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Personality, attitudes, workplace behavior and motivation ( former)
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  • 1. Personality, Attitudes, Workplace Behavior and Motivation Kishwar Sayeed Advisor HR & OD, Prothom Alo 1 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 2. Why personality is important in the workplace? How should be our workplace behavior ? How should be your attitude right in the workplace? How does motivation affect your attitude and behavior 2 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 3. • The Concept of Personality • Sources of Personality Differences • Personality Structure • Personality and Behavior • The Concept of Attitude • Attitudes and Behavior • Individual Differences and Ethical Behavior 3 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 4. Concept of Personality Definition: Personal characteristics that lead to consistent patterns of behavior It is combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others and how he views himself. Interactionist Perspective: Both the person and the situation act as significant causes of behavior in organizations, reinforcing the importance of properly managing the situations. 4 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 5. Personality differences • Heredity: Research on the nature-nurture controversy indicates that about 50% of the variance in personality is inherited, thus setting limits on development. • Environment: Shapes at least 50% of personality. – Culture – Family – Group Membership – Life Experiences 5 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 6. Personality Structure: The “Big Five” Personality Factors Recent research has examined people using extensive lists of personality dimensions and distilled them into the “Big Five Personality Traits:” Each factor is a continuum of many related traits) Agreeableness (Stable, confident, effective) (Nervous, self-doubting, moody) Sociability (Outgoing, energetic, self-dramatizing) (Shy, unassertive, withdrawn) Conscientiousness (Planful, neat, dependable) (Impulsive, careless, irresponsible) (Warm, tactful, considerate) (Independent, cold, rude) Intellectual Openness (Imaginative, curious, original) (Dull, unimaginative, literal-minded) Adjustment 6 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 7. Specific Personality Traits and Their Linkage to the “Big Five” • Self-esteem (“self-worth”) is part of adjustment • Locus of control (“fate vs. personal control”) is part of conscientiousness • Introversion and extraversion (preference for thinking vs. interacting-- NOT “social skills”) are part of sociability • Dogmatism (generalized rigidity of beliefs) and • authoritarianism (narrower personality type who prefers to follow orders) are part of intellectual openness Traits are continuaL—people may be high, low, or in-between. Most people are in-between! 7 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 8. Goal Orientation as a Personality Trait Goal setting theory, and a large body of past research predicts that higher self set goals will result in higher performance. Past research has also shown that goal commitment has a main effect on performance Two orientations are important in understanding individual Job performance: Learning goal orientation – an inclination to develop competence by acquiring new skills and mastering new situations; may be associated with better individual job performance. Performance goal orientation – an inclination to demonstrate and validate competence by seeking favorable judgments from others (e.g., a supervisor) and avoiding negative judgments; may be associated with a “helpless” response pattern and weak performance 8 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 9. Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo 9 How much do you see of an Iceberg ? Only 10 % is visible and 90% under the sea level Knowledge & skills Behavior Known to others Unknown to others Attitude Values-Standards- Judgment Motives – Ethics -Beliefs
  • 10. The Concept of Attitude Definition: Relatively lasting feelings, beliefs, and behavior tendencies directed toward specific people, groups, ideas, issues, or objects. Attitudes consist of three components: COGNITIVE = beliefs AFFECTIVE = feelings BEHAVIORAL = predispositions to act 10 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 11. How attitudes form – logical sequence Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo 11 My supervisor gave promotion to my co-worker, who deserved it less than me My supervisor is unfair I dislike my supervisor I am looking for some other job Cognitive Affective Behavioral Negative attitude towards my supervisor
  • 12. Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes do not normally predict or cause behavior in a simple and direct way Three principles relate attitudes to behavior: General attitudes best predict general behaviors Specific attitudes best predict specific behaviors 12 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 13. Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo 13 Case study-1
  • 14. What are stereotyped attitudes ? Stereotypes are qualities assigned to groups of people related to their race, nationality and sexual orientation. Stereotypes generalize groups of people in manners that lead to discrimination and ignore the diversity within groups. Stereotypes should be avoided. 14 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 15. What is Behavior Actions resulting from your attitude and personality. The way you act or present yourself, actions in an given environment. Can be influenced by others According to Webster, one’s manner of behaving or acting. The action or reaction of a material, machine under given circumstances. 15 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 16. Affective Events Theory Work Environment Job characteristics Job demand Need for emotional labor Work Events Daily hassle Daily uplifts Personal disposition Personality Mood Emotional Reactions Positive Negative Job satisfaction Job performance 16 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 17. Acceptable Attitudes & Behaviors Positive Things that you are supposed to do Following rules and regulations Appropriate People will like to be around you Help you meet job requirements Help you in the future Help to keep you employed 17 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 18. Unacceptable Attitudes & Behaviors Negative Things that you are not supposed to do: Not following rules and regulations Inappropriate People do not like to be around you Will not allow you to meet job requirements Hurts you in the future Help to keep you unemployed Breaking the laws Helps you to be unsuccessful in the future 18 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 19. Work ethics • Work ethic may include many things but it is really your set of values. • Ideally the better your work ethics, the better your work position. • You work ethics will guide you in a given situation. 19 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 20. Behavior is your actions resulting from your attitude, personality and environment ( work ethics). Work Ethics is a combination of your values, personality, attitude and pride in your work. Comprises of honesty, pride, purpose, feelings, visions, teamwork, character, productivity, appearance and communication. 