process easier!
  • 44. Revising: Checklist
      • Is the topic sentence in the paragraph well written and clear? Is it focused?
      • What is the controlling idea?
      • Is the purpose of the paragraph clear? Does it stick to its purpose?
      • Does the concluding sentence end the paragraph properly and/or link to the next?
      • Did I use the proper word choice?
  • 45. Revising: Work together
      • You can get valuable feedback from having another STUDENT or group of students review your work.
      • Also, be sure to ask the teacher for feedback on your draft (WELL BEFORE the due date)
      • ( 提出一日前ダメ!)
  • 46. Transitions
    • Transitional Expressions (signal words to connect)
    • These words and phrases act as signposts for readers, telling which direction the writing is about to move in. They usually come at the beginning of a sentence, where they show how a new thought relates to what has come before. Some common transitional expressions are listed below, according to the type of relationship they indicate.
    • 対照 contrast and qualification --on the contrary, however, in contrast, still, yet, nevertheless, on the other hand
    • 連続性 continuity --besides, furthermore, in addition, also, secondly, to continue, next, similarly, likewise, moreover, indeed, again, in other words
    • 因果 cause/effect --thus, therefore, as a result, consequently, hence, for this reason
    • 例証 exemplification --for instance, for example, in fact, more specifically, to illustrate
    • 要約 summation --finally, in conclusion, to sum up, in brief, lastly, as we have seen
    Making it easier to follow and understand your speech….
  • 47. 6. Proofreading
    • Review later-order concerns:
      • Spelling
      • Punctuation
      • Sentence structure
      • Documentation style
  • 48. Proofreading tips
    • Slowly read your paper aloud.
    • Read your paper backwards.
    • Exchange papers with a friend.
    • NOTE: Spell check will not catch everything, and grammar checks are often wrong!
  • 49. 7. Publishing
    • REMEMBER: Who is the audience for your work  聴衆は中心
    • Keep that in mind as you research and write.
    • Try to get feedback from the readers.
    • REFLECT on what you’ve done and how you can do the PROCESS better next time.
  • 50. The Writing Process: Find Your Focus
    • Invention
    • Collection
    • Organization
    • Drafting
    • Revising
    • Proofreading
    • Publishing
  • 51. Research Proposal 研究提案書 Topic Focus  (10月29日まで)
    • Topic
    • Why it is important (to you)
    • KEY QUESTIONS:
    •  ④-⑤ 
    • Topic Summary   ( Main Idea Sentence (s))
    • Resources – what you plan to use  
    • Needs? (Do you need something ?)
  • 52. Where can you go for additional help with assignments for our class?
    • Check our Eigo-B at KUEB:
    • http://groups.yahoo.com/group/kueb
    • Purdue University On-line Writing Lab http:// owl.english.purdue.edu
    • Email questions: [email_address]