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  • 1. By: Caleb Foo (3S113), Tan Song Ze (3S127)
  • 2. Contents  What is the Blue Revolution  What is Aquaculture  Importance  Advantages & Disadvantages  Winners & Losers  Challenges faced  Case study: Japan  Case study: Bangladesh  Video  Bibliography
  • 3. What is the Blue Revolution  It is the rapid expansion of intensive, commercial aquaculture  Came in a decade after the Green Revolution (1970s; chemical-based agriculture)  Increase global food production and reduce widespread hunger
  • 4. What is the Blue Revolution  By 1985, international aid agencies were pumping $200 million a year  From 1975 – 1985, world aquaculture output had doubled  Refers to the remarkable emergence of aquaculture as an important and highly productive agricultural activity
  • 5. What is Aquaculture  Also known as aquafarming  Defined as the establishment of man-made enclosures to raise aquatic life forms, such as shellfish, fish, and sea weeds, for human consumption purposes  Aquaculture refers to all forms of active culturing of aquatic animals and plants, occurring in marine, brackish, or fresh waters  Cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled environments
  • 6. What is Aquaculture Aquaculture Non-animal farming Algaculture Pearl farming Animal farming Aquatic animal farming
  • 7. What is Aquaculture Traditional Modern Type Subsistence Commercial Capital Low High (Intensive) Scale Small Small
  • 8. Importance  20% of the world’s total animal protein intake is from seafood (higher in coastal communities)  Most pearls sold come from pearl aquaculture farms
  • 9. Advantages  Generates export revenue that can be used to pay foreign debt  Contributed to the growth of large-scale export-oriented agribusiness enterprises in developing nations  Allows natural populations of fish to reproduce while farmed-raised versions are being used for food
  • 10. Advantages  Intensive commercial aquaculture is relatively efficient – beef cattle require 7 pounds of grain to produce 1 pound of meat; catfish require 1.7:1  Economic value of fish is high, hence potential profits to be gained by cultivating in large quantities 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Pounds of meat from 7 pounds of grain Cows Catfish
  • 11. Advantages  Fish are given supplement for:  Faster growth = increased output  Colour of meat (e.g. Salmon) = Aesthetically more pleasing  Antibiotics  These lead to increase in supply and export
  • 12. Disadvantages  Chemical additives like antibiotics and special feed are administered into aquaculture cages, which may contaminate surrounding waters  Fish have less health benefits due to injection of hormones  Fish in captivity might escape and establish themselves in new habitat, competing and degrading native species
  • 13. Disadvantages  As fish are grown very closely together, they are very disease-prone, which not only affect fish output, but other marine life as well
  • 14. Disadvantages  As intensive, commercial aquaculture is very costly, only those who have enough capital to invest in commercial aquaculture actually benefit from it; Poorer farmers do not have sufficient capital
  • 15. Disadvantages  Generated steady flows of polluted wastewater and contributed to the decline of wild fisheries (Average salmon farm produces a volume of effluent equal to a town of 40,000 people)  Polluted wastewater caused by artificial feed, chemical additives and antibiotics  Polluted wastewater also reduce supply of drinking water in the area
  • 16. Disadvantages  Triggers ‘red tides’ outbreak and pollutes the foreshore with waste - an explosive growth of toxic algae that can kill fish and fatally poison people who eat contaminated seafood
  • 17. Disadvantages  New aquaculture techniques resulted in an explosive expansion of coastal shrimp aquaculture throughout developing nations in Asia and Latin America
  • 18. Disadvantages  Destruction of thousands of hectares of mangrove forests, which protected shorelines from erosion and were the nurseries for thousands of marine organisms
  • 19. Winners & Losers  Wealthy companies and commercial farmers benefit from aquaculture  Commercial companies buy poor farmers’ land cheaply  Poor subsistence farmers did not benefit as they relied on small ponds for local consumption – commercial farming destroyed thousands of hectares of mangrove forests
  • 20. Result of aquaculture  In 1987Taiwan became the largest prawn producer in the world. A year later disease struck and production dropped by 70 per cent.The industry never recovered.
  • 21. Challenges faced  Over-fishing  Fishing activities reduce fish stocks below an acceptable level  Lead to resource depletion  Modern fishing gear allow more intensive fishing
  • 22. Challenges faced  Bycatch  Accidental catch of non-target species such as sharks, turtles, seabirds
  • 23. Challenges faced  Pollution  More than 46000 pieces of plastic litter / mile2  6kg of marine litter to 1kg of plankton
  • 24. Case study: Japan  First to recognise era of hunting fish was ending  World’s largest marine aquaculture industry  Before 1939: 76,000 tons / year  By 1987: 1,100,000 tons / year  Along coastlines, Japanese farm fishes with high market value
  • 25. Case study: Japan  Disease and pollution problems emerging  Fish waste and uneaten fish food accumulate at bottom of sea  Sludge below cage sites > 30cm  Stifles growth of aquatic organisms and worsen water quality  ‘Red tides’
  • 26. Case study: Bangladesh  Thousands of farmers have suffered from the invasion of their ricelands by aquaculture owners  Destruction to their rice crops by seepage of salt water from the shrimp ponds  Shrimp owners have been buying up the rice farmers’ infertile lands very cheaply, rendering them landless. One study estimated that 300,000 people were displaced from their farmlands by aquaculture in the Stakhira region alone
  • 27. Case study: Bangladesh  Disputes between farmers and aquaculture owners have often led to violent clashes We want our ricelands back!
  • 28. Video  GOOD: Urban Aquaculture: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ANpbBZu 5ViE&feature=fvw
  • 29. Bibliography  http://www.newint.org/issue234/blue.htm  http://cms.iucn.org/news_events/news/focu s/2009_marine/?UNewsID=3162  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaculture  http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/aqua-ch.htm  http://www.mangroveactionproject.org/issu es/shrimp-farming/the-rise-and-fall-of-the- blue-revolution  http://science.jrank.org/pages/976/Blue- Revolution-Aquaculture.html