20 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 21. Work ethics includes your set of values involving honesty involving accountability choosing right verses wrong doing acceptable verse unacceptable being aboard board verses under the table what you would do  how you feel about their job and  how you do that job or responsibilities  involves attitude,  involves behavior,  involves respect,  involves communication, and interaction;  Involves how one gets along with others. 21 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 22. Work ethic involves • honesty (not lying, stealing, or cheating), • doing a job well • having pride • valuing what one does • showing people who you really are. • having sense of purpose and feeling • being a part of a greater vision or plan is vital 22 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 23. Research In a research of U.S. Department of Labor estimated that 80 Percent of workers who lose their jobs do so not because of lack of occupational skills, but because of poor work ethics. Identified essential work ethics that should be taught and practiced in order to develop a viable and effective workforce. Attendance Teamwork Attitude Organizational Skills Cooperation Character Appearance Productivity Communication Respect 23 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 24. Being Reliable • Dependable • Following regulations • Reliable • Honest • Careful • Punctual 24 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 25. Appearance • Displays appropriate dress • Displays good grooming habits • Displays good hygiene • Displays good etiquette 25 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 26. Teamwork • Respects the right of others • Respects confidentiality • Is a team worker • Is cooperative • Is assertive • Displays a customer service attitude • Seeks opportunities for continuous learning • Demonstrates mannerly behaviors 26 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 27. Respect • Deals appropriately with cultural/racial diversity • Does not engage in harassment of any kind • Uses manners around others 27 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 28. Productivity • Follows safety practices • Conserves materials • Keeps work areas neat and clean • Follows directions and procedures • Makes up assignments • Punctually • Participates • Completes all work 28 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 29. Organizational Skills • Manifests skills in prioritizing and management of time and stress • Demonstrates flexibility in handling change • Keep things neat and orderly • Uses time wisely • Arrives on time • Excused absences only • Does not make up excuses for absences 29 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 30. Attitude • Demonstrates a positive attitude • Friendly, pleasant and kind • Appears self-confident • Has a realistic expectation of self • I can, I will, I did attitude • Others like to be around you 30 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 31. Character • Displays loyalty • Displays honesty • Displays trustworthiness • Displays dependability • Displays reliability • Displays initiative • Displays self-discipline • Displays self-responsibility • Control emotions and actions 31 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 32. Communication • Displays appropriate nonverbal –eye contact • Display appropriate nonverbal – body language • Displays oral listening skills • Displays appropriate telephone etiquette • Displays proper grammar in communication • Displays appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication skills 32 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 33. Cooperation • Displays leadership skills • Appropriately handles criticism • Appropriately handles conflict • Appropriately handles complaints • Demonstrates problem-solving capability • Maintains appropriate relationships with supervisors and peers • Follows chain of command 33 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 34. • The 10 essential work ethics traits that encourage development of positive work habits conducive to the needs of business and industry. • Attendance • Cooperation • Character • Communication • Respect • Productivity • Organization skills • Appearance • Teamwork • Attitude 34 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 35. What are the interpersonal skills needed in teamwork? • skill of collaboration, • mentoring, • decision making • delegation • participation 35 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 36. Changes in Organizational Commitment Over Time • Initial Commitment - determined by individual characteristics and degree of equivalence between their expectations and organizational realities. • Subsequent Commitment is influenced by job experiences, including many of the same factors which influence job satisfaction (such as pay, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, advancement opportunities, etc.) 36 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 37. Types of Management Ethics • Immoral management – Devoid of any ethical principles, characterized by exploitation for corporate or personal gain • Moral management – Guided by appropriate ethical principles • Amoral management – Indifference toward ethical principles, characterized by a lack of awareness of ethical issues 37 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 38. Steps for Instilling Moral Management 1. Identify ethical attitudes crucial for the organization’s operations, and use training programs to foster them 2. Select employees with desired attitudes 3. Incorporate ethics in the performance evaluation process 4. Establish a work culture that reinforces ethical attitudes 38 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 39. Why ? • sW Some people climb mountains ? Some people like to run ? 39 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 40. Motivation is the force that drives our actions 40 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 41. Understanding Motivation and Satisfaction is a psychological state that exists whenever internal and/or external forces stimulate, direct, or maintain behaviors. is a psychological state that indicates how a person feels about his or her situation, based on a evaluation of the situation. 41 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 42. Employee Motivation and Satisfaction Manager Behavior Job Design Organization Context Individual Differences Employee Motivation Employee Satisfaction Consequences for employers And employees - Improved individual and team performance - Satisfied Customers - High Morale - Reduced turnover 42 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 43. Moving up and Down the Needs Hierarchy 43 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 44. Case study -2 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo 44
  • 45. Managerial Approach 45 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 46. Guidelines for Managers Clearly communicate the organization's mission to employees and explain how their contribution to the organization will help the organization realize its mission. State the behaviors and performance achievements that are desired and explain how they will be rewarded. Design jobs with high motivating potential. Provide frequent and constructive feedback 46 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 47. Guidelines for Managers (cont.) Provide rewards for desired behavior and outcomes. Provide rewards that employees value. Provide equitable rewards. Recognize that each person is unique. 47 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo
  • 48. 48 Kishwar Sayeed, Adviosr HR & OD, Prothom Alo