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Present status & future prospects in marine aquaculture
 

Present status & future prospects in marine aquaculture

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    Present status & future prospects in marine aquaculture Present status & future prospects in marine aquaculture Presentation Transcript

    • Present Status & Future Prospects in Marine Aquaculture Presented By- Kirit KeneIn Under Guidance- Mr. D.R. Vahoniya International Agri-Business Management Institute, Anand 1
    • Flow of Presentation • Objectives • Introduction • About Indian Fisheries • Marine Aquaculture & Marine Cultivable Species • Blue Revolution • Present Status of Marine Fisheries Resources of India • Top Aquaculture Producer Countries • Marine Cultivable Biological Resources • Site Selection Criteria for Marine Aquaculture • Financial Facilities in Aquaculture • Future Prospects • Conclusion 2
    • Objectives • To Study the current Status & Future Prospects in Marine Aquaculture. • To Study Cultivable Species in Marine Aquaculture 3
    • Introduction • Indian fisheries and aquaculture is an important sector of food production. • It provides nutritional security to the food basket, contributing to the agricultural exports and engaging about fourteen million people in different activities. • With diverse resources ranging from deep seas to lakes in the mountains and more than 10% of the global biodiversity in terms of fish and shellfish species, the country has shown continuous and sustained increments in fish production since independence. 4
    • Introduction • Increasing food production especially of animal protein and achieving self sufficiency in aquatic product supplies. • Generating new source of employment in rural area including part time employment of farmer and small scale fishery and arresting migration of people from rural to urban areas. • Producing food near consumer centre in rural area thus contributing to improvement of human nutrition. • Earning foreign exchange through export or saving foreign exchange through import substitution. 5
    • Indian Fisheries • Global position 3rd in Fisheries 2nd in Aquaculture • Contribution of Fisheries to GDP (%)1.07 • Contribution to Agril. GDP (%)5.30 • Per capita fish availability (Kg.)9.0 • Annual Export earnings (Rs. In Crore)7,200 • Employment in sector (million)14.0 • Present fish Production 6.4 mmt • Inland3.4 mmt & Marine 3.0 mmt • Potential fish production 8.4 mmt • Fish seed production 21,000 million fry Hatcheries1,070 • FFDA -422 & BFDA- 39 Source:- NFDB Hyderabad 6
    • Marine Aquaculture • Marine Aquaculture is defined as the establishment of man-made enclosures to raise aquatic life, such as Shell fish, Finfish & Sea weeds for the Human Consumption purposes. • Cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled environments. • Aquaculture refers to all forms of active culturing of aquatic animals and plants, occurring in Marine Waters. 7
    • Marine Cultivable Species Resources • Shrimps • Oyster • Mussels • Clams • Finfishes • Crab • Seaweeds 8
    • Blue Revolution • The term “Blue revolution" refers to the remarkable emergence of aquaculture as an important and highly productive agricultural activity. Aquaculture refers to all forms of active culturing of aquatic animals and plants, occurring in marine and fresh waters. • Many Species of freshwater and marine organisms are being cultivated as highly productive and nutritious crops for consumption by humans. • It is the rapid expansion of intensive, commercial aquaculture, It Came in a decade after the Green Revolution (1970s; chemical- based agriculture) • Increase global food production and reduce widespread hunger. 9
    • 10
    • Table 1- Aquaculture Production by Continent Wise Continent 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 CAGR Africa 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.4 10.84 Americas 1.8 1.8 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.9 4.88 Asia 32.4 34.2 36.9 39.2 41.8 44.2 47.0 49.5 52.4 55.5 5.53 Europe 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.7 3.04 Australia 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 7.17 In Million Tones Source-FAO CAGR-Compound Annual Growth Rate 11
