• LEADERSHIP: The process of directing and influencing the task-
related activities of group members.
• Four Important Implications:
• First is leadership involves other people employees or followers
ability to automatically accept the directions and making their status
• Second is leadership involves an unequal distribution of power
between leaders and group of members.
• More the power more is his leadership.
• Third is ability to use the different forms of power to influence
• Fourth is that leadership is about values.
• In order to operate effectively groups need someone to perform 2 major
functions: task related activities and group maintenance.
• The various patterns of behavior favored by leaders during the process
of directing & influencing worker.
• A task oriented style put more emphasis on closely supervising
employees to make sure task is performed satisfactorily
• Managers with an employee-oriented style put more emphasis on
motivating rather than controlling subordinates.
• Characteristics of subordinates must also be considered before
managers can choose and appropriate leadership styles.
Ohio & University Of Michigan Case Study:
• Employee turnover rates were lowest and employee satisfaction highest
under leaders who were favored.
• Leaders rated low were in considerations and high in initiating structure
had high grievances and turnover rates.
• The researchers also found that employees rating of the their leaders
effectiveness depended not so much on particular style of leader.
• Production centered managers set rigid work standards, organized task
down to last detail, prescribed work methods to be followed and closely
• Employee centered managers encourage employee participation in goal
setting and other work decision and help ensure high performance by
inspiring trust and respect.
The Managerial Grid:
• A range of management behaviors on the various ways that task
oriented and employee-oriented style on grid.
• Management at 1,1 at lower left corner of grid is Impoverish management.
Also called Lasisez Faire. I.e. Low concern for people and low concern for
• Management at 1,9 is country club management I.e. high concern for
people but low concern for production.
• Management at 9,1 is authoritarian management I.e. High concern for
production and efficiency but low concern for employee.
• Management 5,5 is Middle of the road and intermediate for both production
and employee satisfaction.
• Management 9,9 is democratic management I.e. a high concern for both
production and employee morale.
Contingency Approach: The view that management technique that
best contributes to attainment of organizational goals might vary in
different types of situation.
• It emphasis on 4 theories
1. Task requirement
2. Peer expectations
3. Employees characteristics
4. Organizational Culture and politics.
Hersey & Blanchard’s Situation Leadership :
• Situational Leadership Model holds that most effective leadership style
varies with the “readiness” of employees.
• The goals and knowledge of followers are important variables in
determining effective leadership style.
• The relationship between a manager and follower moves through 4
1.High task and low relations
2.High Task and High relationships
3.High relations and low task
4. Low relationships and low task
The Fiedler Model:
• Basic assumption is that it is quite difficult for manager to alter the
• Fiedler’s believes most managers are not very flexible, and trying to
change a manager’s style to fit.
• According to Fiedler leadership is measured on scale of Least
• A person who describes his least preferred co-worker in a relatively
favorable or unfavorable manner his least preferred co-worker.
• A person who describes his least preferred in a relatively favorable
manner tends to be permissive, human relations- oriented, and
considerate of the feelings of his men has high LPC
• A person who describes his LPC in an unfavorable manner who has
what we have come to call a low LPC rating tends to be managing
task controlling and less concerned