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Open Source in Research

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  • Flexibility – user commercial use, more commercial acceptance; less dialogue from community possible since less forced contribution.
  • Opensource

    1. 1. Open Source & Research Brought to you by: Office of Technology Licensing Office of the General Counsel Stanford University Jim DeGraw Ray Zado Ropes & Gray LLP Feb. 2005 Fish & Neave IP Group
    2. 2. Goals <ul><li>Understand What Open Source Is </li></ul><ul><li>Understand What Open Source Is Not </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate The Impact of the Open Source Model </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate Your Responsibilities in Using Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate the Impact of Releasing Open Source Code </li></ul>
    3. 3. Debunking Urban Myths <ul><li>Open Source is just a way to publish -- No </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source is Public Domain -- No </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source is Viral – Not Necessarily </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source is Immune from Patent Rights – No </li></ul>
    4. 4. What Is Open Source? <ul><li>Open Source is a development model </li></ul>volunteer volunteer volunteer volunteer Project lead
    5. 5. What is Open Source? <ul><li>Copyright Still Exists in Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And the Open Source Development Model is Premised on That </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright is an intangible right – it exists independent of the code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright Attaches On Creation of Original Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright Notice and Registration Not Required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership Initially Vests in Authors or Institution </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. What is Open Source? <ul><li>By Distributing Code Under an Open Source Model, the Owner is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Dedicating the Code to Public Domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is Attaching Strings to Recipient’s Use </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. What is Open Source? <ul><li>Open Source is a licensing distribution model too </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In many ways, just like commercial software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You need to pay attention to restrictions and obligations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are many kinds of Open Source licensing models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU General Public License (“GPL”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU Lesser General Public License (“LGPL”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BSD, MIT, Apache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozilla, IBM, Apple , Sun </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Common Open Source Models <ul><li>GNU General Public License (“GPL”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants right to copy, modify and distribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires that source code be made available to future licensees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally Seen as “Viral” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to separate works that are combined with distributed code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effect may depend on how code linked </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclaims Warranties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May blow-up in face of patent assertion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary distribution models difficult </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Common Open Source Models <ul><li>GNU Lesser General Public License (“LGPL”): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to GPL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somewhat easier for licensees to combine the LGPL code with a separate program and distribute the combination under separate licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often used with Open Source Libraries that are compiled into an application program </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Common Open Source Models <ul><li>BSD/MIT/Apache Style License: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More permissive licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally allow freer distribution, modifying, and license change; much like public domain software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No future open source requirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variants may include non-standard restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., no military use – but not OSI-compliant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclaims Warranties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to third-party patent claims </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Common Open Source Models <ul><li>Mozilla/IBM/Apple Style Licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C ombine facets of both the GPL and BSD style licenses : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of original code (and for some, modifications) include access to source code. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not viral in reach. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicitly contemplate patent licenses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some provide backwards indemnification. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Open Source Thoughts <ul><li>Some Practical Points </li></ul><ul><li>Can I Open Source at Stanford? </li></ul><ul><li>Can I Create Proprietary Code? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Some Differences <ul><li>Handling Modifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes to a code obtained under a BSD style license may be licensed under any combination of proprietary and open source licenses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes to code obtained under a GPL, LGPL or Mozilla style license generally may not be licensed under a proprietary license. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Although the original creator may use a proprietary model too. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Patent Licensing </li></ul>
    14. 14. Potential Drawbacks <ul><li>Infringement Liability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrongful inclusion of third party code (e.g., SCO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AS IS Code: No indemnification, Limited Recourse </li></ul><ul><li>Code Forking </li></ul><ul><li>Service Business Models </li></ul><ul><li>Data Sharing Business Models </li></ul>
    15. 15. Potential Drawbacks <ul><li>Inconsistent Third Party Obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Detriment to Commercial Potential </li></ul>
    16. 16. What About Stanford Research? <ul><li>Can I Use Open Sourced Code? </li></ul><ul><li>Can I Open Source My Research? </li></ul><ul><li>Which Open Source License Should I Use? </li></ul><ul><li>Can OTL License an Open Source Project? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Can You Use Available Open Source Code? <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building on Earlier Open Source Effort? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neat Trick / Short Cut? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Plagiarism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source Target? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Any Existing Restrictions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsoring Arrangements? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PI Restrictions? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can You Trust Your Source? </li></ul><ul><li>Can You Comply with OS License Restrictions? </li></ul><ul><li>Can You Manage the Code? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Can I Open Source My Research? <ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have You Considered Publishing as an Alternative? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who Has Rights In It? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Stanford Copyright Policy (RPH 5.2) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third Parties? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Code </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colleagues? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty / PI? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Can I Open Source My Research? <ul><ul><li>Do You Need Approvals? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty / PI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dean of Research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict of Interest Considerations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What Are You Open Sourcing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Third Party Code Unless Open Source / Public Domain </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Open Source Options <ul><li>There is no Stanford form Open Source License </li></ul><ul><li>OTL Takes No Position on the Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look to the Existing Development Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confer and be Consistent with Colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review Goals and Reasons for Open Sourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And select a licensing model that fits it </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Additional Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General open source tools and licenses </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q&A for reviewing models </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All things GPL </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    22. 22. Thanks! Ray Zado Ropes & Gray LLP +650-617-4068 [email_address] Jim DeGraw Ropes & Gray LLP +617-951-7539 [email_address]
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