    • Table 2- Top 10 Aquaculture Producer Countries Sr no. Country Production Sr no. Country Production 1 China 3,67,34,215 1 China 3,86,21,269 2 India 37,85,779 2 India 45,73,465 3 Vietnam 26,71,800 3 Vietnam 28,45,600 4 Indonesia 23,04,828 4 Indonesia 27,18,421 5 Bangladesh 13,08,515 5 Bangladesh 15,23,759 6 Thailand 12,86,122 6 Norway 11,38,797 7 Norway 10,08,010 7 Thailand 10,08,049 8 Egypt 9,19,585 8 Egypt 9,86,820 9 Myanmar 8,50,697 9 Chile 9,54,845 10 Philippines 7,44,695 10 Myanmar 8,16,820 In tonesYear- 2010 Year- 2011 Source- FAO 12
    • State/Union Approx. Length of Coast Line Continental Shelf (‘000 Sq. Km.) Number of Landing Centres Number of Fishing Villages Andhra Pradesh 974 33 213 555 Goa 104 10 33 39 Gujarat 1600 184 133 247 Karnataka 300 27 85 144 Kerala 590 40 186 222 Maharashtra 720 112 156 456 Orissa 480 26 57 813 Tamil Nadu 1076 41 382 573 West Bengal 158 17 59 189 A & N 1912 35 25 100 Daman & Diu 27 - 5 11 Lakshadweep 132 4 19 20 Pondicherry 45 1 27 40 Total 8118 530 1336 3289 Table 3- Present Status of Marine Fisheries Resources of India 13
    • Continental Shelf Fish Landing Centre 14
    • 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 CAGR 240.20 254.89 291.16 293.15 288.64 3.74 98.97 32.26 83.14 81.93 89.96 1.89 670.51 644.53 623.05 687.44 688.93 0.27 168.54 175.57 218.14 248.73 340.57 7.28 598.06 586.29 583.15 570.01 560.40 1.29 464.09 419.82 395.96 415.77 446.70 0.76 128.14 130.77 135.49 129.33 133.48 0.81 387.25 393.27 365.28 401.13 404.61 0.88 178.10 182.74 189.29 179.00 197.11 2.049 28.60 28.60 32.33 33.00 33.74 3.36 16.35 26.28 14.06 15.88 16.85 0.604 11.75 11.04 12.59 12.37 12.37 1.033 33.61 33.44 34.55 36.10 36.10 1.43 3024.17 2919.50 2978.19 3103.84 3249.46 1.55 S.No State 1 Andhra Pradesh 2 Goa 3 Gujarat 4 Karnataka 5 Kerala 6 Maharashtra 7 Odhisha 8 Tamil Nadu 9 West Bengal 10 A & N Islands 11 Daman & Diu 12 Lakshadweep 13 Pondicherry India (In 000’ Tonnes) le 4- State Wise Marine Fish Production in In Source- www.indiastat.com 15
    • Marine Cultivable Biological resources • Marine Finfish Resources • In India, culture of Lethrinus, Epinephelus, Mugil cephalus, Chanos chanos and Etroplus suratensis has been tried either in monoculture or integrated systems. • Marine Finfishes provides a Nutritional food for human consumption, it gives the major contribution in the Aquacultural Practices. 16
    • Table 5-Top Species in Aquaculture Production Species group 2009 2010 Linear Growth (Tonnes) Carps and other cyprinids 1,66,73,155 1,83,03,847 8.9 Oysters 43,32,357 46,03,717 5.89 Clams, cockles 34,57,510 41,16,839 16.01 Miscellaneous freshwater fishes 37,63,902 37,39,949 -0.64 Shrimps, prawns 14,95,950 24,76,023 39.58 Salmons, Trouts 17,91,061 19,78,109 9.45 Mussels 17,00,871 18,60,249 8.56 Tilapias and other cichlids 14,83,309 18,22,745 18.62 Miscellaneous marine molluscs 12,89,586 14,65,191 11.98 17
    • Marine Cultivable Biological resources• Crab resources • In India, Scylla serrata and Scylla tranquebarica are highly valued crabs and viable technologies have been developed for fattening. • Crab Fattening is practiced by few farmers in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Crab fattening involves holding of large-sized crabs that have recently molted (also known as “water crabs”) for 10-30 days until they become hard. 18
    • Marine Cultivable Biological resources• Shrimps • A shrimp farm is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawns for human consumption. • They play important roles in the foodchain and are important food sources for larger animals from fish to whales. The muscular tails of shrimp can be delicious to eat, and they are widely caught and farmed for human consumption. • Out of the total aquaculture production, brackishwater shrimp production contributes about 5%. About 1, 50,000 ha are under shrimp farming which is about 15% of the total potential brackishwater area available in the country. 19
