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  1. 1. Overview :<br />Introduction<br />Design principles<br />Inferno Interfaces<br />Application Layer<br />Kernel Layer<br />Hardware Layer<br />Inferno Resources<br />Pros & Cons<br />Questions<br />8/12/2010<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Introduction:<br />Developed in Lucent technologies by Dennis Ritchie. but is now developed and maintained by Vita Nuova Holdings as free software.<br />Replaces a plethora of protocols in a network by a simple unifying file service protocol (styx).<br />Applications compute their own name spaces and consider all resources as file systems.<br />Inferno was based on the experience gained with Plan 9 os from Bell Labs.<br />The name of the operating system and many of its associated programs, as well as that of the current company, were inspired by Dante Alighieri'sDivine Comedy.<br />8/12/2010<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Inferno's definitive strength lies in its portability and versatility across several dimensions:<br />Portability across processors<br />Portability across environments<br />Minimal hardware requirements<br />Portable applications<br />8/12/2010<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Design Principles:-<br />Inferno was first made in 1995 by members of Bell Labs' Computer .It is a distributed operating system based on 3 basic principles drawn from Plan 9.<br /> Resources as files:- all resources are represented as files within a hierarchical file system .The advantages of using file systems are:-<br />File systems have simple and well understood interfaces across a wide variety of operating systems. <br />Naming conventions for files are well known, uniform and easily understood <br />8/12/2010<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Reliance on file systems reduces the amount of interface code and keeps the Inferno system small, reliable and highly portable .<br />Access rights and permissions to files are simple, yet can be used to ensure multiple levels of security <br />NAMESPACE:-<br />the application view of the network is a single, coherent namespace that appears as a hierarchical file system but may represent physically separated (locally or remotely) resources.<br />The Inferno Namespace is a hierarchical collection of files (i.e. resources).<br />8/12/2010<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Every process accesses its resources via its own namespace<br />can inherit from parent<br />share with other processes<br />Local and remote resources are bound into the namespace<br />Standard communication protocol:a standard protocol, called Styx,is used to access all resources, both local and remote.<br />8/12/2010<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Styx Message Structure:-<br />Indicates message type: initial transmission (T-message) or reply message (R-message)<br />Unique identifier used to track commands<br />Unsigned integer that represents “current” file<br />Message specific data<br />fid<br />Contents<br />tag<br />type<br />8/12/2010<br />7<br />
  8. 8. History:-<br />8/12/2010<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Inferno Interfaces:-<br />8/12/2010<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Inferno has mainly three layers. <br /> (i) Application layer<br />(ii) Kernel layer<br />(iii)Hardware layer <br />8/12/2010<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Application Layer:-<br />Limbo is fully type checked at compile and run time.<br />No memory protection H/W is there.<br />All LIMBO data and program objects are subject to a garbage collector built deeply into LIMBO run time system.<br />All System data objects are kept track of and freed as soon as they become idle.<br />8/12/2010<br />11<br />
  12. 12. DisVirtualmachine: - Limbo programs are compiled into byte-codes representing instructions for a virtual machine called Dis.<br />Dis has 3 address machine , supplemented with few specialized operations for handling arrays and strings.<br />The byte codes are expanded into a format more efficient for execution.<br />8/12/2010<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Kernel Layer:-<br />Namespace :<br />Memory management<br />Process management<br />Security in Inferno <br />Security mechanisms <br />8/12/2010<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Hardware Layer:-<br /> Device drivers:- A device driver simplifies programming by acting as a translator between a device and the applications or operating systems that use it<br />In computing, a device driver or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a hardware device.<br />A driver typically communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware is connected.<br />8/12/2010<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Host os:- Inferno can run in different host operating system<br />Host systems <br />Windows NT/2000/XP<br />Linux<br />MacOS<br />Plan9os<br />Solaris<br />8/12/2010<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Inferno Resources:-<br />8/12/2010<br />16<br />
  17. 17. External Environment of Inferno Applications :-<br />The purpose of most Inferno applns is to present information n/media to user.<br />Regardless of whether resources are local/global, a communication protocol called styx is used.<br />The glue that connects diff parts of the resource name space together is the styx protocol.<br />Inferno kernel implements a mount driver which transforms file operations to RPC’s for transport over the network.<br />8/12/2010<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Internal Environment of Inferno Applications:-<br />LIMBO programs are built of modules, which are self contained units .<br />Modules are accessed dynamically by executing a load statement.<br />Limbo is fully type checked at compile and run time.<br />No memory protection H/W is there.<br />All System data objects are kept track of and freed as soon as they become idle.<br />8/12/2010<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Advantages:-<br />Cross platform integration<br />Transparent resource access<br />Secure communication<br />8/12/2010<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Future scope:-<br />Telephony<br />Call setup<br />Device control<br />Text to Speech<br />Network Gateways<br />8/12/2010<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Conlcusion:-<br />“ Inferno does have a full-blown operating system and a virtual machine and a protocol stack, and in a lot of respects is something Java would like to be when it grows up. “ - Peter Bernstein, <br />Inferno is a unique network operating system that adapts to whatever you plug into it -- from a high-end workstation to an inexpensive hand-held device," noted Dennis Ritchie, <br />One of the most significant differences between Inferno and other operating systems such as JavaOS is the way in which Inferno presents network resources to an application. <br />8/12/2010<br />21<br />
  22. 22. References:-<br />Bell Labs Technical Journal.<br />Plugins, Vita Nuova.<br />http://code.google.com/p/inferno-ds.<br />www.vitanuova.com<br />8/12/2010<br />22<br />
  23. 23. 8/12/2010<br />23<br />
  24. 24. QUESTIONS<br />8/12/2010<br />24<br />