    • Table 6- State wise Shrimp Culture State Potential Area (ha) Area developed (ha) % of available potential West Bengal 4,05,000 50,405 12.44 Orissa 31,600 12,877 40.75 Andhra Pradesh 1,50,000 76,687 51.12 Tamil Nadu 56,000 5,286 9.44 Pondicherry 800 130 16.25 Kerala 65,000 14,106 21.70 Karnataka 8,000 1,910 23.87 Goa 18,500 310 1.68 Maharashtra 80,000 1,281 1.60 Gujarat 3,76,000 2,271 0.60 Total 11,90,900 1,65,263 13.882 Source- DAHD, Ministry of Agriculture 20
    • Marine Cultivable Biological resources • Seaweed resources • Luxuriant growth of several species of green, brown and red algae occur along the southeast coast of Tamil Nadu, from Mandapam to Kanyakumari and Gulf of Mannar islands, Gujarat coast, Lakshadweep, and Andaman and Nicobar islands. • Fairly rich seaweed beds are present in the surrounding area of Mumbai, Ratnagiri, Karwar, Goa, Varkala, Vizhinjam, and Visakhapatnam and in coastal lakes like Chilka and Pulicat. 21
    • Marine Cultivable Biological resources • Seaweeds also occur in the estuaries and backwaters of different maritime states. • Seaweeds are useful for Manufacturing of Agar gel & medicinal Purposes. 22
    • Site Selection Criteria for Marine Aquaculture • Availability of land in a continuous, suitably shaped plot of optimum size with all facilities. • The site should have assured & adequate water supply. • Soil and water of the site must be suitable for fish culture. • The site should be free from floods. • The site should have good transport facilities and approach roads. • The site should have electrical and telephone connections. • The fish seed should be available easily and in plenty in that area. • Marketing facilities should be available near the site. • The site should be away from populated & polluted areas. • The site should be connected to a drainage system. • The fishermen or labour should be available near the site. 23
    • Major Cultivable Fishes Lates calcarifer (Sea bass) Sparus aurata Sea Bream Eutroplus suratensis Green Chromide 24
    • Major Cultivable Shrimps L.Vannamei Indian White Leg Shrimp Peaneous monodon Tiger Shrimp Peaneous japonicus Bamboo Shrimp 25
    • Culture Practices in Marine Aquaculture Pen Aquacultural Practices in Marine Aquaculture Cage Aquacultural Practices in Marine Aquaculture Pond Aquacultural Practices in Marine Aquaculture 26
    • Financial Facilities in Marine Aquaculture• National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) launches the shrimp & prawn insurance policy. • In the Insurance Policy the following conditions are passed,  Pollution from external source only  Poisoning  Malicious acts of third parties  Earthquake  Explosion / Implosion  Storm, tempest, cyclone, typhoon, Hurricane,  Tornado, flood, Inundation, volcanic eruption and or other convulsions of nature.  Air Craft and other aerial devices or articles dropped there from.  Impact, with any road vehicle.  Terrorism. 27
    • Financial Facilities in Marine Aquaculture • Credit facilities gives by the public sector institutions & private sector institutions. • Most of the credit flows are also from the private non- institutional sector. i.e. merchants provide finance for fishing & cultural operations in marine aquaculture. • Marketing agents, professional money lenders advance credit against securities of gold & agricultural properties. • Problems like multiple pond ownership, non reorganization of land based activity, absence of long- term leasing policy & non-assurance of seed supplies at the appropriate time constrained access to credit. 28
    • Role of FAO • Fish Technologists & Processors in developing countries, to introduce appropriate technologies for reducing fish spoilage. • Fish processors in the fundamentals of quality, use of ice, hygiene, etc. • Improves handling practices on fish landing sites & fish preservation methods. • Improves fish consumption from low-value resources. 29
    • 30
    • Future Prospects in Marine Aquaculture • Increasing demand: The increasing demand for fish will require more production, and the supply from capture fisheries is static. • Emergence of the sector: Aquaculture has become recognized as a growth sector of economic importance in many countries and has attracted the attention of the private and public sectors. • Culture-based fisheries: Stocking of reservoirs and enhancement/rehabilitation of fisheries will gain importance with time, particularly as cost/benefit problems are resolved. 31
    • Future Prospects in Marine Aquaculture • Growing awareness of sustainability needs: • There is a rapidly growing awareness of the need to ensure the sustainability of the sector in the long term. • Public debate involving all stakeholders, national and international efforts to arrive at practical guidelines for sustainable practices. • Technical efforts to improve the sustainability of some aquaculture systems, are positive responses to challenges and will yield constructive results in the medium and long term. 32
    • Future Prospects in Marine Aquaculture • Potential brackish water aquaculture area is widespread along maritime states of India on both the east and west coasts. • This area has increased consistently from 1991 till 1996 the year of white spot viral disease outbreak, After that sustainability and environmental issues have got the prime emphasis. • As a result area covered by shrimp farms in the Coastal Regulatory Zone (CRZ) along the entire coastline has remained almost the same due to ban imposed by the Supreme Court of India in December, 1996 for construction • The ban permitted shrimp farming only for new farms following traditional cultural practices under monitoring and supervision of Aquaculture Authority of India.The major problems faced by this sector are availability of quality seed and cost-effective feed. In India large scale brackishwater farming is limited to shrimp. 33
    • Development Prospects • Marine Fish production from near shore waters has reached almost a plateau &, at best, only marginal increase is predicted from this zone. • Objectives for future fisheries development include enhancing fish production & productivity, generating employment, improving socio-economic conditions of fishers. • Increasing marine products for export, & increasing per capita availability of fish of about 11kg/yr. • Developing policy & legal framework with required safeguards for introduction of exotic varieties would receive attention. 34
    • Future Needs • India’s future fisheries development plans are aimed at making substantial contributions to double food production. • The per capita availability & consumption of fish is to be increased to a level of 11 kg/year. • A number of schemes have been initiated by Central Government for welfare of the fishing community. • Improvements in database management & development of linkages in all subsectors a 35
    • 36
    • Conclusion • India has bright scope in Marine Aquaculture sectors scope lies in trade of various seeds throughout globe, developing efforts in policies pertaining to seeds in India. Increasing the Marketing and distribution system high crop production growth. • In Today’s era of developments in Marine Aquaculture has proved to be a boon for Indian aqua culturist because it increases the productivity. But still there is need for expansion of aquaculture in India because it is restricted to a few states only, so there is great scope for the other fisheries based industries to enter into this sector. • India has to develop approaches for the production of Marine Aquaculture. 37
    • References • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fishing_in India.(Access Date 23/03/2014) • http://dahd.nic.in/dahd/WriteReadData/Annual%20Report%20English %202011-12.pdf (Access Date 22/03/2014). • Tewari, Deepali, The Agribusiness Book,Luknow,idbc Publishers, page no. 730-751. • De Silva (2003) Culture-Based Fisheries: an under utilized opportunity in aquaculture development. Aquaculture,221, 221 • KAU Agri-Infotech Portal. (Kerala Agricultural University). http://www.celkau.in/Fisheries/CultureFisheries/Carps/species.aspx (Access Date 24/03/2014) • http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/ac230e/AC230E05.htm (Access Date 24/03/2014) • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barramundi (Access Date 26/03/2014) • http://www.ciba.res.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&i d=153&Itemid=104&lang=en (Access Date 26/03/2014) 38
    • •Thank You 39